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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Gotha Taube / LE

Страна: Германия

Год: 1913

Gotha - Buchner Seaplane - 1913 - Германия<– –>Gotha - LD.1 - 1914 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


Двухместный расчалочный моноплан цельнодеревянной конструкции с дополнительным внешним лонжероном под крылом и полотняной обшивкой. Управление по крену гошированием, а по вертикали - отклонением задней кромки стабилизатора. Оригинальный самолет, напоминающий птицу (нем. "Taube" - "голубь") спроектирован в 1910 году австрийским инженером Иго Этрихом. Эта машина стала популярной еще в предвоенные годы, поскольку имела хорошие летные данные и простое управление. Кроме того, она стала и одним из первых боевых самолетов: применялась итальянцами в качестве разведчика и бомбардировщика в войне с Турцией в 1910 г. Самолет выпускался как по лицензии, так и без нее на многих германских и австрийских фирмах, где в конструкцию вносились собственные доработки и изменения, в том числе Румплер, Хальберштадт, Фоккер, Альбатрос, Гота, DFW и Джаннин. В германской военной авиации самолет имел индекс А-1.
  Машины разных производителей имели серьезные геометрические и конструктивные различия.
  "Таубе" компании "Гота" по конструкции был наиболее близок к оригиналу. Он представлял собой деревянный расчалочный моноплан с фюзеляжем ферменного типа. Самолет не имел ни элеронов, ни рулей высоты: крыло гошировалось, а по вертикали он управлялся отклонением задней кромки стабилизатора. На серийных машинах устанавливался двигатель Мерседес или Аргус.
  Аппараты фирмы Хальберштадт имели фюзеляж типа полумонокок и "классическую" схему управления с рулями и элеронами, а самолеты фирм DFW и Джаннин строились с цельнометаллическим силовым набором из стальных труб (так называемые "Штальтаубе").
  Компания "Румплер" выпускала несколько вариантов "Таубе", в том числе и на поплавковом шасси. Эти самолеты отличались двигателями, конструкцией шасси, поверхностями управления - первые варианты не имели элеронов и рулей на хвостовом оперении.
  За годы серийного выпуска из заводских цехов вышло свыше 500 аэропланов, большинство из которых на счету фирмы Румплер.
  В августе 1914 года все самолеты, принадлежавшие частным владельцам на территории Германии, были реквизированы и приписаны к военно-воздушным силам. При этом "Таубе" присвоили индекс А-1. (В немецкой военной классификации буквой "А" обозначали невооруженные монопланы).
  В первые месяцы войны "Таубе" наиболее часто применялись для разведки как на западном, так и на восточном фронте. Самолеты этого типа сыграли важную роль в битве на Марне и в отражении русского наступления на Восточную Пруссию. 30 августа 1914 г лейтенант фон Хингессен сбросил с Румплер "Таубе" 3 ручные гранаты и листовки на Париж, совершив тем самым первую в истории воздушную бомбардировку города.
  К началу 1915 года аппараты Этриха постепенно уступают место более современным разведчикам бипланной схемы. В учебных частях "Таубе" эксплуатировались еще более двух лет.
  
  
  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ
  
  "Австро-Даймлер", 120 л.с. (на машинах австрийской постройки) или "Мерседес", 100 л.с. или "Аргус" той же мощности. В отдельных случаях применялись и другие типы рядных моторов водяного охлаждения.
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  Не предусмотрено.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   "Гота-Таубе" "Румплер-Таубе"
  Размах, м 14,5 13,6
  Длина, м 10,0 8,6
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 33,4 28,9
  Сухой вес, кг 690 600
  Взлетный вес, кг 1026 980
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 96 105
  Время набора высоты, м/мин 800/12 ?
  Потолок, м 3000 ?
  Продолжительность полета, ч 4 ?


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Gotha LE 3
  Although the Gotha LE 3 was a pre-war 1914 Taube design, a few saw operational service on scouting duties during the opening months of the var. Engine, 100 h.p. Mercedes D I. Span. 14.5 m. (47 ft. 7 in.). Length, 10.0 m. (32 ft. 9 3/4 in.). Area. 33.5 sq.m. (362 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 690 kg. (1,518 lb.). Loaded. 1.026 kg. (2.257 lb.). Speed, 96 km.hr. (60 m.p.h.). Climb, 800 m. (2.624 ft.) in 12 min.


J.Herris Gotha Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 6)


Gotha LE Types

  Before WWI the Taube (Dove in German) configuration was very popular in Germany and Austria for its inherent stability, considered quite important at the time due to the limited flying experience of most airmen. Many German and Austrian manufacturers built aircraft to the Taube configuration and this is how Gotha got its start in aviation. The Gotha LE (Land Eindecker = land monoplane) series were all Taube designs.
  Gotha's Tauben were rugged, well-built airplanes that saw reliable service on all war fronts. A total of 90 Gotha Tauben were purchased by the Fliegertruppe in 1913 and 1914, more than any other manufacturer except Jeannin.


Gotha LE1

  Ordered on 4 February, 1913, eight Gotha LE1 Taube two-seat trainers were delivered to the Gotha flying school and two uncovered airframes were sent to Hamburg to serve as trainers at the Centrale fur Aviatik, an organization in which Gotha had a financial interest. In 1914 Centrale fur Aviatik was renamed Hansa Flugzeugwerke Hamburg Karl Caspar.
  Designed by Gurlich and Bohnisch, the first Gotha LE1, powered by a 75 hp Mercedes engine flew its maiden flight on 22 April 1913. Two LE1 monoplanes participated in the Prinz Heinrich Flug of 1913; the one flown by Lt. Joly, with Oblt. Felmy as passenger, completed all the competition stages. A few LE1 trainers served into the early war months.

Gotha LE1 Specifications
Engine: 75 hp Mercedes
Wing: Span 14.40 m
Area 35.2 m2
General: Length 7.80 m
Height 3.20 m
Empty Weight 600 kg
Loaded Weight 972 kg
Maximum Speed 90 km/h
Climb: 800m 12 min


Gotha LE2
  
  Designed by Bohnisch and Bartel, the next Gotha design was the LE2, another Taube clearly derived from the LE1. The LE2 had a more powerful, 100 hp Mercedes D.I engine and the landing gear was redesigned to better support the wing bracing cables. The LE2 was slightly faster than the LE1 but its rate of climb was lower, likely due to a combination of greater weight and reduced wing area.
  In addition to the 100 hp Mercedes D.I, LE2s were fitted with a variety of Argus, Benz, and Rapp 100 hp engines, and a few were fitted with 80 hp Oberursel U.O engines to provide pilots with experience flying aircraft with rotary engines.
  Gotha's reputation for good workmanship and solid construction led the Fliegertruppe to order 35 Gotha A (LE2) Tauben. These were used both for combat missions over the front and training.
  
Gotha LE2 Specifications
Engine: Wing: 100 hp Mercedes D.I
Span Area 14.40 m 28 m2
General: Length 10.22 m
Height 3.20 m
Empty Weight 690 kg
Loaded Weight 1,053 kg
Maximum Speed 102 km/h
Climb: 800m 20 min


Gotha LE3

  The LE1 and LE2 had fuselages of triangular cross section which tended to twist in flight, so Grulich and Bartl designed the LE3 with a much stiffer fuselage of rectangular cross section. The undercarriage was again redesigned and simplified, and a separate trestle supported the lift wires in order to separate them from the undercarriage.
  On 10 January 1914 work began on the LE3. In June the Fliegertruppe ordered 16 LE3s with the first delivery on 31 August. Upon mobilization, eight LE3s built for the Gotha flying school were commandeered by the Fliegertruppe for combat. In September a further 20 were ordered, followed by 10 more in October, making a total of 54 accepted by the Fliegertruppe. The LE3 was a robust aircraft that saw combat on all fronts. The last LE3 was delivered to FEA 3 on 7 July 1915. LE3 A.90.14 was fitted with a 160 hp Benz engine.

Gotha LE3 Specifications
Engine: 100 hp Mercedes D.I
Wing: Span 14.50 m
Area 33.5 m2
General: Length 10.00 m
Height 3.15 m
Empty Weight 690 kg
Loaded Weight 1,062 kg
Maximum Speed 96 km/h
Climb: 800m 12 min
Range: 385 km


Gotha LE4

  Designed by Karl Rosner, work on the Gotha LE4 began on 31 January 1914. Powered by a 100 hp Mercedes D.I engine, the LE4 was Gotha's last Taube, design. The nose radiator and tail surface with conventional, hinged elevators made the LE4 much more modern in appearance.
  Initially the LE4 had the lift wires attached directly to the undercarriage struts, a configuration disliked by the Fliegertruppe. The LE4 was damaged on 15 May 1914 while participating in the Prinz Heinrich Flug. During repair the LE4 was modified to have the front and rear lift wires attached to separate pylons in front and behind the undercarriage. The repaired LE4 was entered in several more flying meetings before the war. After being rebuilt, the LE4 was assigned to the Herzog Carl Eduard Fliegerschule in Gotha. Only one LE4 was built.

Gotha LE4 Specifications
Engine: 100 hp Mercedes D.I
Wing: Span 14.00 m
Area 28 m2
General: Length 8.50 m
Height 2.80 m
Loaded Weight 980 kg
Maximum Speed 120 km/h
Range: 600 km


Журнал Flight


Flight, June 5, 1914.

THE PRINCE HENRY CIRCUIT, 1914.

MACHINES IN PRINCE HENRY CIRCUIT.

The Gotha Taube is one of the neatest of the machines entered, especially as regards the engine and radiator mounting, which has been carried out in such a manner that the nose of the machine forms a very good entry for the air. The chassis is of the simplest form, and offers very little head resistance, as all the tubular chassis struts are of streamline section. The wheel axle is sprung from the chassis in such a manner that the wheels are free to move slightly sideways as well as in an upward direction.


Flight, September 4, 1914.

AIRCRAFT "MADE IN GERMANY#
WHICH MAY BE EMPLOYED AGAINST THE ALLIES.

16. The Gotha Taube
does not differ materially in its general lay-out from other monoplanes of this type. The shape and construction of the wings is practically the same as in others, but some slight alterations are to be found in the shape of the fuselage and landing chassis. The former, which is of nearly rectangular section, being slightly wider at the top than at the bottom, is fitted with a comparatively turtle back extending from the nose of the machine to a point some distance behind the pilot's seat. The chassis, although of a simple type, is very strong, and consists essentially of two pairs of steel tubes bent to form a U. A transverse tube connects the rear chassis struts a short distance above and behind the wheels, whilst two other tubes run from the lower ends of the front struts to the keel of the fuselage immediately under the engine. With an Argus or Mercedes 100 h.p. engine, the speed of the Gotha Taube is in the neighbourhood of 60 miles per hour. A feature which this machine has in common with a good many others of German origin, is the ploughshare-like brake operated from the pilot's seat. By means of this the machine can be brought to a standstill in a very short space on practically any ground.

17. The New Gotha Taube
is one of the neatest monoplanes of the Taube type, especially as regards the engine and radiator mounting. Bracing of the wings is effected as in ordinary monoplanes by stranded cables, the upper ones running to a steel tube pylon on top of the fuselage, and the lower ones being anchored to the chassis. This is of the simplest form, and offers very little head resistance, as all the tubular chassis struts are of streamline section. The wheel axle is sprung from the chassis in such a manner that the wheels are free to move slightly sideways as well as in an upward direction. For a Taube, the Gotha is unusually fast, developing, fitted with a 100 h.p. Mercedes engine, a speed of 74 miles per hour.

J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Gotha LE3 A.301/14
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Гота "Таубе" LE 2
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Gotha LE1 was the first Gotha aircraft; it first flew on 22 April 1913. It was a typical Taube design for the period. Popular in Germany, the Taube configuration was basically obsolete in 1912, before the LE1 was designed.Ten LE1 aircraft were built.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Гота-Таубе"
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Compared to the LE1, the Gotha LE2 had a redesigned landing gear and a more powerful engine. On 4 November 1914, Lt. Caspar and Oblt. Roos, flying a Gotha LE2, made history when they crossed the English Channel and dropped two bombs on Dover, returning safely after a flight of five and a half hours.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Румплер "Таубе" 3С (???)
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Gotha LE2 with crew Schlegel and Lt. Spang.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Front view of a Gotha LE2. A limitation of all Tauben was their sluggish wing- and tail-warping controls and automatic stability, which made them inadequate for effectively training pilots to fly comparatively maneuverable biplanes fitted with separate ailerons and elevators. Moreover, their complex rigging required painstaking adjustment and created excessive drag, limiting speed and climb. For these reasons Tauben were quickly superseded by biplanes with conventional controls after the war began.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rear quarter view of a Gotha LE2.
J.Herris - German Aircraft of Minor Manufacturers in WW1. Volume I /Centennial Perspective/
Caspar A Taube, (???) with naval pilot Ottmar Hagenmuller. (Peter M. Grosz collection, STDB)
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Basic flying training was initially given at schools run by the aircraft manufacturers. Here, in November 1914, a class of naval ab initio pilots at Gotha Waggonfabrik's aerodrome pose with their Taube. They are wearing 3/4-length coats, trousers and leggings made of leather, which despite lack of lining were all surprisingly warm, being windproof. Gloves, padded crash helmets with goggles and long woollen scarves complete the official issue of flying clothing assigned to the trainee aviators.
J.Herris - German Aircraft of Minor Manufacturers in WW1. Volume I /Centennial Perspective/
Caspar A Taube. (???)
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
PRINCE HENRY PRIZE. - The start at Wiesbaden in front of the grand stands. Lieut. Joly, on the Gothaer mono, is just getting away.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Gotha LE2 after a landing accident.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Gotha LE "Taube" monoplanes of 1913-14 used for scouting.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The LES featured a rectangular fuselage for greater stiffness to prevent twisting in flight. The iron crosses indicate combat service in the war.
The Gotha LE-3, military designation Gotha A I of 1914, was yet another minor variation on the Etrich Taube theme. Gotha built 20 of these two seaters with the army serials A79/14 to A91/14, A119/14 to A125 and A137/14 to A142/14. Employing the 100hp Mercedes D I, range for the machine was quoted as 239 miles.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The LE3 also introduced a simplified undercarriage to separate the wing lift wires from the undercarriage structure.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Gotha LE3 A.300/14 parked in a hangar. The rudder of an Albatros B-type obscures the tail of the LE3. In all, Gotha built 111 Taube monoplanes; 89 of those were delivered to the Fliegertruppe.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Gotha LE3 serial A.301/14. Many of the unarmed monoplanes used by the Fliegertruppe, nearly all two-seaters, were Tauben.The military serial and insignia confirm this LE3 is in operational service.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Gotha LE3 Taube was the LE-type produced in greatest numbers. A robust, well-built machine, it was well suited for operational use and saw service on all fronts. The inherently stable Tauben were actually too stable for air combat and their great drag limited performance. Tauben soon disappeared from the front, replaced by higher-performance biplanes.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Gotha LE4 after modification and assignment to the Herzog Carl Eduard Fliegerschule in Gotha.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The original configuration of the Gotha LE4. Gotha test pilot Oswald Kahnt, commemorated on this card, was killed when the later LD6 crashed on its maiden flight.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The Gotha Taube.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rear view of the Gotha LE4; lack of national insignia indicates this is the original configuration before repair.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Side view of the Gotha LE4; lack of national insignia indicates this is the original configuration before repair. The engine was a 100 hp Mercedes D.I inline six-cylinder.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Gotha LE4 in flight.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Gotha LE4 photographed after repair and modification. During repair the LE4 was modified to have the front and rear lift wires attached to separate pylons in front and behind the undercarriage. After repair and modification, it was assigned to the Herzog Carl Eduard Fliegerschule in Gotha. The nose radiator and horizontal tail with conventional, hinged elevators made the LE4 much more modern in appearance than earlier Tauben. However, by the time the LE4 was built in 1914, the Taube configuration was obsolete and only a single LE4 was built.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Gotha logo on a Gotha-built propeller included a Gotha Taube in its design.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
16. The Gotha Taube.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Gotha LE3
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Gotha LE3
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Gotha LE3 & LE4
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Gotha LE4
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Гота-Таубе"