Flight, December 18, 1914.
EARLY AMERICAN STABILITY BIPLANES.
Two interesting examples of early attempts at stability aeroplanes hailing from America are the Steco and Carey biplanes, illustrated by the accompanying sketches, and incidentally it may be noted that it is claimed for both these machines that they circumvent the Wright aeroplane control patents.
Turning to the Carey biplane, shown in Fig. 2, it will be seen that the general design is not so complicated. Briefly, the Carey stability and control system - which was worked out by Edwin R. Carey in April, 1910 - consists of the employment of two surfaces, situated side by side which besides functioning as elevators also serve as balancing planes or ailerons. As a matter of fact, much the same system is to be found on the Dunne and 1909 type Cody machines, although Mr. Carey knew nothing of either of these at the time he designed his biplane. It is rather interesting to note the similarity between the Carey and 1909 Cody machines. For reversing the direction of flight of the former we have the front divided elevator and balancing planes with vertical surface in between, twin screws, and main planes much in the same relative positions as on the Cody machine. On the latter, however, there was a vertical rudder at the rear, and in later models ailerons were fitted to the planes in addition to the front elevators. Where the Carey system differs from that of the Dunne is that the ailerons on the planes of the latter are used as elevators as well as for steering to the right or left, whereas in the Carey machine the elevators are used as ailerons and steering is effected by means of a vertical rudder - although there is no reason why the latter should not be dispensed with. These elevators are operated by two separate levers as in the Dunne machine, and can be operated independently or simultaneously. The rudder is actuated by a foot bar. The elevator planes are carried by four pairs of outriggers, two for each plane, extending from the rear spars of the main planes. At the trailing edge of the latter are the two propellers driven by chains from the engine, which is mounted on, and in the centre of, the lower plane.
It is stated that a machine of this pattern was constructed and flown in 1911, but a new machine is to be built shortly, and it will be flown by a former Farman and Bleriot pilot. The principal dimensions of the machine illustrated are:-Span 28 ft.; chord 4 ft. 10 ins.; gap 5 ft.; supporting area 269 sq. ft.