L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)
Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing
Flight, November 9, 1912.
THE PARIS AERO SALON.
THEIR monoplane is one of the prettiest jobs in the whole Salon. Hardly the same can be said of the biplane they are exhibiting, for, although good throughout as concerns both design and workmanship, it seems considerably more complicated about the chassis than it need be. The monoplane is a single-seater fitted with 50-h.p. Gnome motor, and betrays traces of R.E.P. influence in its design. Its body, for instance, is almost identical with that of the machine we mention; also, at first sight, is the chassis, but on closer examination it will be seen that it works on a different principle. Its two running wheels are mounted on a common axle that is strapped down by rubber springs to a horizontal tubular member, which unites the basis of two "V's" extending downward from the fuselage. One of our sketches shows this point well, and in the same drawing may be seen how the fixed horizontal member and the movable axle are connected as a precaution against an extensive smash occurring should the rubbers break. Altogether, it is the neatest and, we should think, the most efficient chassis this year's Salon has brought forth. On the machine shown the wings are constructed chiefly of wood, but have tubular spars of steel. We were informed, however, that wings with an all-metal skeleton had been made for the monoplane, and, in fact, they would be fitted to the machine before the Show closes. Its tail is a lifting organ, and singularly pretty in outline. It is kept clear of the ground by a neat skid built up of laminations of bent wood.
The large three-seated biplane has a fuselage which only differs from that of the monoplane as regards size. Its tail organs, too, are identical. The main points of difference lie in its landing gear, and in the fact that it has two spreads of wing instead of one. Its chassis is a rather mote complicated version of that which was shown on their biplane last year. It consists of two horizontal wooden skids united to the fuselage by a structure of steel tubing. At the rear extremity of each skid is hinged a steel fork in the form of a triangle, which supports a pair of wheels. The shock absorbers are fitted horizontally between the front of the skid and the base of the fork, so that, should there be a shock on landing, the wheels may give in a vertical direction. Behind the two main skids, and attached to the base of the fuselage, is a third skid with wheels, which, in that position, does away with the necessity of fitting a tail skid. The planes of the biplanes are so designed as regards their attachment to the fuselage that they may be dismantled in a minimum of time. A triangular construction of steel tubing surrounds the body in the neighbourhood of its centre of gravity, and to this structure the planes are assembled. Their cross bracing is rather interesting, and this we illustrate by means of a sketch, for this system does away with a good deal of strutting and wiring, and materially reduces the head resistance of that part of the machine. Inside the body room is provided for two passengers sitting side-by-side in advance of the pilot.
On the stand we had the good fortune to renew our acquaintance with M. Robert Grandseigne, who was a year or so ago connected with the English Bristol Company. He is now engaged in experiments for the Clement-Bayard firm, with a miniature hydro-monoplane, having more or less the characteristics of the little Santos Dumont Demoiselle, which this firm used to construct in days gone by. It is to be quite an inexpensive and popular model, priced somewhere m the neighbourhood of L400, and fitted with the same type of horizontal opposed two-cylinder motor as those with which the Demoiselles were equipped. Already considerable success has been achieved by this model, and now it only remains to standardize the machine. We may expect its official appearance in about two months time, when M. Grandseigne has promised us we may be able to give our readers a complete illustrated description of this interesting machine. Further, he informs us, the Clement-Bayard works have under construction an enormous biplane driven by an engine of 500-h.p. and capable of lifting a minimum load of twelve passengers. As the controls for a machine of this size would be necessarily difficult to operate by manual power alone, power relays driven by compressed air, are being designed to perform this function at the will of the pilot.
It is interesting that whereas last year the greater part of the Clement-Bayard stand was occupied with a nacelle for a dirigible this year there is nothing on the stand that would give one to imagine that the proprietars ever had anything to do with motor balloon construction.
Flight, May 3, 1913.
FOR THE POMMERY CUP.-MARVELLOUS FLYING.
Gulllaux's Record Flight.
GILBERT'S lead in the Competition only stood for four days, as on Monday Guillaux gained first place, and as his record was not beaten on Wednesday, he will probably be awarded the Cup. Starting from Biarritz, on the all-steel Clement-Bayard monoplane, which has a 70-h.p. Clerget engine and Integral propeller, at 4.42 a.m., Guillaux steered for Bordeaux and covered the 180 kiloms. in 1 hour 13 mins. After a forty-minutes' rest he started again and this time made a non-stop flight to Villacoublay, arriving there at 10.35, having taken four hours for the distance of 495 kiloms. This time a rest of two hours was indulged in before proceeding to Ath, in Belgium, where he arrived at 2 p.m., by which time he was 900 kiloms. from his starting point. Another two hours' rest was enjoyed and then the last stage commenced, the aeroplane after crossing the Zuyder Zee finally landing at Kollum, in Holland, at 7 p.m., his distance record then being 1,255 kiloms.
Some Integral Successes.
IT is interesting to note that of the many outstanding cross-country flights which have been made during the past few days quite a number have been accomplished by the aid of the Integral propeller. Guillaux used an Integral when flying on his Clement-Bayard monoplane from Biarritz to Holland, Gilbert's Morane was so fitted, and so was the Bleriot on which Hamel recently made his non-stop flight from Dover to Cologne.
Flight, October 25, 1913.
THE CLEMENT-BAYARD MONOPLANE.
GUILLAUX'S remarkable flight some little time back from Savigny to Paris, when he travelled at a speed of 144 miles per hour, naturally centres one's attention on the Clement-Bayard monoplane, which was the make of machine he flew on this occasion. The main point of interest in the Clement-Bayard monoplanes lies in their steel construction. With the exception of the wing spars and skids, nickel steel tube is employed throughout. The fore part of the fuselage is pentagonal in section, whilst behind the pilot's seat the fuselage is triangular. In front of the pilot, windows are let into the sides of the fuselage in order that a clear view under the wings may be obtained, The wing spars are of channel-section steel, the attachment to the fuselage being such that the wings can easily and quickly be removed or attached. The rear spar is situated very nearly along the centre of the wing, so that there is a large proportion of trailing edge. In this way a very effective warp is obtained which makes the machine sensitive in control. Another interesting feature with the Clement-Bayard machine is the landing chassis, which is extremely strong. It consists of a pyramid-like structure of steel tubes, the apex of which is attached to the nose of the fuselage, whilst the base is connected to two skids carrying at their rear ends sprung running wheels. Two steel struts also extend from the rear of the pyramid to the sides of the fuselage. Both single and two seater models are made, and 50 h.p., 70 h.p., or 80 h.p. Gnome engines are employed. The principal dimensions of the 70 h.p. Military single-seater are as follows :- Span 9.200 m., length 7.500 m., supporting area 16 sq. m., weight (empty) 320 kilogs., speed 120 k.p.h.
Flight, December 13, 1913.
THE STANDS AT THE PARIS AERO SHOW.
On the Clement-Bayard stand are shown two all-steel monoplanes - a single-seater and a two-seater. The only parts which are made of wood are the chassis struts. The lift cables are attached to the lower member of the fuselage, so that should the chassis struts, which are the weakest part of the machine, break, there is still a chance of keeping the lift wires intact.