Книги

Putnam
O.Thetford, P.Gray
German Aircraft of the First World War
638

O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/

A.E.G. D I (first version)
The A.E.G. D I. The photograph depicts the third prototype.
The sole prototype of the A.E.G. Dr I.
Albatros D II scouts of Jasta 9 which formed in October 1916.
Albatros D IIs of Jasta 14.
Albatros D II (Austrian-built, with centre-section radiator and Austro-Daimler engine).
Albatros D III flown by Werner Voss in Jasta 5.
Albatros D Va and D III fighters of Jasta 12.
An unusual view of an Albatros D III, the fighter most commonly encountered by Allied pilots during 1917.
Albatros D III, of No. 2 Marine-Feld-Jagdstaffel.
Photographed in the summer of 1917, this Albatros D III belonged to No 2 Marlne-Feld-Jagdstaffel.
An Albatros D III of Jasta 26 which overturned on landing.
Albatros D Va and D III fighters of Jasta 12.
Albatros D V fighters taking off on patrol. A solitary Pfalz D III can also be seen in the background.
Epitomising the atmosphere of the German Jagdstaffeln, Kurt Wiislhoff poses with his skull-emblazoned Albatros D V.
Albatros D V, built by O.A.W. (serial D 2004/17).
The Albatros D V flown by Lt. Meierdirks o f Jasta 12.
Albatros D Va of Jasta 40, flown by Lt. Dilthey.
Albatros D Va crash-landed by Lt. von Hippel of Jasta 5.
Albatros D V flown by Ernst Udet.
The DII, the first original Aviatik single-seat fighter design, of which one prototype was flown in 1916.
The Aviatik, Type D II.
The Aviatik D VI was intended to participate in the second D-type Contest at Adlershof in June 1918
Pfalz D IIIa, with modified tailplane (serial 8143/17).
Pfalz D III (serial 4184/17).
Pfalz D IIIs of Jasta 10 on Courtrai aerodrome, autumn 1917.
Albatros D V fighters taking off on patrol. A solitary Pfalz D III can also be seen in the background.
Pfalz Experimental D Type
Pfalz D XII (serial 1375/18).
Final defeat. This scene, taken at Cologne in January 1919, shows the remains of a Pfalz D XII in the foreground and a stack of Albatros fuselages.
L.F.G. Roland D II prototype, powered by a 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine, October 22 1916.
Improved forward and downward view from the cockpit was offered by the Roland D II.
Manfred von Richthofen in a Roland D III scout.
L.F.G. Roland D VI (prototype)
L.F.G. Roland D VIa (prototype)
"Юбилейный" D.VI - двухтысячный аэроплан, построенный на фирме LFG.
L.F.G. Roland D Vlb.
Yet another airframe with a long and complicated history. The D IIe (serial 7553/17) was originally built with dural-girder wing spars and unbraced wings. The I-type interplane struts may be noted, which help to distinguish from the other S.S.W. prototypes. On test flight the wings were found to flex considerably and bracing cables were then added. Eventually the machine was rebuilt to D IV standards and sent to Geschwader II in spring of 1918 for operational assessment; it was again returned to factory, modified and reengined and ferried back to Geschwader II again in July 1918. Engine, 160 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh III. Span, 8.2 m. (26 ft. 10 7/8 in.). Length, 60 m. (19 ft. 8 1/4 in.). Area, 154 sq.m. (166 sq.ft.). Weight: Empty, 500 kg. (1,100 lb.). Duration, 2 hr. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.
The D IIc lang (long) prototype which featured increased wing span and reduced upper wing chord.
Although dealt with in the main text, this illustration is included here to show the continuous development of a single airframe (7551/17). Modified from the D III (long), the cowling arrangement may now be seen to be less austere and that ailerons have been additionally located at the lower wingtips. It first flew in this form on 20lh December 1917, and then crashed while at Adlershof for first D types Competition in January 1918. Data as for D III (long).
This photograph continues the evolution of the 7551/17 airframe. After the crash at Adlershof in January 1918 the machine was rebuilt with a new serial (7554/17) and the type redesignated D IV. Again the aircraft crashed, as may be seen above, and was yet again rebuilt, this time with reduced span, and designated D IVa. Engine, 160 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh III. Span, 9.0 m. (29 ft. 6 3/8 in.). Length, 6.0 m. (19 ft. 8 1/4 in.). Weight: Loaded, 695 kg. (1,529 lb.). Climb, 6,000 m. (19,680 ft.) in 18 min. Duration, 2 hr. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns. When rebuilt as D IVa, span was reduced to 7.5 m. (24 ft. 3 3/8 in.), and climb to 6,000 m. took 30 min.
Siemens-Schuckert D IV (serial D 7555/18).
Fokker M 5 L (foreground only)
The original M 5K/MG during demonstration to Feldfliegerabteilung 62 near Douay
Fokker E I, (serial 36/15) folded for transport.
The famous Fokker Monoplane which caused such havoc on the Western Front when introduced in 1915.
Fokker E III (serial 210/16).
Fokker E III (serial 210/16).
Fokker D I (serial 190/16).
The revised single-bay M 17 prototype that was supplied to the Austro-Hungarians as the B II
Above is a rare flying shot of the Austro-Hungarian B III unarmed version.
A rare air-to-air photograph of a Fokker D II biplane scout of 1916.
Fokker M 17 z (versuchs) An experimental version of the D II with additional stringers rounding out fuselage lines and large spinner fitted. Engine, 100 h.p. Oberursel U I.
Fokker D V (serial 692/17). The D V was ordered as an advanced trainer, but was issued to some home-based defence units.
Fokker Dr I flown by Lt. Janzen of Jasta 6.
Fokker Triplanes of Jasta 11. The pilot holding the stick is von Richthofen.
July 1918. Goring, who was by then commanding the Richthofen Circus, stands by a Fokker Triplane. At this period ihe Fokker D VII (seen in background) was entering service in increasing numbers.
Fokker D VII (licence-built by O.A.W., serial 4006/18).
Fighter reinforcements. Fokker D VIIs in transit to the front on railway flat wagons. Disassembled for transportation, this train load of early Fokker built D.VIIs are being shipped from the Schwerin factory to the front. One of the requirements of the Idflieg was that an aircraft could be easily and quickly disassembled for transporting.
Fokker D VII, flown by Josef Mai of Jasta 5.
July 1918. Goring, who was by then commanding the Richthofen Circus, stands by a Fokker Triplane. At this period ihe Fokker D VII (seen in background) was entering service in increasing numbers.
Fokker D VIIs, with which the majority of Jagdstaffeln re-equipped during the summer and autumn of 1918.
Fokker D VII fighters, hastily abandoned by the retreating German Army during the final Allied onslaught o f 1918.
An interesting assortment of markings may be discerned on this group of Fokker D VIIs of Jasta 26, taken late in 1918.
By November 1918 nearly 800 Fokker D VIIs were in service.
A Fokker D VII captured by No. 84 Squadron of the Royal Air Force.
Fokker V 28
The Fokker "Wireless" D.VIII Parasol Monoplane, with 110 h.p. Oberursel UII rotary engine. The ailerons, contrary to usual practice, do not extend to the wing-tips. First examples reached the Western Front in August 1918.
Fokker D VIII (serial 132/18).
Fokker D VIII of Marine-Feld Jasta 3.
Fokker D VIIls of Jasta 6, photographed in the autumn of 1918.
Fokker D VIII in the markings of Jasta 6.
Halberstadt D II of Kampfeinshzer Staffel II.
Halberstadt D III captured by the R.F.C. and given British roundels.
Хальберштадт D IV представлял собой существенно переработанный вариант истребителя D II. На самолете одностоечная коробка крыльев. Ось вращения руля поворота стала консольной.
Two prototypes of the D IV were tested in October 1916, but were found wanting by Idflieg.
A scene at a German bomber base in 1916. A.E.G. G IIIs being prepared for a raid on Allied territory.
A.E.G. G IV (serial G 155/16).
The Germans had been using aircraft for strategic bombing from 1915 and by 1916 a range of new types was available such as this Gotha GIII - although only used in small numbers on the Western Front and with no great measure of success.
Siemens-Schuckert Steffen R I
Friedrichshafen G III (serial 271/17)
V.G.O. I. Attendant personnel lend scale showing how collossal these machines really were.
First flown in mid-1917, the Zeppelin-Staaken R VI, with 18 examples built, was to be by far the most numerous of the giant, long ranged R-planes. Powered either by four 245hp Maybach Mb IVs, or four 260hp Mercedes D IVa engines, mounted back to back in twin nacelles to drive two pusher and two tractor propellers, the R VI's top level speed was 84.4mph, while its normal range with a 2,200lb bomb load was around 550 miles. Delivered to Rf Abt 501, by now transferred to the Western Front, the RVIs sometimes operated alongside their smaller G type bretheren in raids against the English mainland and more distant French ports and cities. The Navy operated a sole, float-equipped example of this bomber under the designation Zeppelin-Staaken Type L, serialled 1432.
A varied collection of two-seaters at a German airfield in 1915. The aircraft are Albatros B lIs , Aviatik B Is and B lIs.
Aviatik C I (serial C 1952/15).
Aviatik C Ia, with pilot forward.
A varied collection of two-seaters at a German airfield in 1915. The aircraft are Albatros B lIs , Aviatik B Is and B lIs.
Albatros B.II reconnaissance biplane of 1915, as arranged for road transport.
Albatros B II (100 h.p. Mercedes D I) .
Albatros B IIa (120 h.p. Argus As II) .
Albatros C I (160 h.p. Mercedes).
Albatros C Ia (licence-built by B.F.W. with 180 h.p. Argus).
Albatros C I Experimental
Albatros C III 15270/ 17 (licence-built by L.V.G.,with further modified fin and rudder) tested at Adlershof.
Albatros C.III (DFW) at the Idflieg test centre in Adlershof to determine the suitability of what appears to be a DFW B.II/C.II fin and rudder.
Albatros C III with 150 h.p. Benz Bz III.
Albatros C X, (licence-built by Linke-Mofmann with 260 h.p. Mercedes).
Albatros C XII (licence-built by B.F.W.).
An interesting collection of two-seaters, typifying the equipment of 1917-18. In the foreground is a Rumpler C IV, the other aircraft being a Rumpler C VII, a Hannover CL IIIa and a D.F.W. C V.
Rumpler B I (4A) largely used on active service in 1915.
Rumpler C I (serial C4652/15).
Rumpler C I with jury ski rig, (serial 6081/16).
The Rumpler C III two seater was a development of the widely used C I with the one major difference that it lacked any form of fixed fin. In the event, this deletion was to be the design's downfall. Using a 220hp Benz Bz IV, the C III entered service in early 1917, but was withdrawn from operations within a month or so following a spate of crashes, attributed to the machine's lack of adequate latitudinal, or yawing control at low speed. It is reported that around 75 C IIIs had been delivered by Rumpler prior to the type's withdrawal from service.
An interesting collection of two-seaters, typifying the equipment of 1917-18. In the foreground is a Rumpler C IV, the other aircraft being a Rumpler C VII, a Hannover CL IIIa and a D.F.W. C V.
Rumpler Experimental C Type
Halberstadt CL II at Adlershof for type test in May 1917.
Halberstadt CL II (serial C 6304/17).
Halberstadt CL II, built under licence by B.F.W. Note vertical "rhino-horn" exhaust pipe.
An unusual study of a Hannover CL III returning from a sortie over the lines.
Hannover CL IIIa (serial 7028/18).
The Hannover CL IIIa of 1918 was a relatively minor development of the company's CL II and both used the same 180hp Argus As III. Both the CL II and III series of ground attack and escort fighters endeared themselves to their crews thanks to a number of useful attributes. From the pilot's viewpoint, visibility was excellent both forward and downward, while the quaint biplane tail, with its narrow span and position, provided the observer with an improved rearward arc of fire. Top level speed of the CL IIIa was 103mph at sea level, while the machine had a range of 285 miles. Agile and robust, the first of 439 CL IIs entered service in December 1917, followed by 80 CL IIIs and 537 CL IIIas. Incidentally, the reason for the small number of CL IIIs produced had nothing to do with the aircraft, but rather it was because it used a 160hp Mercedes D III, which was urgently needed to power the Fokker D VII. The standard two-gun armament, one for each crew member, was fitted.
An interesting collection of two-seaters, typifying the equipment of 1917-18. In the foreground is a Rumpler C IV, the other aircraft being a Rumpler C VII, a Hannover CL IIIa and a D.F.W. C V.
A.E.G. J Ia, with modified aileron link struts
A.E.G. J II, with balanced control surfaces.
Age C IV, with 180 h.p. Argus As III. Note mounting of Spandau machine-gun to fire over cylinder heads.
The second of the two Albatros D XI fighters, 2209/18, entered into the second 1918 fighter competition, held in May and June. The pair of small and stubby D XIs were among the 37 competitors entered, the overall winner being Fokker's V 28, precursor to the Fokker D VIII rotary powered, parasol winged monoplane fighter.
Albatros D XII (second prototype)
Albatros J I (serial J 401/17).
One of the specialised ground attack aircraft used in increasing numbers by the German Air Force from 1917 onwards an Albatros J I (J 415/17).
The twin 150hp Benz Bz III powered Albatros W 5 floatplane torpedo bomber came into naval service in May 1917 Capable of 83mph top level speed at sea level, four of these three man biplanes were built, serials 846 to 849, delivery ending in January 1918. The view of the second aircraft, 847, shows the machine's pusher engine configuration and the torpedo stowed, semi-recessed, within the aircraft's belly.
Albatros W 4 (Marine number 747).
Albatros W 4 (Marine number 747).
Experimental Aviatik C.V. of 1917 with "gull" upper wings (180 h.p. Argus As III engine). Embodies Vee-strut Warren Type wing-bracing.
The prototype Aviatik Type C VIII Biplane of 1917, using a 160 h.p. Mercedes D.III engine.
An Aviatik CIX Biplane of late 1918 design. Evidently an attempt to use the characteristics of the "Bristol Fighter." (200 h.p. Benz IV engine). Two built.
Based on the FF43, the FF46 nevertheless possessed no commonality with its predecessor. Only prototypes were built.
A fine shot of the rarely pictured two seat, pusher-engined Friedrichshafen FF37, or C I to give it its military designation. Of early 1916 vintage, the experimental FF37's general layout appears to have been influenced by that of the Royal Aircraft Factory's F.E.2, following the British practice of seating the gunner in the nose, forward of the pilot. The FF37 was destined never to progress beyond the prototype stage.
Friedrichshafen F F 33j (Marine number 1095).
Friedrichshafen FF 33h (Marine number 695).
Friedrichshafen FF 33l (Marine number 1001).
Friedrichshafen FF 33l (Marine number 1578, with modified tail).
Friedrichshafen FF 41 (single tail)
Friedrichshafen FF 41 (compound tail)
Only ten of these 1915 two seat Gotha B Is were produced, just sufficent to equip a single Field Flight Section, although no evidence of their deployment, if ever, has survived. Using a 120hp Mercedes D Ia, the LD-7 to give its design bureau designation, had a top level speed of 77.5mph, with a range of 330 miles.
Five of these two seat Gotha WD-1 reconnaissance floatplanes, No.s 285 to 289, were built for the navy in mid-1914. Fitted with a 100hp Daimler D I, the WD-1 had a top level speed of 56mph at sea level. If this seems low, the climb to 3,200 feet took a tedious 24.5 minutes. However, the WD-1 did appear to have, for its day, a useful range of 335 miles. Seen here is the prototype WD, the 100 hp Gnome powered prototype, first flown in February 1914 and which never seems to have been given a naval serial number.
Little more than a cleaned up, 160hp Benz Bz IIIa-engined Gotha WD 9, their two seat WD 13 coastal patroller was bought by the navy in 1917 specifically for Turkish use. Built only in small numbers, the WD 13's top level speed was 87mph, the machine had a useful operational range of 466 miles.
The Gotha WD 15 of late 1917. Only 2 were built.
The monoplane was far from being a novelty, when the Junkers J.I was rolled out in early December 1915 and prepared for its inital test hop on the 12th. What was different about this one, however, went beyond the smooth, fully cantilevered exterior and into the all-metal structure and use of the Junkers-devised, thick sectioned, high lift wing. Built purely as a research machine, the two seat 120hp Mercedes D III powered Junkers J.I could accommodate a flight test observer. Military interest in the J.I was quickened by its warlike potential and it was trialled against a Rumpler C I, a machine that was considered the best in its class. Compared with the C I, the Junkers machine was 7mph faster on the level, at 106mph and even faster in a shallow dive. However, being built of steel, the J.I was heavy and, hence, markedly inferior to the Rumpler biplane in terms of climbing performance, earning the nicknames 'Tin Donkey' and 'Flying Urinal'. As with all of Junkers' early machines dealt with here, the actual design work on the J.I was led by Otto Reuter. It must be noted that this J.I was the company's designation, whereas the armoured sesquiplane J I was a later machine that carried the firm's designation J.4.
Детище конструктора Вальтера Ретхеля - истребитель Кондор DI / The Kondor E III Wireless Parasol Monoplane. (140 h.p. Oberursel rotary engine), which is said to give a speed of 195 kms. per hour and a climb of 5,000 metres in 16 minutes.
The Kondor E IIIa "Wireless" Parasol Monoplane (200 h.p. Goebel rotary engine) which gives a speed of 200 kms. per hour and a climb of 5,000 metres in 11 minutes.
Three-quarter Rear View of the Kondor D VI Biplane. (140 h.p. Oberursel Ur III rotary engine.) The elimination of the centre section, in an endeavour to improve the pilot's vision, should be noted.
L.F.G. Roland D XV (first version)
L.F.G. Roland D XV (second version)
L.F.G. Roland D XV (third version)
L.F.G. Roland D XV (fourth version)
L.F.G. Roland D XVI (first version)
L.F.G. Roland D XVI (second version)
One of the work-horses of the artillery observation flights, the L.V.G. C V, with an interesting insignia displayed on the fuselage.
Pfalz D VII (with 160 h.p. Siemens-Halske)
Pfalz D VII (with 160 h.p. Oberursel)
Pfalz D VIII (with 160 h.p. Siemens-Halske)
Pfalz D VIII (with 140 h.p. Goebel)
Rumpler 6B 1
Из-за своих размеров 6В не мог вести маневренные воздушные бои с истребителями
Rumpler 6B 2. This rare air-to-air photograph shows well the tailplane profile, the only visible feature in which the aircraft differed from the 6B 1
The Latest Rumpler C.X Type Two-seat Biplane. (240 h.p. Mercedes Mb IV.) Note the crossed interplane struts - a fashion now becoming prevalent in Germany. Prototype of 1918 only.
The Rumpler 7D1 utilised novel fuselage construction and was aerodynamically advanced.
The experimental Sablatnig C.II Two-seater Tractor Biplane C II. (240 h.p. Maybach Mb IV engine.)
Sablatnig Experimental C Type
Sablatnig Experimental C Type
A starboard side view of Sablatnig SF 2, serial 580, photographed at Warnemunde on the Germany's Baltic coast. Employed as two seater advanced trainers, 580 was the first of 26 delivered to the German navy between June 1916 and May 1917. The SF 2's power was supplied by a 160hp Mercedes D III, giving the machine a top level speed of 81mph at sea level.
An Early (1914-15) C.I Type Schutte-Lanz Pusher Biplane. One built with 160 h.p. Mercedes D.III engine.
The joint brainchild of the Steffen Brothers, Franz and Bruno, the Siemens-Schuckert Werke D 5 single seat fighter was completed in the autumn of 1915, but progressed no further than the prototype stage. Visible in the background is the same company's E I prototype, a developed version of which killed designer/pilot Franz Steffen in June 1916.
A Siemens-Schuckert Monoplane, with a rotary engine. Twenty E.Is were ordered in 1915.
The joint brainchild of the Steffen Brothers, Franz and Bruno, the Siemens-Schuckert Werke D 5 single seat fighter was completed in the autumn of 1915, but progressed no further than the prototype stage. Visible in the background is the same company's E I prototype, a developed version of which killed designer/pilot Franz Steffen in June 1916.
The E II failed to progress further than a single prototype which was destroyed in June 1916.
Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) C I (first version)
A 1918 Zeppelin D.I All-metal Wireless Scout. One 185 h.p. BMW IIIa engine.
Brandenburg C.C. (No. 1144) with cleaned-up engine installation.
Brandenburg C.C. (No. 1348) Modified version with additional struts to brace wingtips. Note twin Spandau machine-gun installation.
Brandenburg K.D.W. (Marine number 783).
Three other triplane fighter essays of 1917 were the rotary-powered Euler Dr I, the 185hp Austro-Daimler powered Hansa-Brandenburg L 16 (photo) and the Korting engined DFW Dr I.
Brandenburg W 12 (Marine number 1014). First version with short fuselage
Brandenburg W 12 (Marine number 2001).
The W19 was a scaled-up W12, and joined operations early in 1918.
Brandenburg W 29 with Marine number 2292.
Rumpler G T (5A 15) (first version)
Otto B 100 h.p. Rapp (1914)
Goedecker B (first version)
Goedecker B (second version)
N.F.W. Experimental Monoplane
The Kondor D 1, which, flown late autumn 1917, was unofficially known as the Kondorlaus.
Kondor D II. Co-designer Rethel is standing beside the aircraft.
Albatros C V/17, with curved lower wing and balanced control surfaces.
Gotha G V being bombed up.
Gotha G Vb. Note servo tabs on ailerons.
Brandenburg W 20 (first version)
Brandenburg W 20 (third version with "I" struts)
Siemens-Schuckert "Bulldog" (Merc)
Friedrichshafen FF 49c (licence-built by Sablatnig, Marine number 1872).
Friedrichshafen FF 49c with Marine number 1602.
An interesting collection of two-seaters, typifying the equipment of 1917-18. In the foreground is a Rumpler C IV, the other aircraft being a Rumpler C VII, a Hannover CL IIIa and a D.F.W. C V.
The Alter A.1 followed closely the design of the Nieuport Bebe, but offered inadequate performance.
Few details have survived of the Brandenburg W17, the first (biplane) prototype being illustrated.
Produced in quantity for the Austro-Hungarian Navy, the Brandenburg W18 followed the CC into service.
A Mercedes-Daimler Single-seater "Wireless" Parasol Monoplane. Type L 11, with curiously-shaped wing-tips. 185 h.p. Daimler IIIb engine.
D.F.W. Pusher Biplane
Showing cut-away cockpit sides and deeper forward decking.
The V 23 was demonstrated at Adlershof, but criticised for the poor view from its cockpit.
Geest Single-seat Fighter
K.W. (Kiel) 150 h.p. Benz III
K.W. (Wilhelmshafen) (No. 947)
K.W. (Wilhelmshafen) (No. 945) 150 h.p. Benz Bz III.
L.F.G. Roland D VII (first version)
L.F.G. Roland D VII (second version)
L.F.G. Roland D IX (first version)
L.F.G. Roland D IX (second version)
L.F.G. Roland D IX (third version)
The D III was considered too large and heavy by the Idflieg to warrant production.
The D VI was one of three Pfalz submissions in the first D-type Competition of January 1918.
The Pfalz triplane fighter was based on the standard D III biplane, but was unsuccessful.
Rumpler C IX (7C 1) (first version)
Only one prototype of the SF 4 was completed in biplane configuration.
Siemens-Schuckert R VIII R23/16
Aviatik-AEG 'R' Triplane project
Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) Rs II modified