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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Zeppelin-Staaken Type 8301

Страна: Германия

Год: 1918

Zeppelin-Staaken - R.XVI - 1918 - Германия<– –>Zeppelin-Staaken - E.4/20 - 1920 - Германия


В.Обухович, А.Никифоров Самолеты Первой Мировой войны


В конце войны появился самолет 8 301, по существу тот же R XVI, но с фюзеляжем, подвешенным между крыльями и без носовой опоры. В качестве бомбардировщика его применить не успели, но после войны он летал на гражданских авиалиниях. Испытывался также морской бомбардировщик Rs I - вариант 8 301 на поплавковом шасси. Экипаж гидросамолета состоял из 5 человек. Вооружение включало три подвижных пулемета и 20-мм пушку. Продолжительность полета была доведена до 10 часов.


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Zeppelin-Staaken Type 8301 Seaplane
  Three seaplanes of this type were completed, Naval Nos. 8301, 8303 and 8304; the completion of 8302 is not confirmed. Although an R VI type wing cellule was used, with balanced ailerons, a completely new fuselage was designed and suspended almost midway between the wings. The tail surfaces employed were as those on the R XIV and R XV land machines. Engines, four 260 h.p. Mercedes D IVa. Span, 42.2 m. (138 ft. 5 5/8 in.). Length, 21 m.(68ft. 10 7/8 in.). Height, 6.8 m. (22 ft. 3 3/4 in.). Area, 340.5 sq.m. (3,677 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 9,000 kg. (19,800 lb.). Loaded, 12,500 kg. (27,500 lb.). Speed, 130 km.hr. (81.25 m.p.h.). Climb, 3,000 m. (9,840 ft.) in 54 min. Duration, 10 hr. Armament, five machine-guns.

Zeppelin-Staaken Type 8301
  Naval seaplane No. 8301 underwent flight trials fitted with land undercarriage chassis. Engines, four 260 h.p. Mercedes D IVa. Dimensions were same as for seaplane except for height, which would naturally be less, and wing area was the same. No other data available.


G.Haddow, P.Grosz The German Giants (Putnam)


Staaken 8301 and 8303 Types

  In December 1917 the German Navy placed an order for two Staaken seaplanes, numbered 8301-8302, followed in January 19 18 by an additional order for four slightly-improved seaplanes numbered 8303-8306. The design of these machines incorporated the lessons learned from the extensive Staaken L test programme. Although the general layout remained unchanged, a major modification consisted of raising the fuselage several feet above the lower wing as in the Bristol Fighter. By raising both fuselage and tail farther above the water, they were better protected from the spray and buffeting of rough seas. The forepart of the fuselage was modified to bring the nose gun ring level with the upper longerons to provide more space in the nose compartment. Cellon windows ran around the entire nose, providing an unobstructed view in all directions. The nose compartment just forward of the two pilots' seats contained the bomb-release mechanism for the ten 10 kg. bombs which were stored in two containers along each side of the nose. Also located in the nose was an anchor winch and sufficient line for hoisting a small anchor which was hung externally in front. A collapsible mast antenna made it possible to transmit signals while the machine was afloat.
  In all other respects the Staaken 8301 and 8303 machines made use of the refinements found on the latest Staaken land R-planes. The wings and their control surfaces resembled the wings of the Staaken R.XIV, and the tail was fitted with aerodynamically-balanced elevators. As in the R.XIV, machine-gun positions were placed in the upper wings and in the usual ventral and dorsal locations. Provision was made to mount two 20 mm. Becker cannons in the rear positions. The 20 mm. Becker had been experimentally fitted to smaller German naval aircraft and was reputed to be very effective against small ships, submarines and aircraft. The crew consisted of five men, less than the complement of the Staaken landplanes. The reduction in weight permitted more fuel to be carried and the 8301 and 8303 types were equipped with twelve 300 litre fuel tanks, which provided for a duration of 9-10 hours cruising on all four engines.
  The Staaken 8301 made its first flight in the summer of 1918 as a landplane. For this purpose, it was fitted with a standard-wheeled undercarriage, such as was installed on other Staaken landplanes. However, the auxiliary nose gear had to be lengthened to allow for the higher location of the fuselage. After completion of initial trials, the 8301 was mounted on duraluminium floats that were slightly longer and differently suspended than on the Staaken L. The floats were divided into twelve air-tight compartments to localize flooding in case of damage.
  The 8301 and later the 8302 were based at Warnemunde for naval tests. This testing programme was halted at the end of the war, and it is believed the machines were not accepted by the Navy. After the war an Allied naval commission, inspecting German bases, was impressed by the overwhelming size of the 8301 and 8302, and described them as dwarfing the 200-odd aircraft stationed at Warnemunde.
  The slightly improved 8303 series, ordered shortly after the 8301, was never delivered, but two completed machines, the 8303 and 8304, were found in the Staaken seaplane hangar at Wildpark near Potsdam by the Inter-Allied Control Commission. It should be noted that the not always reliable I.A.C.C. report claimed that three Staaken R-seaplanes were destroyed in tests. The most notable modification possessed by the 8303 types was the return to swept-back wings similar to the Staaken R.XIV.
  In the early post-war period 8301 and possibly 8303 and 8304 were used on regular weekend passenger excursions between Berlin and Swinemunde, a popular German coastal resort.
  The Staaken R-seaplanes were by far the largest floatplanes ever constructed. Sikorsky had mounted his "Ilia Mourometz" on floats for the Imperial Russian Navy in 1914-15, and Caproni produced a floatplane version of his famous triplane, but neither aircraft approached the Staaken machines in size. Since 1917 there may have been floatplanes which exceeded the Staaken machines in weight, but no record has been found of a floatplane with greater wingspan than the Staaken seaplanes.

Colour Scheme and Markings

  All machines were finished overall with printed camouflage fabric using rather small polygons. Narrow Latin crosses edged in white and spanning the full wingtip chord and depth of fuselage were carried. On the rear fuselage the naval number was painted in large white figures.


SPECIFICATIONS

  Type: Staaken 8301 and 8303
  Manufacturer: Zeppelin-Werke G.m.b.H., Staaken, Berlin
  Engines: Four 260 h.p. Mercedes D.IVa engines
  Dimensions:
   Span, 42•2 m. (138 ft. 5 1/2 in.)
   Length, 21 m. (68 ft. 10 1/2 in.)
   Height, 6•8 m. (22 ft. 3 1/2 in.)
  Areas: Wings, 340•5 sq. m. (3663 sq. ft.)
  Weights:
   Empty, 9000 kg. (19,845 lb.)
   Loaded, 12,500 kg. (27,563 lb.)
  Performance:
   Maximum speed, 130 km.h. (80,8 m.p.h.)
   Climb, 3000 m. (9843 ft.) in 54 mins.
  Service Use: None

G.Haddow, P.Grosz - The German Giants /Putnam/
Staaken 8301 Seaplane during flight testing on the Havel at Potsdam.
G.Haddow, P.Grosz - The German Giants /Putnam/
Although not officially accepted for naval service, the display of its marine number shows that this Staaken R (Riesenflugzeug) was ordered by the Navy and completed before the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles came into effect. This machine shows the stage the Germans reached in the development of the giant twin-float seaplane by the end of hostilities. It was operated for a period on a regular basis, from the large lakes between Potsdam and Berlin to Travemiinde, taking Berliners to the seaside in what must have been the first holiday air traffic charters from that city.
G.Haddow, P.Grosz - The German Giants /Putnam/
Staaken 8301 Seaplane with passengers, at the time it was operating week-end flights between Berlin and Swinemunde.
G.Haddow, P.Grosz - The German Giants /Putnam/
Staaken 8303 Seaplane.
G.Haddow, P.Grosz - The German Giants /Putnam/
The Staaken 8303 Seaplane taking off.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Zeppelin-Staaken Type 8301
G.Haddow, P.Grosz - The German Giants /Putnam/
Staaken 8301 Seaplane fitted with wheels for the delivery flight to Potsdam.
G.Haddow, P.Grosz - The German Giants /Putnam/
Initial flight form of the Staaken 8301 Seaplane.
G.Haddow, P.Grosz - The German Giants /Putnam/
Staaken Seaplane No.8301