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Rumpler Taube

Страна: Германия

Год: 1911

Rex Flugmaschine - D 17 - 1917 - Германия<– –>Rumpler - monoplane - 1912 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


Двухместный расчалочный моноплан цельнодеревянной конструкции с дополнительным внешним лонжероном под крылом и полотняной обшивкой. Управление по крену гошированием, а по вертикали - отклонением задней кромки стабилизатора. Оригинальный самолет, напоминающий птицу (нем. "Taube" - "голубь") спроектирован в 1910 году австрийским инженером Иго Этрихом. Эта машина стала популярной еще в предвоенные годы, поскольку имела хорошие летные данные и простое управление. Кроме того, она стала и одним из первых боевых самолетов: применялась итальянцами в качестве разведчика и бомбардировщика в войне с Турцией в 1910 г. Самолет выпускался как по лицензии, так и без нее на многих германских и австрийских фирмах, где в конструкцию вносились собственные доработки и изменения, в том числе Румплер, Хальберштадт, Фоккер, Альбатрос, Гота, DFW и Джаннин. В германской военной авиации самолет имел индекс А-1.
  Машины разных производителей имели серьезные геометрические и конструктивные различия.
  "Таубе" компании "Гота" по конструкции был наиболее близок к оригиналу. Он представлял собой деревянный расчалочный моноплан с фюзеляжем ферменного типа. Самолет не имел ни элеронов, ни рулей высоты: крыло гошировалось, а по вертикали он управлялся отклонением задней кромки стабилизатора. На серийных машинах устанавливался двигатель Мерседес или Аргус.
  Аппараты фирмы Хальберштадт имели фюзеляж типа полумонокок и "классическую" схему управления с рулями и элеронами, а самолеты фирм DFW и Джаннин строились с цельнометаллическим силовым набором из стальных труб (так называемые "Штальтаубе").
  Компания "Румплер" выпускала несколько вариантов "Таубе", в том числе и на поплавковом шасси. Эти самолеты отличались двигателями, конструкцией шасси, поверхностями управления - первые варианты не имели элеронов и рулей на хвостовом оперении.
  За годы серийного выпуска из заводских цехов вышло свыше 500 аэропланов, большинство из которых на счету фирмы Румплер.
  В августе 1914 года все самолеты, принадлежавшие частным владельцам на территории Германии, были реквизированы и приписаны к военно-воздушным силам. При этом "Таубе" присвоили индекс А-1. (В немецкой военной классификации буквой "А" обозначали невооруженные монопланы).
  В первые месяцы войны "Таубе" наиболее часто применялись для разведки как на западном, так и на восточном фронте. Самолеты этого типа сыграли важную роль в битве на Марне и в отражении русского наступления на Восточную Пруссию. 30 августа 1914 г лейтенант фон Хингессен сбросил с Румплер "Таубе" 3 ручные гранаты и листовки на Париж, совершив тем самым первую в истории воздушную бомбардировку города.
  К началу 1915 года аппараты Этриха постепенно уступают место более современным разведчикам бипланной схемы. В учебных частях "Таубе" эксплуатировались еще более двух лет.
  
  
  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ
  
  "Австро-Даймлер", 120 л.с. (на машинах австрийской постройки) или "Мерседес", 100 л.с. или "Аргус" той же мощности. В отдельных случаях применялись и другие типы рядных моторов водяного охлаждения.
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  Не предусмотрено.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   "Гота-Таубе" "Румплер-Таубе"
  Размах, м 14,5 13,6
  Длина, м 10,0 8,6
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 33,4 28,9
  Сухой вес, кг 690 600
  Взлетный вес, кг 1026 980
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 96 105
  Время набора высоты, м/мин 800/12 ?
  Потолок, м 3000 ?
  Продолжительность полета, ч 4 ?


J.Herris Rumpler Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 11)


Rumpler Taubes

  On July 21 1910, Edmund Rumpler obtained an exclusive, five-year manufacturing license for Taube aircraft from Austrian inventor Igo Etrich. After a series of flight demonstrations, on Oct. 30, 1910, the Prussian army ordered five Taubes from Rumpler. However, the German patent office invalided Etrich's Taube patent in September 1911 and the Taube design became public domain. Immediately, many German companies started building aircraft to the Taube configuration due to its inherent stability and safety. Understandably, Rumpler then refused to honor the license agreement or pay license fees. Rumpler continued to build Taubes that were essentially the same as the Etrich design, and so Etrich successfully sued Rumpler. However, the amount of the damages awarded was small compared to the amount Rumpler was making from selling aircraft to the Fliegertruppe. The military was keen on the Taube due to its inherent stability and safety, a key advantage in these early days of aviation. As a result, the army purchased a wide variety of Taubes from different manufacturers, with the greatest number being purchased from Rumpler.
  The Taube’s limitations gradually became evident, and few were purchased after 1914, when the configuration was clearly obsolete. The Taube had high drag, so speed, climb, and ceiling were limited. And in combat, its inherent stability became a problem,- it was simply too stable and difficult to maneuver to dodge anti-aircraft fire or elude an attacking aircraft. Fortunately, there were few attacking aircraft during the war's early months.
  On September 4, 1913, a Rumpler Taube lost a wing during the annual army maneuvers and the two airmen were killed. This caused the German military authorities to perform their first serious structural tests on aircraft, with the result that the Rumpler Taube’s safety factor was found to be 3.42 at best. To express it differently, the Rumpler Taube could withstand a G-loading of 3.42 G's before its structure failed. To put that in perspective, a normal category light aircraft in the USA must sustain a load factor of 3.8 without damage, and 150% of that stress, or a load factor of 5.7 Gs, before structural failure occurs. To be certified as an acrobatic aircraft, the load factors would be 6.0 Gs without damage and 9.0 Gs before structural failure. To return to the Rumpler Taube, one aircraft (A.28/12) tested had a safety factor of 3.42, but another, A.46/13, had a safety factor of only 2.89! This was not strong enough to be safe for routine flight let alone the stress of combat missions.
  Recognizing the Taube configuration was obsolete, the army started purchasing biplanes before the war started and disposed of 55 older, worn out Taubes the end of June 1914, just before the war. Although the army had to purchase additional Taubes early in the war to make up losses, the Taube’s days were clearly over. Interestingly, Rumpler Taubes did not last long at the front after hostilities started; the Gotha Taubes were more robust and better able to withstand the rigors of operational service.

Rumpler Taubes Purchased by the Fliegertruppe (Prussian Army)
Year Quantity
1911 10
1912 48
1913 73
1914 3


Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913


RUMPLER. E. Rumpler, Luftfahrzeugbau G.m.b.H., Siegfriedstrasse 202, Berlin-Lichtenberg, also Johannisthal b. Berlin. Established 1909 by E. Rumpler and R. Haessner for the construction in Germany of Etrich (see Austria) Monoplanes. These now vary considerably from the original Etrich. Capacity at present about 200 to 300 machines a year. Standard models are as follows:--

   1912. 1912. 1913.
   Monoplane. "Taube." Hydro.

Length......feet(m.) 29? (9.50) 34 (10.30) 33 (10)
Span........feet(m.) 41? (12.65) 46 (14) 49? (15)
Area...sq. feet(m?.) 247 (23) 336 (32) 387 (36)
Weight,
   total...lbs.(kgs.) 1398 (630) 1190 (540) 1328 (600)
   useful..lbs.(kgs.) 771 (350) 551 (230) 485 (220)
Motor...........h.p. 95 Mercedes 100 Argus 100 Argus
Speed,
   max...m.p.h.(km.) 81 (130) 59 (95) 56 (90)
   min...m.p.h.(km.) ... ... ...
Endurance.......hrs. 6-7 4-6 ...
Number built
   during 1912, 1 60 3


R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 (Putnam)


Isobe Rumpler Taube Aeroplane

  After resigning from the Navy, Onokichi Isobe was one of the principals in the establishment of the lmperial Flying Association formed on 23 April, 1913. The Association sponsored his travel to Germany to receive flying instruction, and to buy two Rumpler Taubes through Mitsui & Co.
  When Japan became involved in the First World War, the Army purchased these two aeroplanes from the Association in October 1914 and sent them with an Army contingent to the Tsingtao campaign and Isobe was engaged by the Army to accompany the two aeroplanes and serve as an instructor. One Taube was damaged when flown by 2-Lt Jiro Takeda while still in Japan during flying training, and the other, to be flown by Isobe, arrived at Tsingtao too late to
participate in the battle.
  Now that the Association was without its aeroplanes, it purchased a 90hp Austro Daimler six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine from Britain for use in a japanese-version of the Rumpler Taube they built in the Imperial Flying Association's hangar at Tokorozawa. Taking charge of design, Isobe made modifications to modernize the structure to some degree. Instead of having the flexible dove-like wings with negative incidence at the wingtips for control, Isobe incorporated hinged-ailerons. The empennage had hinged flying control surfaces instead of the larger flexible bamboo structure of the original Taube. The forward half of the two-seat fuselage structure was made of welded-steel tubing, the rear section having a wooden framework. The sides of the cockpit and part of the wing root where the pilot's position was located were covered with celluloid sheeting to provide a downward view.
  This aeroplane, completed on 5 April, 1915, was commonly called the Kaizo (meaning modified) Rumpler Taube, and used mostly by Isobe and Toriumi in their engineering work with the Association. Later it was used as a trainer by students Yukiteru Ozaki and Takeji Senno. (see Ozaki Aeroplane) On 30 May, 1915, while Isobe was flying solo at Tokorozawa, a gust of wind caused the port wing of the Taube to strike the ground, causing heavy damage to the aircraft. Only the front part of the fuselage and its engine could be salvaged. The parts were stored for a while and later used in the Ozaki Soga-go Aeroplane. Following the loss of its aeroplanes the Imperial Flying Association was soon re-equipped with Type Mo 1913 and Type Mo-4 aircraft through the assistance of the Army.
  One month after his accident with the Kaizo Rumpler Taube, Onokichi Isobe resigned from the Imperial Flying Association and joined the French Army. He entered the Premier Regiment Etranger before being assigned as a pilot with SPA 57. Flying Nieuport 11 Bebes with this unit, (Flight) Lieutenant Isobe was severely wounded on 6 March, 1917, while on patrol. For his service, he was awarded the Legion d'Honneur and Croix de Guerre with citations that described him in part as being ' ... as a foreigner fighting for the cause of France, he showed exemplary military qualities in the Squadron by demonstrating his aggressiveness in combat.' He resigned from the French Army in December 1917 and withdrew from aviation, but became involved again in Japan by establishing the Nippon Glider Club (later Nippon Glider Association) in April 1929 as an active promoter of sailplane activities. He died on 14 February, 1957, at the age of 80.


Журнал Flight


Flight, June 5, 1914.

THE PRINCE HENRY CIRCUIT, 1914.

MACHINES IN PRINCE HENRY CIRCUIT.

The Rumpler Taube is a very compact business-looking machine. The upper wing bracing, it will be seen, is now effected by cables running to a pyramidal pylon of steel tubes, and the Zanonia form of wing has been retained. Instead of the usual flexing wing tips, ailerons are fitted. These, it should be noted, are hinged along an axis forming an angle with the transverse axis of the main planes.


Flight, September 18, 1914.

AIRCRAFT "MADE IN GERMANY"
WHICH MAY BE EMPLOYED AGAINST THE ALLIES.

29. The Rumpler Taube
  differs from other monoplanes of the Taube type only in the shape of its fuselage and in the type of chassis fitted. The fuselage is very deep and narrow, and is fitted with the usual turtle-back, which is, however, considerably higher than is usually found. The chassis consists of two telescopic tubes fitted with coil springs and anchored to the upper longerons of the fuselage. At their lower extremities these telescopic tubes carry the wheel axle, and each of them is kept in place by two steel tubes running forward and backward to the lower longerons of the fuselage. The radiators are mounted on each side of the fuselage below the leading edge of the wings. Openings have been cut out in the inner front portion of the main planes, and through these the passenger obtains a view of the ground below. Wings as well as tail planes are of the usual Taube type. With a 100 h.p. Mercedes engine the speed of this machine is 62 miles per hour.


Flight, October 16, 1914.

AIRCRAFT "MADE IN GERMANY"
WHICH MAY BE EMPLOYED AGAINST THE ALLIES.

16. The Rumpler Taube
  is exactly similar to the Rumpler Taube land machines, with the exception of the chassis. The floats are plain, non-stepped, and placed comparatively close together. They are built up of two layers of mahogany over a framework of ash, and are supported from the fuselage by stout streamline struts.

J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Early Rumpler Taube displaying the characteristic Taube wing and tail planform.
P.Jarrett - Pioneer Aircraft: Early Aviation Before 1914 /Putnam/
A classic German design of 1912 was the Rumpler Taube monoplane, so named because of the dove-like planform of its wings, which had generous external bracing.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Navy used land-based Rumpler Taube in addition to Rumpler Taube floatplanes. Rumpler Taube given Naval serials include S8, S9, S20, S21, S22, S42 (formerly A.131/13), and S43 (formerly A.133/13), the last two transferred from the Army.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Postcard of a flyer in front of an early Rumpler Taube. Various companies produced Taube designs, a number of which saw operational service, but it is the Rumpler version that is best remembered.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler Taube A.10/12 was an early, pre-war aircraft with a four-cylinder Argus engine. The observer was seated in front for best visibility, and the aft-seated pilot had wing cut-outs for enhanced downward field of view.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Early Rumpler Taube.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
A Rumpler Taube with a 100 h.p. inverted Mercedes engine.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Rumpler 3C Taube was more streamlined development of the original Rumpler Taube, itself a copy of the Etrich Taube. Power was a 100 hp Mercedes D.I six-cylinder engine. The large wing cut-outs are to give the pilot and observer good downward visibility for its role as a reconnaissance aircraft. A claw brake is fitted under the axle.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Streamlining became a Rumpler hallmark. The Rumpler 3C Taube was the aircraft type in which Linnekogel climbed out of the cockpit in flight and held on to the support pylon while the aircraft flew itself hands-off. This demonstrated not only his courage but the inherent stability of the Taube design that was so prized before the war when primitive aviation was very hazardous.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Crewmen in front of an early Rumpler Taube with "Rumpler Eindecker" painted on the fuselage and tactical number "16" on the aft fuselage.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
29. The Rumpler Taube.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
The first German bombs intended for aerial use were the Artillerie-Pruefungs-Kommission (APK) weapons of the 1912/13 period; the blast effect of these cast steel spherical bombs was not great and their trajectories were unpredictable. Elongated bombs (but still fin-less) are visible in the vertical wire 'cages' under the fuselage of Leutnant Canter's Rumpler Taube during the 1913 Kaiser Manoeuvres. Alongside the observer in the front cockpit can be seen the five levers which operated the bombs' release via Bowden cable.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler Taube in production. Rumpler gained an early reputation based on building and selling copies of the Etrich Taube. Rumpler Taubes won many aviation awards before the war.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
On the left a view from above of the Rumpler aeropiane works at Johannisthal, Berlin, and on the right a view of the erecting shop.
R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe - Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 /Putnam/
Isobe Rumpler Taube Aeroplane
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Taube used by the German garrison in China. After the aircraft was damaged beyond repair in a bad landing, the pilot, Lt. Plushow, had a remarkable adventure returning to Germany.
Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
Gunther Pluschow flew that Etrich Rumpler Taube around Tsingtao China.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Early Rumpler Taube displaying the characteristic Taube wing and tail planform.
A series of German aeroplanes at Johannisthal from photographs kindly sent to us by the Hon. Lady Shelley. - Rumpler-Taube in flight.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Early flight was hazardous at best, and stability was a prized attribute of primitive airplanes. The Taube (dove) wing planform offered great natural stability and many German designers used it for that reason. A small number of Tauben equipped German units at the beginning of the war, but the Taube was soon replaced by biplanes of greater performance. Despite its inherent stability, this one ended up on its nose while landing on a rough field, a common problem.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
16. The Rumpler Taube.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
Rumpler. Hydro-aeroplane.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler Taube floatplane. The German navy purchased at least three Rumpler Taube floatplanes, Marine Numbers E1, E4, and E8, all powered by 100 hp Argus engines.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Miss Nellie Beese, the first German lady flyer who has secured her pilot's certificate. This she recently gained on a Rumpler Taube monoplane at the Johannisthal aerodrome, near Berlin.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Linnekogel and a cinematograph operator on the Rumpler Taube.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Rumpler Taube crashed on July 20,1914, proving that inherent stability is not everything.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
29. The Rumpler Taube.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
16. The Rumpler Taube.