M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)
Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing
A.Andrews. The Flying Machine: Its Evolution through the Ages (Putnam)
In 1875 a serious young English engineer, Horatio Phillips, then only 20 years old, had been experimenting with hydrofoils and took out a patent on them. He turned to aerofoils, and devised a new wind-tunnel to test them, inducing by steam injection a much steadier airflow than Wenham’s fan-generated currents. By 1884 he had registered patents on six double-surface aerofoil sections of varying gradation and camber, intended to shape curved wings for aircraft. Phillips laid down the theory that increased camber on the top of a double-surface wing creates the suction of reduced pressure above, and gives lift. Later he refined the shape of his double-surface aerofoils to flatten the lower part of the leading-edge into a bi-convex shape designed to diminish drag and increase lift. He went on to build both models and full-size aircraft based on his corollary that superimposed aerofoils of his design, constructed with high aspect ratio (ie, long and narrow) would provide admirable lift. From this assertion there came the famous ‘Venetian blind’ - not Phillips’s term, but everybody else’s for his multiplane of 1893, an erection of no less than 40 aerofoils 19ft long and l|in chord, set vertically behind a 6ft 6in tractor propeller in a wheeled frame on a circular track over 100yd round.
This test-rig did rather worse than Hiram Maxim’s, which was being operated about the same time. At 40mph the rear wheel of the tricycle dolly lifted 3ft but the front wheels stayed earthbound. But a similar rig on a 200yd circuit lifted almost 4001b. In 1904, when the light petrol engine was more advanced, Horatio Phillips put a pilot aboard a similar machine, free-running this time, though with only 20 cambered aerofoils. But, although again the lift was good, the balance was wrong and the multiplane had poor longitudinal stability.
Flight, July 5, 1913.
Another interesting series of experiments was carried out about the same date at Harrow, on a circular track, by Phillips. The machine in question had numerous very thin cambered planes arranged somewhat in the appearance of a Venetian blind. Phillips' name, however, is more generally associated with his experiments on cambered sections, and in particular with a peculiar form of section having a pronounced hump over the front edge, which is sometimes referred to as the "Phillips entry."
||Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
|Phillips' aeroplane tested on a circular track at Harrow in 1893. - The supporting surface was divided into numerous lath-like cambered planes, arranged somewhat in the manner of a Venetian blind.
||P.Jarrett - Pioneer Aircraft: Early Aviation Before 1914 /Putnam/
|Having made an important contribution with his double-surfaced aerofoils, Horatio Phillips then applied to a series of multiplanes with numerous slat-like high-aspect-ratio wings in a 'Venetian blind' arrangement. This is the unpiloted model he tested with small success on a circular track at Harrow in 1893.
||A.Andrews - The Flying Maschine: Its Evolution through the Ages /Putnam/
|The first ‘Venetian blind’ multiplane test-rig of Horatio Phillips, constructed in 1893, ran on a circular track and showed good powers of lift, but not enough longitudinal balance to take the machine in a steady ascent from the ground. Forty aerofoils, 19ft long, were designed to a shape that Phillips had patented.
||M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
|Phillips No.l multiplane was steam-powered and was tested on a circular track at Harrow in 1893.