M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)
Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing
P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)
Radley-England Waterplane 2
Following its unfortunate crash at Shoreham, the Waterplane No. 1 was rebuilt during 1913 and redesignated the No. 2. Several important changes were made in the machine, although the general conception remained the same.
The floats were replaced completely by a new pair of clinker-built type which were made by the South Coast Yacht Agency. They were very much stronger and less liable to leak, and were made from cedar. Three watertight compartments were incorporated in them, a reduction in seats being made from six in the No. 1 to four in the No. 2. The new floats were longer than the original pair, with two tandem seats in each. The pilot occupied the same position in the front of the starboard float, while the rear cockpits were set towards the rear and under the lower wings. At the same time the gap between the floats was reduced slightly.
In the rebuilt Waterplane the three 50 h.p. Gnome engines were replaced by a single eight-cylinder vee-type 150 h.p. Sunbeam which drove a 9 ft. 6 ins. diameter Lang propeller direct. A very large petrol tank holding sufficient fuel for 10 hours flight was installed immediately in front of the engine, and the rectangular radiator was mounted just in front of the leading-edge of the wings.
The wing area was increased by enlarging the span of the upper planes from 45 ft. 4 ins. to 51 ft. 7.5 ins, The tail surfaces were virtually unaltered.
Description: Four-seat pusher hydro-biplane. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
Manufacturers: James Radley and E. C. Gordon England, Shoreham, Sussex, and the South Coast Yacht Agency, Sussex.
Power Plant: 150 h.p. Sunbeam.
Dimensions: Span, 51 ft. 7-5 ins. Length, 29 ft. 9 ins. Wing area, 560 sq. ft.
Weights: Loaded, 2,500 lb.
Performance: Cruising speed, 60 m.p.h. Endurance, 10 hrs.
G.Duval British Flying-Boats and Amphibians 1909-1952 (Putnam)
Radley-England Waterplane (1913)
With the aid of local boatmen, England salvaged the damaged machine, and set about rebuilding and modifying it for entry in the Daily Mail Round Britain Race, to be held in August 1913. To meet the exacting conditions of the race, the first components of the Waterplane to receive attention were the hulls. The originals were replaced by a stout pair of clinker-built fully decked boats, having three watertight compartments each, with two cockpits, and built locally by the South Coast Yacht Agency. The unique Gnome engine installation was discarded, replaced by a single 150 h.p. Vee-type Sunbeam. Petrol capacity was increased to 82 gallons, giving an endurance of ten hours, and to cope with the increased weight the wing span was extended, its section being modified to one of greater camber. Two long struts from hull bows to engine bearers strengthened the structure, and improvements to the bracing wire system were made. Unfortunately, the engine change proved to be the machine’s downfall, for trouble with the Sunbeam caused a last-minute withdrawal of the Race entry. Gordon England became test pilot to White and Thompsons, and the Waterplane was abandoned.
First version - Three 50 h.p. Gnome rotaries
Second version - One 150 h.p. Sunbeam
Span: (Second version in brackets) 45 feet 4 inches (51 feet 7) inches)
Length: 29 feet 3 inches (29 feet 9 inches)
Loaded: 1,800 pounds (2,500 pounds)
Total area: 505 square feet (560 square feet)
Max. Speed: Both versions - 60 m.p.h.
Endurance: 5 hours (10 hours)
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913
RADLEY-ENGLAND. This is not an aeroplane firm, but a special hydro built by two well-known aviators for the Daily Mail competition. Length, 22 feet. Span, 50 feet. 2 floats, 15 feet long by 1 foot 5 inches wide. Pilot in starboard float. Weight, with petrol for 12 hours, 1,380 lbs. Motor, 150 h.p., made up of 3--50 h.p. Gnomes, but two Greens to be fitted for competition. One 4-bladed propeller in rear. Speed, 60 m.p.h., with 100 h.p.
Flight, August 16, 1913.
THE RADLEY-ENGLAND WATERPLANE.
SINCE Messrs. J. Radley and G. England built their first experimental machine some months ago, the rough idea for which was provided by Mr. Radley and the design elaborated by Mr. England, they have gained a lot of experience with this type of waterplane. Evidently this experience has strengthened their faith in the flying boat - or rather boats - type, for the biplane which they had entered, although, unfortunately, through engine troubles, withdrawn at the last moment, for the Daily Mail Race, differs, except, of course, for such alterations as have been necessitated by the installation of a 150 h.p. Sunbeam engine, instead of the three 50 h.p. Gnome motors, very little from the first experimental machine.
As the most noticeable innovation is in the shape of the floats, we will refer to this first. It will be remembered that the first biplane was fitted with floats of the punt type, but it was found that they were not strong enough, so in the present machine they have been abandoned for boats.
These, which were built locally by the South Coast Yacht Agency, while not being a great deal heavier than the punt type, are very much stronger, and have the further advantage of being less liable to leak, owing to the fact that they are clinker-built. As some of our readers might be a little in doubt about the exact meaning of the term clinker-built, it may be explained that a boat is said to be clinker-built when the outer boards or planking do not butt up against one another with their edges, but overlap each other a little. Boats of this type are known to be much stronger, weight for weight, than those in which the planking forms butt joints.
Cedar is the material used in the construction of the boats, and two bulkheads divide them into three watertight compartments, so that should one or both of the boats become swamped, the water will only be admitted to the central part, the watertight compartments in the ends being still sufficient to keep the machine afloat.
Accommodation is provided for two people in each float, the seats being placed tandem fashion. The front seat in the right hand boat is occupied by the pilot, who has an excellent view in all directions. The controls consist of a central lever, the side-to-side movement of which operates the warp, while a to and fro motion works the elevator. A foot-bar actuates the rudder. Two pairs of struts connect each float with the lower main plane, whilst another pair of struts running from the prow of the boats to the engine bearers take the oblique stresses set up when the machine alights on the water.
Mounted on very strong bearers is the engine, a 150 h.p. 8-cyl. Sunbeam of the V-type, driving through a two to one reduction gear, a 4-bladed Lang propeller of 9 ft. 6 ins. diameter, 4 ft. 7 ins. pitch. Normally the engine runs at 2,200 r.p.m., at which speed it develops 150 h.p. Between the inner plane struts, and on the same bearers as the engine is a huge tank containing 82 gallons of petrol and 8 gallons of oil, which supply is enough for a 10 hours' flight.
The main planes, which are of the same plan form as those on the experimental machine, but are of a modified monoplane section have a slightly greater span than the old machine. They are built up of hickory spars of I section, with ribs of spruce and poplar. Ten pairs of struts connect the main planes. Spruce is the material used for the struts, with the exception of the engine struts, which are three-ply Honduras mahogany, and all the struts are hollowed out for lightness. Lateral stability is maintained by means of ailerons on the top plane only. These are interconnected, Farman fashion, so that when one moves up the other moves down. The warp cables, as well as those operating the rudder, are carried round pulleys, and through copper fair leads down to the control levers in front of pilot's seat.
Four tail booms carry at their rear end the tail planes, consisting of a fixed tail plane of rectangular plan form and of the non-lifting type, to the trailing edge of which is hinged the elevator. Underneath the tail plane are situated the twin rudders which, as can be seen in the scale drawing, are of exactly similar shape to those on the earlier machine.
The planes are covered with brown Holland, which is rendered air-tight by being doped with British Emaillite. The weight of the machine in flying order, that is to say, with four passengers and sufficient fuel for a 10 hours' flight, is 2,500 lbs., and her flying speed is 60 m.p.h.