M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)
Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing
P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)
The Mackensie-Hughes Triplane Britannia of E. S. B. Mackensie-Hughes was designed by A. W. Smith of Barking and constructed during 1910. The engine was the four-cylinder 20 h.p. J. A.P., which drove two propellers by chains; the propellers were phased 90° apart, and their blades inter-meshed where their swept discs overlapped. The triplane wings were back-staggered, as were the triplane horizontal tail surfaces. The centre wings were of broad chord, while those above and below were of narrow chord, and lateral control was by means of ailerons on the centre wings. The machine's appearance gave rise to its nickname of "The Staircase". It was tested on 9th July, 1910, and was converted in the following month into the Molesworth Triplane. Span, 23 ft. Wing area, 250 sq. ft. Weight empty, 600 lb.