Flight, September 21, 1916.
THE FEDERAL PUSHER BIPLANE.
ONE of the latest recruits to the aeronautical industry in America is the Federal Aircraft and Motor Corporation of New York, which has been formed for the purpose, not only of manufacturing machines of various types to their own designs, but with a view of conducting a flying school at New York City. The machines in use for this latter branch include a Curtiss flying boat and a Martin tractor, as well as a 100 h.p. pusher biplane of the Company's own design, which is shown in the accompanying illustrations and scale drawings.
As may be seen, this machine possesses several distinctive features, notably the swept-back planes and the "armoured" stream-line nacelle. The latter is mounted on the top of the lower plane, and is built up of ash, covered with sheet steel, which covering is given a finish of black enamel with vermilion lines. The cockpit, seating pilot and passenger side by side, is just forward of the planes, giving an excellent view, and the seats are upholstered with "lanasilk" cushions, which are capable of sustaining the weight of two men in water, should a forced descent be made on the latter. Two fuel tanks, each having a capacity of 21 gallons, or sufficient for 4 1/2 hours' flight, are fitted one on either side of the engine - a 100 h.p. Curtiss OX - which is mounted in the rear of the nacelle. Roomy lockers are provided under the seats for tools, spares, &c, so that minor repairs or adjustments may be effected on the spot. The radiator is mounted on the top of the nacelle just in front of the engine. It is proposed to instal in future models a new engine with which the Federal Co. have been carrying out extensive tests. The Curtiss shoulder-yoke typo of control is fitted, in which an ingenious arrangement is incorporated whereby dual control for either of the three operations rudder, elevator and ailerons - may be installed separately or all together by the fastening of four nuts and a bolt. By this means the pupil can become accustomed to the controls one at a time.
Top and bottom planes, which have a span of 36 ft., are made up of three panel sections, the centre section measuring 8 ft span and the two outer ones being slightly swept back, and thus giving the machine a certain amount of inherent stability. Each surface is built up of two main spars of specially selected ash and ribs of spruce, the whole framework being braced and covered with Irish linen doped with five coats of aero varnish and three coats of Valspar. Upper and lower surf aces are separated by six pairs of streamlined mahogany struts, the fittings of which - as with all other fittings throughout the machine - being of sheet steel stamped out in one piece. Roebling steel cable is used for the bracing throughout, and quick release connections are used extensively. Ailerons are hinged to the outer extremities of the real spars of both top and bottom planes.
The outriggers carrying the tail are of 1-inch steel tube filled with spruce, the spacing struts being of oval section steel tubing secured to the outriggers by stamped steel clips. The tail planes consist of a nonlifting stabilising surface of about 30 sq. ft., to the trailing edge of which are hinged two elevator flaps of 15 sq. ft. each, and a large rudder hinged to a triangular vertical tin. The landing chassis is of the Farman-Wright type, with a pair of 26 by 4 in. wheels to each skid. It is strongly braced by steel tubing.