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Aviatik C.III

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Aviatik - C.II - 1916 - Германия<– –>Aviatik - D.II - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


АВИАТИК C-I/C-Ia/C-III / AVIATIK C-I/C-Ia/C-III

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  В том же году был разработан "Авиатик" C-III с улучшенной аэродинамикой. Форму носовой части фюзеляжа сделали более округлой, втулку винта закрыли коком, а радиатор расположили по потоку, вписав его в контур верхнего крыла. C-Ia и C-III повсеместно использовались германскими ВВС до конца 1916-го для ближней разведки, корректировки артогня и бомбардировки вражеских позиций. В дальнейшем заменены на более современные машины.


ДВИГАТЕЛЬ
  
  "Мерседес", 160 л.с. (C-I, C-Ia и C-III).
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  На C-I, C-Ia и C-III - 1 7,92-мм турельный "Парабеллум", 60 кг бомб.


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Aviatik C I and C III

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  During 1916. in an endeavour to meet the demand for better performance, the Aviatik C III was introduced. This machine, however, was little more than a refined C I. The nose contours were considerably cleaned up and a large spinner fixed to the propeller; a new exhaust manifold ejecting horizontally to starboard was also fitted. A further improvement was the installation of the new aerofoil-shape radiator in the starboard side of the top-wing centre-section. In addition to improving forward vision considerably, these refinements added some 18 km.hr. (11.25 m.p.h.) to the speed. Wingspan was reduced, as was the chord of the ailerons, which were hinged to a false spar. There was also improvement in the fuel system, which in the C I had consisted of no fewer than four separate tanks, with a complicated system of cocks and piping to enable the engine to run on any separate tank. Apart from these modifications, the airframe remained virtually that of the earlier aircraft.
  Aviatiks were used by the Fl. Abt. units for reconnaissance, and on occasion they were operated in nights of anything from three t o six aircraft, solely as armed escort t o unarmed reconnaissance machines. The destruction of an Aviatik on 7th November 1915 was instrumental in the award of the Victoria Cross t o 2nd Lt. G. S. M. Insall of No. 11 Sqdn. R . F . C , who, flying a Vickers Gunbus, forced down the Aviatik. Its destruction was completed by his dropping a bomb on it.

TECHNICAL DATA
  Description: Two-seat reconnaissance and escort.
  Manufacturers:
   Automobil und Aviatik A.G. (Av.).
   Hannoversche Waggonfabrik A.G. (Han.).
  Power Plant: One 160 h.p. Mercedes D III 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engine.
  Dimensions: Span, 12 5 m. (41 ft. 0 1/4 in.), C I; 118 m. (38 ft. 5 5/8 in.), C III. Length, 7.925 m. (26 ft. 0 in.), C I; 8.08 m. (26 ft. 6 1/8 in.), C III. Height, 2.95 m. (9 ft. 8 1/8 in.), C I; 2.95 m. (9 ft. 8 1/8 in.), C III. Wing area, 43 sq.m. (465.4 sq.ft.), C I; 35 sq.m. (378 sq.ft.), C III.
  Weights: Empty, 750 kg. (1,650 lb.), C I; 980 kg. (2,156 lb.), C III. Loaded, 1,242 kg. (2,732 lb.), C I; 1,340 kg. (2,948 lb.), C III.
  Performance: Maximum speed, 142 km.hr. (88.75 m.p.h.), C I; 160 km.hr. (100 m.p.h.), C III. Initial climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 12 min., C I; 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 7 min., C III. Ceiling, 3,500 m. (11,480 ft.), C I; 4,500 m. (14,760 ft.) in 55 min., C III. Duration 3 hr.
  Armament: One Parabellum machine-gun for observer mounted on rails on either side of front cockpit, the gun transferred as necessary. Later, on the C III, two guns were mounted, one on either rail.


J. Herris Aviatik Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 10)


Aviatik C.III

  Like the Aviatik C.II, the Aviatik C.III was developed from the earlier C.I in an attempt to improve performance, especially speed. The C.III retained the same configuration, construction, and unhandy, observer-in-front seating arrangement as the C.I, and was powered by the same 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine. Like the C.Ia and C.II, the C.III had a more streamlined nose with propeller spinner, and the boxy under-wing radiator was replaced with one of airfoil shape mounted in the upper wing. Basically, the production C.III differed from the prototype C.Ia by having a smaller wing to reduce drag. Unfortunately, the smaller wing reduced payload and climb rate; giving the faster C.III basically the same climb rate as the C.I.
  Unlike the C.II, the C.III retained the fixed fin and rudder of the earlier C.I and lacked the pilot's headrest that was unique to the C.II. To further increase speed, useful load was less than the C.I.


C.III Production and Service

  The prototype for the C.III was Aviatik C.Ia C.l750/16 from the last C.I order of April 1916 for 75 Aviatik C.I (C.1700/16 to C.1774/16). The last 24 aircraft of that order (C.1751/16 to C.1774/16) were built as the C.III. A further 25 Aviatik C.III aircraft were ordered in July 1916 with serial numbers C.3150/16 to C.3174/16. In August 1917 there was a final Aviatik C.III order for 200 aircraft as trainers, serial numbers C.12201/17 to C.12399/17. These differed from the original C.III in having the pilot in the front and the observer, with his flexible machine gun, aft.
  Interestingly, the Aviatik C.III preceded the C.II into service. Although the C.II and C.III shared many aerodynamic refinements from the C.Ia, the C.III was more closely related to the earlier C.I design and used the same 160-hp Mercedes D.III engine as the C.I. Furthermore, that engine was available earlier than the Benz Bz.IV used in the C.II.
  The C.III appeared at the front in small numbers from mid 1916 through early 1917, a maximum of 47 being at the front at the end of October, 1916. Operational units known to have used the Aviatik C.Ia/C.III include: FA25, FFA12, FFAA2, FFA65, FFA67, bFFAA, bFFA6, KS25/KG5, and E447b; school use was with SchS8.


The specifications of the production Aviatik C-types are given in one table for ease of comparison.
Aviatik C-Type Specifications
Aviatik C.I Aviatik C.II Aviatik C.III
Engine: 150 hp Benz Bz.III 160 hp Mercedes D.III 200 hp Benz IV 160 hp Mercedes D.III
Span, Upper: 12.5 m (41.0 ft.) 11.71 m (38.4 ft.) 11.8 m (38.7 ft.)
Span, Lower: 10.75 m (35.3 ft.) 11.71 m (38.4 ft.) 10.2 m (33.5 ft.)
Chord, Upper: 1.88 m (6.17 ft.) 1.70 m (5.58 ft.) 1.70 m (5.58 ft.)
Chord, Lower: 1.88 m (6.17 ft.) 1.70 m (5.58 ft.) 1.70 m (5.58 ft.)
Length: 7.91 m (25.95 ft.) 6.95 m (22.8 ft.) 8.08 m (26.5 ft.)
Track: 1.94m (6.36 ft.) - 1.95 m (6.40 ft.)
Gap: 2.0 m (6.56 ft.) 1.80 m(5.91 ft.) 1.80 m (5.91 ft.)
Wing Area: 43 sq. m. (463 sq. ft.) 37.9 sq. m. (408 sq. ft.) 35.0 sq. m. (377 sq. ft.)
Empty Weight: 745 kg. (1,642 lb.) 916 kg. (2,019 lb.) 895 kg. (1,973 lb.)
Loaded Weight: 1,245 kg. (2,745 lb.) 1,509 kg. (3,327 lb.) 1,220 kg. (2,690 lb.)
Maximum Speed: 120 km/h (74.6 mph) 155 km/h (96.3 mph) 155 km/h (96.3 mph)
Cruise Speed: - - 140 km/h (87 mph)
Climb to 1,000 m: 5 minutes - 6.5 minutes
Climb to 2,000 m: 16 minutes - 16 minutes
Climb to 3,000 m: 33 minutes - 31 minutes
Climb to 4,500 m: - - 55 minutes
Service Ceiling: - - 4,500 m
Duration: 3 hours - Range: 480 km
Armament: 1-2 flexible machine guns 1-2 flexible machine guns 1-2 flexible machine guns
Note: The C.III had 1 degree of dihedral on both upper and lower wings.


Aviatik C.III Production Orders
Date Qty Serial Numbers
April 1916 25 C.1750-1774/16 (Note 1)
July 1916 25 C.3075-3149/16
August 1917 200 C.12201-12399/17 (Note 2)
Total Ordered 250
Note 1: Changed C.I order (Av C.Ia C.1750/16 = C.III prototype) Note 2: Ordered as trainers, pilot in front


Журнал Flight


Flight, September 11, 1919.

AVIATIK "MILESTONES"

  OF the German aircraft firms which were in existence before the War, one of the best known and most important was the Aviatik (Automobil u. Aviatik A.G.), whose works were originally at Mulhausen, Alsace. Quite early in the War, however, the proximity of the works to the front made it necessary to transfer them to a safer locality. This was hurriedly done, under cover of darkness it is alleged, and works were established at Freiburg im Breisgau. The demands for output soon rendered these works too small, and a large factory was established at Leipzig-Heiterblick, which is at the present time the main Aviatik factory. Work was commenced at this factory in 1916, and in addition the Grade works at Bork i. d. Mark, near Berlin, were purchased by the Aviatik firm, who enlarged them considerably and established a flying school there. The Aviatik firm intends to remain in the aircraft industry after the War, and in view of this fact, as well as on account of the amount of work done by this firm during the War, a few brief notes on the various Aviatik types, based on an article published in Flugsport, may not be without interest.

The Aviatik, Type C I
  This machine, which was built during 1914-1915, had a 160 h.p. Mercedes engine, and the radiator mounted on the front struts of the cabane. The gunner occupied the front seat, two straight gun rails being mounted on the sides of the fuselage. The machine had a speed of 142 km./hour.

The Aviatik, Type C III
  was built in 1916, and also had a 160 h.p. Mercedes engine. It was designed to meet the demand for better performance and although the engine remained the same, the speed of this type was increased from 142 to 160 km./hour. This was accomplished mainly by a general "cleaning up," as placing the radiator in the top plane, giving the body a better streamline shape, and last, but not least, by employing a different wing section.

J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.III serving with Flieger-Abteilung 25.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.III that served with Flieger-Abteilung (A) 209 before being interned in the Netherlands.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.III trainer.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Aviatik C.Ia 1750/16 was the aerodynamic test-bed and prototype for the Aviatik C.III powered by the same 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine as the C.I. The C.Ia gained a useful speed increase from its additional streamlining. The later Aviatik C.II also benefited from these aerodynamic improvements although it used a different engine and airframe.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Aviatik C.III in dark camouflage, an unusual finish for a C.III.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Based on its fuselage insignia, this Aviatik C.III apparently served with Flieger-Abteilung (A) 209 before being interned in the Netherlands, as shown by the over-painted national insignia. The pointed spinner differs from the more rounded spinner normally seen on Aviatik C.III aircraft.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An operational Aviatik C.III aircrew poses with their ground crew and their aircraft. The starboard gun is clearly visible.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Aviatik C.III, developed from the C.I, used the same 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine but was much more streamlined, making it faster than the C.I. Unfortunately, at Idflieg's insistence it retained the observer in the front cockpit and the side-mounted guns, making for a cramped working environment and restricted field of fire.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Aviatik C.III had clean lines for a two-seater; this example has the rounded spinner normally seen on the C.III.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Aviatik C.III displays the clean lines that made it usefully faster than the C.I despite using the same engine, a 160 hp Mercedes D.III.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Aviatik C.III at left is lined up with Albatros C.1212/16 of Flieger-Abteilung 25.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.III 12310/17 was ordered as a trainer; in this configuration the pilot sat in the front cockpit.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Aviatik C.III in pristine condition waits in the snow for its next mission. Absence of the gun-mounting rails along the forward fuselage sides indicates this aircraft was ordered as a trainer with the pilot seated in the front cockpit.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Aviatik C.III in Netherlands service postwar.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An armed Aviatik C.III and crewman.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The restored fuselage of Aviatik C.III 12250/17, one of the 200 ordered for training, in the museum in Poland. To its left is the fuselage of Roland D.VIb 2225/18.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.III 12378/17 has lost its spinner and broken its propeller in a training accident.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.III
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.III
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.III