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Grahame-White School 'bus

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1913

Grahame-White - Lizzie - 1913 - Великобритания<– –>Grahame-White - Type VI military - 1913 - Великобритания

M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)

Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing

P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)

Grahame-White Boxkite

   The two-seat pusher Boxkite was built during 1912 for training, and, by virtue of its pair of rudders, was known as the "Bi-rudder Bus". It was employed extensively at Hendon in several modified versions. Tests were carried out on 27th November, 1913, with the firing of a Lewis machine-gun mounted on the machine. The Boxkite was flown by Marcus D. Manton, the gun being fired from the air at ground targets at Bisley, Hants. The engine was the 50 h.p. Gnome, and the machine was developed later into the Type 15 trainer used by the R.F.C. and the R.N.A.S, during the 1914-18 War.

J.Bruce British Aeroplanes 1914-1918 (Putnam)

Grahame-White Type XV

  THE Grahame-White Type XV was a development of the original Grahame-White Box-kite of 1912, and the designation Type XV seems in fact to have been applied to the Box-kite and its two derivatives. There are grounds for believing that one of the earlier forms of the aircraft may have been known as the Grahame-White Type XII, but the type number XV gained general application to all versions.
  The original machine was typical of the box-kite form of aeroplane, and resembled the Farman biplane of 1909 which set a popular and widely-imitated style in aircraft design. Whereas the Farman and most other contemporary box-kite aeroplanes had only single-surface covering on the mainplanes, the Grahame-White biplane had double-surface covering. The Grahame-White machine of 1912 had equal-span wings with four pairs of interplane struts on each side of the aircraft centre line. Ailerons were fitted to upper and lower wings, but were not laterally connected by balance cables. There were both forward and rear elevators. The tailplane was set high and, like the mainplanes, was square-cut. Two rudders were fitted, and earned the machine the nickname of “The Bi-rudder Bus”. The engine was the inevitable 50 h.p. Gnome, and the two occupants sat in complete exposure on a remarkably sketchy framework attached to the lower wing.
  On November 27th, 1913, a Grahame-White Box-kite was the vehicle for an experiment which gave a foretaste of the fighting potentialities of aircraft. On that date, a Lewis machine-gun was fired from a Box-kite piloted by Marcus D. Manton; the gunner was Lieutenant Stellingwerf of the Belgian Army, who sat in a small seat mounted below and behind the pilot’s position. The air-firing tests were made at Bisley, and despite bumpy air Stellingwerf hit a ground target with 11 shots out of 25 on his first attempt, and with 15 out of 47 on his second.
  The first form of the Grahame-White Box-kite saw service in some numbers, both at the Grahame-White flying school at Hendon before the war and with the R.N.A.S. after the outbreak of hostilities.
  In 1914 and 1915 a slightly improved version of the design appeared. The basic airframe remained unchanged, but substantial, slightly tapered extensions were added to the upper wings, and balance cables connected the ailerons. A 60 h.p. Green engine was fitted, and much smaller tail-skids were used; these smaller skids were subsequently fitted to the original equal-span Box-kites. The extended Box-kite was used at the Grahame-White flying school early in the war. Among the distinguished aviators who learned to fly on the early Grahame-White Box-kite was Andre de Meulemeester, the celebrated Belgian fighter pilot.

Журнал Flight

Flight, December 6, 1913.


   THE recent demonstration arranged by the Birmingham Small Arms Co., Ltd., at Bisley, in connection with the Lewis automatic air-cooled machine gun, at which a large number of distinguished naval and military officers and others interested in aviation were present, brings again into prominence the important part that will be played by aerial craft in a war between Powers provided with aeroplanes and dirigibles.
   For the armament of such craft, the machine gun has inherent advantages over other weapons, but it is essential that the gun should be specially adapted for this class of work. It is important that it should be entirely self-contained, it should have little weight, be readily dismantled and assembled and be capable of firing in any direction; and since the time of engagement will probably be short, the projectile should be as destructive in its effects as possible. For use on aeroplanes, the weight, cumbrousness and recoil of a gun capable of discharging explosive projectiles render such at a disadvantage compared with the machine which is capable of firing a large quantity of small ammunition at high speed, and hence for this form of aircraft the latter is preferable.
   It is claimed that in the Lewis air-cooled machine-gun, shown in the accompanying illustration, these qualities are exemplified. Its weight is 26 1/2 lbs., it can be handled by one man, and fired in any position or direction, its recoil is negligible and the normal rate of firing is 500 rounds per minute, but this can be increased if desired up to 800 rounds per minute, and single rounds, or bursts of any number of rounds up to the full capacity of the magazine, which is 47 rounds, may be fired if desired. The magazine, M, which takes under two minutes to load by hand and considerably less by the aid of a special machine, uses the ordinary service ammunition, and may be charged in a few seconds. The facility with which the assembling or dismantlement of the gun can be carried out is a remarkable feature of the invention, the only tool required being the nose of an ordinary bullet, and it is stated that 1,500 rounds may be fired without dangerously overheating the barrel, which is air-cooled. The system of air-cooling employed is not the least of its good points, as thereby the necessity of carrying a supply of water for cooling purposes is entirely avoided.
   On the barrel, B, is a close-fitting sheath or jacket of aluminium with radiating longitudinal fins, surrounding which is a thin tubular steel casing, C, four inches in diameter. The tubular steel casing extends beyond the muzzle of the jacketted barrel, and as the gases of explosion emerge in a conical blast behind the bullet, they act as a kind of pump plunger inside this tubular extension, and suck currents of fresh cool air through the sector-shaped longitudinal passages along the exterior of the barrel. The air ejector thus formed at each discharge is most effective in cooling the barrel and is without mechanism or moving parts. During the first few hundred rounds the temperature rises rapidly until it has reached about 330° F., then more slowly until at the end of 1,000 rounds fired at full speed it does not exceed 440° F., and under ordinary Service conditions will be much lower.
   The operating mechanism on the Lewis gun embodies several unique features, but one in particular should be mentioned - the use of a spring removed from the heat of the gun barrel. The gun is gas operated, that is to say, the energy required to load the breech and fire the cartridge is obtained by trapping some or the gases of the explosion through a small hole located a few inches from the muzzle. While the bullet is passing from this orifice to the muzzle, a period of about 1/9000th of a second, the gases deliver a blow to a piston, P, connected to the breech operating mechanism, and the energy thus stored as momentum in the moving mass serves to overcome the resistance represented by unlocking the breech, extracting and ejecting the cartridge case, turning the magazine and winding the spring that is subsequently to close the breech and fire the shot. This cycle of operations is repeated as many as 800 times a minute when the gun is working at its full speed, but the rapidity of fire can be regulated by changing the area of the orifice through which the gases are trapped, and by varying the tension on the clock-spring.
   It is apparent that the spring element in such a system must be kept in perfect condition to function indefinitely, and particularly must it be kept from getting even moderately hot, for spring steel is permanently affected at 2700 F. A coiled spring lying along the stem of the piston is thus out of the question, and in the Lewis gun use is made of a "clock spring," S, of special and peculiar design, which is contained in a small oil- and dust-tight case of its own just in front of the trigger. The spring drum has a toothed periphery engaging with a toothed rack on the operating rod, R, and in this way the spring alternately controls and is controlled by the piston rod without being subjected to the temperature of the forward part of the rod itself.
   To overcome the trouble often experienced through the jamming of the mechanism for feeding the cartridges, through derangement, a defect to which the belt form of feed is susceptible, or by the introduction of a little dust or sand, a balanced rotary magazine of circular form is employed, by means of which the cartridges and feeding mechanism are protected, and it becomes possible to fire the gun in any position. The cartridges are arranged radially as seen in the illustration, and are retained in a permanent circumferential position by flutes pressed on the outer casing of the magazine, and by slots in the interior, but the nose of the bullet rests in a coarse threaded ring clipped to the pivot about which the magazine turns. Thus as the magazine rotates, the cartridges are forced to descend along this groove until they pass into position for firing.
   The construction adopted in order to reduce the recoil is another unique feature of this gun, and operates in the following manner. When the expanding gases emerge as a conical blast from the muzzle, they impinge with very high velocity against the inner surface of the tubular steel casing of the cooling system. For a distance of at least two inches the gases are in contact with the metal surface, and the friction thus set up is sufficient to diminish the recoil by more than one-half. In other words, the recoil of the Lewis machine gun is less than one-half that of any other machine gun of equal weight. It is, in fact, possible to fire the gun while holding it in the hands at arm's length, which is a very good test of its steadiness, and this quality, it need hardly be emphasised, is another advantage of first-class importance, particularly in respect to the use of armament on aircraft.
   The tests to which the gun was subjected included firing from a Grahame-White biplane rigged up with an emergency seat below the pilot in flight, and from the 200 and 500 yards ranges at stationary targets. For the former, the target was about 25 ft. square, and from a height of between 400 and 500 ft., in a strong wind, Lieut. Stillingwerf of the Belgian Army scored 11 hits out of about 24 shots; and equally satisfactory results attended another attempt later in the afternoon, when a full magazine was discharged. At the 200 and 500 yards ranges some excellent work was done, and at the latter, out of 470 shots at full speed, more than 280 hits were found to have been made, during the subsequent examination of the targets.
   In every respect, the claims made by the Birmingham Small Arms Co., Ltd., for the Lewis gun were well substantiated.

Flight, July 31, 1914.


   The ever-growing list of "professionals" who have made the jump from the slanting boards to the pilot's seat has received a new addition in Mr. Chas. Weber, of Budapest, who has taken his "ticket" recently at the Grahame-White School at Hendon. Mr. Weber, who is an acrobat by profession, and who has appeared on many of the London halls, has done a considerable amount of flying on various machines in Hungary during the last two years, and has had several rather exciting experiences. On one occasion when Mr. Weber was flying for his ticket on a monoplane fitted with an experimental engine, and was doing some very artistic figures of eight, the engine and the machine dissolved partnership. The return to earth was nothing like as graceful as had been the figures of eight; in fact, it was very decidedly a case of "boys cassy." Fortunately Mr. Weber was not seriously hurt, but his judgment got the better of his patriotism, and he decided to journey to this country to learn flying on a real aeroplane.

P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Grahame-White Boxkite with twin rudders.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
The new Grahame-White School 'bus.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
GW School biplane with Gnome engine became RFC No.309.
J.Bruce - British Aeroplanes 1914-1918 /Putnam/
Grahame-White Type XV. The basic form of the Grahame-White XV, a simple box-kite biplane.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
GW Type XV pusher biplane with front elevator.
J.Bruce - British Aeroplanes 1914-1918 /Putnam/
Grahame-White Type XV. The second form of the design, with dual control and extensions on the upper wings. The engine of this machine is a 60 h.p. Green. (The number on the rudder is not an official serial number.)
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Mr. Manton with a passenger in the underslung seat of his Grahame-White biplane at the London Aerodrome, Hendon. - A strange optical illusion may be noticed in this picture. Whilst looking at it the picture appears to change. Sometimes you seem to be viewing the planes from above and somettmes from beneath.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
A LABOUR OF LOVE. - Manton flying at sunset, with his mother as a passenger, at Hendon Aerodrome.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
The end of a fine vol plane by Mr. J. S. B. Winter, with a passsnger, at Hendon, on the Grahame-White school 'bus.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
A brilliant day brought a goodly gathering of visitors to Hendon on a recent Sunday, and tables for al fresco teas were in great demand. Our photo, shows the scene during the afternoon.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Mr. Norman Spratt on the Breguet (below) and Mr. Marcus D. Manton on the Grahame-White biplane, flying for the Shell Trophy at Hendon on Saturday last.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
AS EVENING DRAWS IN AT HENDON AERODROME. - Above, Mr. H. P. Carr, and below, Mr. M. D. Manton on Grahame-Whlte biplanes rounding one of the pylons.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
FLYING AT HENDON. - Mr. Grahame-White on an M. Farman and Mr. Lillywine on the twin-rudder G.-W. 'bus over No. 1 pylon.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
CLOSE FINISHING AT HENDON DURING THE SUMMER RACING SEASON. - Mr. Lillywhite on the Grahame-White biplane and Mr. Birchenough on a Maurice Farman.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
RACING AT HENDON. - The second heat of the Speed Handicap on Whit Saturday. From left to right the machines are: Messrs. R. J. Lillywhite (G.-W. twin rudder), Verrier (Maurice Farman), W. Birchenough (G.-W.-Maurice Farman), and L. Noel (Bleriot).
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
R. J. Lillywhlte, on the.bi-rudder G.-W. 'bus, completing his first lap and passing over two machines still waiting to start in the Cross-Country Handicap at Hendon on Saturday.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
AT HENDON - A STRANGER MAKES A "COURTESY" CALL. - The machines in the air are: top, Vickers scout flown by Mr. Harold Barnwell; and below, a Grahame-White biplane. Inset at the top, left, is the Vickers scout witl its chassis heavenwards, during one of the loops which it made upon its "courtesy" call at Hendon, and to which reference was made in "Eddies" and Hendon Notes last week.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Trying the new Lewis automatic gun on a Grahame-White biplane at Bisley last week. The biplane, piloted by Mr. Marcus Manton, with Lieut. Stillingwerf in the seat underneath, manipulating the gun, is just passing over the Clock Tower at Bisley before firing at the target just beyond.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Chas. Weber, the Hungarian pilot who has taken his brevet at the Grahame-White School recently.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
After Work, Recreation. - Mr. Marcus D. Manton about to take a wounded soldier for a trip in the air at Hendon. Note the comrade who is wishing him a melo-dramatic farewell.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
KEEPING COOL. - Mr. M. D. Manton was making passenger flights at Hendon in his shirt sleeves during the heat last Saturday.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
THE COUNTRY, AS SEEN FROM AN AEROPLANE. - View of Hendon Aerodrome from a 50 h.p. Grabame-White biplane, piloted by Mr. Winter, at an altitude of 400 ft. From a sketch actually made during the flight by the artist, Mr. Roderic Hill. In the distance is the Midland Railway and Hendon Hill, surmounted by the church. The elevator of the machine is seen in front right across the picture.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.