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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Hansa-Brandenburg W.12

Страна: Германия

Год: 1917

Two-seat fighter seaplane

Hansa-Brandenburg - L 16 - 1917 - Германия<– –>Hansa-Brandenburg - W.17 - 1917 - Германия


В.Обухович, А.Никифоров Самолеты Первой Мировой войны


В начале 1917 г. авиаконструктор Э. Хейнкель создал новый самолет, предназначенный для замены морского истребителя KDW (боевой гидросамолет-биплан), который нес значительные потери, поскольку не был защищен от атак самолетов противника с хвоста. При разработке этой машины, получившей обозначение W 12, был применен ряд оригинальных решений. В результате у стрелка появилась возможность вести почти круговой обстрел. Для того чтобы освободить задний сектор обстрела, руль поворота (киль отсутствовал) был повернут вниз. Хвостовая часть фюзеляжа была несколько загнута кверху и на ней устанавливался свободнонесущий стабилизатор - это позволяло вести огонь назад-вниз. Чтобы вести огонь в сторону и вперед, коробка крыльев была сделана безрасчалочной, а стойки сдвинуты к концам коробки крыльев.
  Несмотря на то, что прототип в одном из полетов потерпел катастрофу, было принято решение запускать W 12 в серию. На первых и последних экземплярах устанавливался мотор Мерседес D.III (160 л. с), некоторые машины оснащались мотором Бенц Bz.III (150 л. с).
  Самолет оказался удачным, по летным характеристикам он мало в чем уступал одноместным сухопутным истребителям, а по такому показателю, как сектор обстрела подвижной пулеметной установки, не имел себе равных.
  Он применялся в качестве истребителя, разведчика и бомбардировщика, а также для нападения на большие торговые суда в Северном море, действуя с баз Зеебругге и Остенде (Бельгия). Зафиксированы случаи, когда W 12 атаковали военные корабли и подводные лодки. В поединках с гидросамолетами Антанты W12 часто выходили победителями, поскольку имели превосходство в скорости, маневренности и вооружении. В декабре 1917 г. один из них сбил британский мягкий дирижабль С.27. На W 12 летали известный ас немецкой морской авиации, командир базы гидросамолетов в Зеебругге Фридрих Христиансен. Его самолеты просто терроризировали французский Дюнкерк они постоянно меняли тактику нападения, что не давало союзникам возможности организовать эффективную систему ПВО.
  В процессе производства был создан ряд различных модификаций этого самолета. Так, патрульный вариант W 19 с двигателем Майбах Mb.IV (260 л. с.) имел увеличенные размеры и запас топлива, что позволило в полтора раза увеличить продолжительность полета. Таинственный самолет W 27 отличался I-образными межкрыльевыми стойками и двигателем Бенц Bz.III (195 л. с.). W 32 был похож на тот же W 27, но оснащался двигателем Мерседес D.III (160 л. с). Всего было произведено 146 машин.
  Самолет представлял собой двухместный одностоечный биплан с деревянным каркасом.
  


Двигатель 1 x Мерседес D.III (160 л. с.)
Размеры:
  размах х длина х высота 11,20 х 9,60 х 3,51 м
Площадь крыльев 35,3 м2
Вес:
  пустого 997 кг
  взлетный 1454 кг
Максимальная скорость 160 км/ч
Время набора высоты 2000 м 20 мин
Потолок 5000 м
Продолжительность полета 3,5 ч
Вооружение:
  стрелковое 2 х 7,92-мм синхронных пулемета Шпандау 08/15 и
   1 х 7,92-мм оборонительный пулемет <Парабеллум>
Экипаж 2 чел.


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Brandenburg W 12

  Work was begun on the Brandenburg W 12 in the autumn of 1916, in response to a request from the seaplane stations for a defence fighter equipped with a machine-gun to fire rearwards. Although the single-seat defence fighters (Albatros W 4, Brandenburg K.D.W., etc.) had proved a useful weapon to the naval service, they were completely defenceless against attack from the rear, and a solution to this vulnerability was sought in the design of the W 12. The elevated siting of the rear gun mounting gave an excellent all-round field of fire, including forward over the top wing. In addition, the aircraft itself was technically first class, for in spite of its weight and size, it was in no way inferior to the single-seaters in speed and manoeuvrability. The single-bay wings and absence of interplane bracing cables were a unique feature on a two-seater seaplane, and undoubtedly contributed to the excellent performance.
  In January 1917 the prototype was completed at Briest works, but due to the water on the Havel River being frozen, it was shipped to the seaplane test establishment at Warnemunde. The initial test flight was a somewhat hectic affair in which the aircraft proved excessively tail heavy; however, a safe landing was contrived, and overnight modification of the wing structure corrected the centre of gravity and rectified this disconcerting trait. Although this prototype was later written off in an unlucky landing in breakers, the results thus far achieved, both in performance and general flying qualities, inspired sufficient confidence for a first series order to be placed.
  The designer of the W 12 was Ernst Heinkel, who had fathered earlier successful designs from the Hansa Brandenburg works and who, a couple of decades later, was to produce the famous bombers from his own factories. As subsequent batches of W 12s were produced, so they differed slightly in detail, as seems to be inevitably the case with the majority of German naval aircraft types. However, the basic airframe remained substantially the same.
  The fuselage was based on four main spruce longerons and spacers, with robust multi-ply formers forward of the cockpit supporting the engine bearers. The power-plant was either a 160 h.p. Mercedes D III or a 150 h.p. Benz Bz III according to series batch. Those with Mercedes motors were fitted with leading-edge-mounted radiators while W 12s with the Benz installation had a car-type radiator at the extreme nose. Immediately of the engine bearers, the longerons raked upwards towards the tail to give the elevated position for the gun mounting, which bestowed the improved field of fire. The slab sides tapered to a vertical knife-edge aft, with little or no taper in elevation, resulting in an extremely deep section at the tail end. This additional side area compensated for the float area and lack of vertical fin. The fuselage was plywood covered, and windows were provided in the floors of the cockpits to give improved downward visibility. The wooden cantilever tailplane was much thicker in section at the centre, and because of the resultant increase in airflow disturbance, the steel-tube-framed elevators had to be re-designed with a considerable degree of inverse taper to improve effectiveness. Mounted on top of the fuselage, the tailplane was well clear of the spray when taxi-ing, and the absence of bracing struts enabled the gunner to fire under the tail quite close in to the fuselage. The fabric-covered steel-tube rudder was attached to the fuselage sternpost, the balance portion extending below the fuselage to leave the area above the tailplane unrestricted for firing.
  The wing structure was made compact and additionally strong in order to dispense with interplane bracing cables, enabling the gunner to fire through the wings. Construction was orthodox, although a deep aerofoil section was employed to provide the required strength factor. Plywood ribs, flanged with soft timber, were closely spaced on the two spruce main pars; both wings were of constant chord and, after the first batch of six aircraft, had rounded tips. The upper wing was a one-piece structure scured to the centre-section struts; the cut-out was shallow in the first batch, but the reduction of stagger in later series necessitated a much deeper cut-out. Ailerons of welded steel-tube framing were fitted, and control cables were designed to provide independent operation should any combat damage occur. Later batches of aircraft were fitted with four ailerons, connected with a link strut, and the ample aileron area contributed to the W 12's outstanding manoeuvrability.
  The floats were supported on a chassis of steel-tube struts, faired with plywood and attached with ball joints. Additional "N" struts braced the floats to the wings at the junction of the interplane struts, lending additional rigidity to the wing cellule. The floats themselves were of wood; a basic framework of formers and stringers being covered with high-grade maritime three-ply.
  On entering service with the seaplane stations, the Brandenburg W 12 soon proved itself an excellent weapon against the Allied seaplanes. Particularly pleased to receive the W 12 were the pilots at Zeebrugge, who had suffered at the hands of the large, well-armed, British flying-boats in the North Sea. Oberleutnant Christiansen soon distinguished himself as a capable exponent of the W 12, and probably his most spectacular victory was the shooting down in flames of the British non-rigid airship C 27 on 17th December 1917. A colleague of Christiansen's at this time was a midshipman, von Wyk, who between the wars became famous as the pilot of the giant twelve-engined Dornier Do X.
  W 12s were also operated on reconnaissance, often venturing to British coastal waters. When used on such duties one of the forward-firing guns was dispensed with and radio apparatus carried in its stead.

TECHNICAL DATA
  Description: Two-seat fighter seaplane.
  Manufacturer: Hansa und Brandenburgische Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H.
  Power Plant:
   One 160 h.p. Mercedes D III 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engine.
   One 150 h.p. Benz Bz III 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engine.
  Dimensions: Span, 112m. (36 ft. 9 in.). Length, 9 6 m. (31 ft. 6 in.). Height, 3.3 m. (10 ft. 10 in.). Area, 35.3 sq.m. (381.25 sq.ft.).
  Weights: Empty, 997 kg. (2,193.4 lb.). Loaded, 1,454 kg. (3,198.8 lb.).
  Performance: Maximum speed, 159.5 km.hr. (100 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 7 min.; 2,000 m. (6,560 ft.) in 18-9 min. Ceiling, 16,400 ft. Endurance, 3 1/2 hrs.
  Armament: One or two fixed Spandau machine-guns and one manually operated Parabellum in rear cockpit.
  Serial Numbers: One aircraft, Marine No. 2016, was experimentally fitted with vee-eight-type motor, probably 195 h.p. Benz Bz IIIb. 146 aircraft supplied,
   Marine numbers:
   1011-1016, 160 h.p. Mercedes, two machine-guns.
   1178 1187, 150 h.p. Benz, two machine-guns.
   1395-1414, 150 h.p. Benz, two machine-guns.
   2000-2019, 150 h.p. Benz, two machine-guns (except 2016 above).
   2023-2052, 150 h.p. Benz, three machine-guns.
   2093-2132, 160 h.p. Mercedes, two machine-guns.
   2217-2236, 160 h.p. Mercedes, two machine-guns, also radio fitted.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


BRANDENBURG W 12 Germany

  A single-bay twin-float two-seat fighter biplane, the W 12 was flown for the first time in January 1917 with a 160 hp Mercedes D III six-cylinder water-cooled engine. Of wooden construction with plywood fuselage skinning, the W12 was produced for the German Navy with both the 160 hp Mercedes D IIIa engine and the 150 hp Benz Bz III, and proved outstandingly manoeuvrable. Its first operations were conducted from the seaplane station at Zeebrugge, from where it quickly distinguished itself in service. Standard armament comprised one forward-firing synchronised 7,92-mm LMG 08/15 machine gun and a Parabellum of similar calibre on a flexible mount in the rear cockpit, but of the 146 W 12s that had been built when production terminated in June 1918, one batch of 30 Benz-engined fighters had been delivered with a forward-firing armament of two LMGs.

Max speed, 99 mph (160 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1000 m), 7.0 min, to 6,560 ft (2 000 m), 18.9 min.
Endurance, 3.5 hrs.
Empty weight, 2,198 lb (997 kg).
Loaded weight, 3,205 lb (1454 kg).
Span, 36 ft 8 7/8 in (11,2 m).
Length, 31 ft 6 in (9,60 m).
Height, 10 ft 10 in (3,30 in).
Wing area, 389.66 sq ft (36,2 m2).


J. Herris German Seaplane Fighters of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 2)


Brandenburg W12

  The Brandenburg W12 two-seat floatplane fighter was a breakthrough design. Despite being a two-seater using the same engines powering the smaller single-seaters it replaced, it had similar speed and greater range coupled with better maneuverability and flying characteristics!
  Its two-seat configuration also provided greatly improved air-to-air combat effectiveness from its combination of fixed and flexible armament, and the second crewman was able to assist the pilot with over-water navigation, a particular operational challenge in the days before electronic navigation aids. Furthermore, some W 12s carried wireless senders and receivers for the observer, something none of the single-seat fighters could do that was a tactical advantage. The W12 made all preceding single-seat seaplane fighters obsolete at a stroke.
  The key secret of its success was its innovative structural design that used its sturdy float bracing to also support the wings, eliminating the need for separate, drag-producing bracing wires, a key to its good speed. Furthermore, its innovative tail design gave the observer excellent visibility and field of fire. In addition, the observer and his gun ring were mounted high enough that he could fire forward over the upper wing, giving him an unexcelled field of fire and further enhancing combat effectiveness.
  Despite its general excellence, the basic design was subject to a great deal of fine tuning to improve stability, maneuverability, and sea handling. In fact, none of the Brandenburg two-seat fighters were ever able to handle sea states as rough as the robust Friedrichshafen reconnaissance floatplanes, and there were continual problems with float maintenance. Fuselage length was extended in later aircraft to improve longitudinal stability, and late production aircraft had ailerons on all four wings for improved maneuverability. The center section was also redesigned during production to improve the pilot's field of view and ease of egress in emergencies. Some 30 later aircraft were fitted with two fixed guns for the pilot, and some aircraft with only a single gun for the pilot were fitted with wireless.


Brandenburg W12 Production Orders
Order Date Marine Numbers Qty Class Engine Notes
15 Oct. 1916 1014-1016 3 C2MG Mercedes D.III 1014 was prototype, short fuselage
22 Nov. 1916 1011-1013 3 C2MG Mercedes D.III Short fuselage
5 Jan. 1917 1178-1187 10 C2MG Benz Bz.III 1185 had longer fuselage
13 Mar. 1917 1395-1414 20 C2MG Benz Bz.III Short fuselages; 1413 had four ailerons
10 Sep.1917 2000-2019 20 C2MG Benz Bz.III Long fuselages start with this series. Larger wing cut-out.
Oct. 1917 2023-2052 30 C3MG Benz Bz.IH Two fixed machine guns. 2027 destroyed during acceptance testing.
Oct. 1917 2093-2112 20 C2MG Mercedes D.III -
Oct. 1917 2113-2132 20 C3MG Mercedes D.III Two fixed machine guns
Nov. 1917 2217-2236 20 C2MGHFT Mercedes D.IIIa Wireless equipment fitted

Note: Of 146 W12 aircraft built, 116 aircraft had one fixed gun; 30 aircraft had two fixed guns.

В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Ганза-Бранденбург W 12
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Brandenburg W12 #1183 was the personal aircraft of Oblt.z.S. Friedrich Christiansen. Christiansen took command of the Naval Air Station at Zeebrugge in September 1917; his personal insignia was the initial of his last name in a diamond on a white stripe as shown. Otherwise the aircraft was finished according to the naval directive of April 1917.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Brandenburg W12 #1184 is shown in standard late-war naval camouflage. The red/white checkerboard was a personal marking.This aircraft served at the Zeebrugge Naval Air Station.
The Brandenburg W12 was a milestone design that gave Germany a highly effective two-seat naval fighter. This one is in standard finish with a personal marking of a checkerboard on the rear fuselage.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Brandenburg W12 #1407 has had its original insignia over-painted to conform with the new insignia standardized on March 30, 1918. The single white stripe on the rear fuselage indicates assignment to a specific naval air station, possibly Borkum.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Brandenburg W12 #1409 was finished in the standard late-war naval camouflage with a personal insignia.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
This Brandenburg W12 was flown operationally from Zeebrugge in early 1918 by Leutnant Becht of the Imperial German Navy Air Service.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Brandenburg W12 Marine #1414 was the personal aircraft of Lt. Becht, Zeebrugge naval air station, December 1917. This short-fuselage aircraft is in standard camouflage with Becht's personal insignia of the white stripes with checkerboard.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Brandenburg W12 Marine #2002 is from the first series with the longer fuselage that improved stability. It is in standard camouflage with Bremen's coat of arms (white key on red) as a personal insignia. This aircraft has ailerons on all wings.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
W12 Marine #1012, the second pre-production aircraft, is seen here in operational markings at Zeebrugge. As tabulated above, the pre-production aircraft were category C2MG and were powered by the 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Brandenburg W 12 (Marine number 1014). First version with short fuselage
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Oblt.z.S. Friedrich Christiansen downed British airship C27; that victory lead to his award of the Pour le Merite. He is shown here with his gunner, Vzfw. Wladika, in W12 #1183, the aircraft he used to destroy C27. W12 #1183 was accepted in September 1917 and served until destroyed in a bombing raid on the Zeebrugge Mole on May 10, 1918.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
W12s at their base at Zeebrugge. Oblt.z.S. Christiansen's #1183 is in the center.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Christiansen flying one of the early production Brandenburg W12 seaplanes powered by a 150hp Benz engine. This aircraft, 1183, served at Zeebrugge for eight months before it was destroyed in a bombing attack on the Mole on 10 May 1918. Designed by Ernst Heinkel late in 1916, the W12's performance was equal to that of the single-seat seaplanes then in service. Capable of 160km/hr (100mph), its rate of climb and general manoeuvrability made it popular with the crews, who gave it the name 'Kamel'.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Carrier-pigeons formed an important part of the equipment of seaplanes. The birds were released with position information if a machine was forced to land on the water, and many crews and aircraft were saved as a result. While Brandenburg W12 1399 at Zeebrugge is bombed-up prior to flight, pigeons are checked into their special wicker basket for stowing on board.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Marine #1407, a Brandenburg W12 of the second production batch, illustrates the distinctive features of this breakthrough design, including the upswept tail without vertical fin that gave the gunner an excellent field of fire. The extensive keel surface provided by the deep rear fuselage eliminated the need for a fin. To reduce drag the radiator has been moved to the nose. Both doors on the pilot's cockpit are open to allow easier access.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
W12 Marine #1407 of the second production batch in an embarrassing position. Its original insignia have been over-painted in the new insignia standardized on March 30, 1918. The single white stripe on the rear fuselage indicates assignment to a specific naval air station, possibly Borkum.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Brandenburg W12 #1409 was accepted in the last half of November 1917 and written off on May 6, 1918. The crew's personal insignia is on the side of the observer's cockpit. Unfortunately, their names are not known.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Marine #1409 is first in this lineup of W12 fighters at Zeebrugge Naval Air Station on the Flanders coast.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
W12 Marine #1410, accepted during the second half of November 1917, wears an interesting personal insignia. It was photographed with several crew members on February 6,1918. lt was written off on April 23, 1918.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Brandenburg W 12 (Marine number 2001).
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
W12 #2004, a category C2MG, has the longer fuselage plus a nose radiator for its Benz Bz.III. It is. The men in the group photo are the pilots of Seeflugstation Flanders I, abbreviated See I, in late 1917.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Designed by Ernst Heinkel, the W12 float fighter proved exceptionally successful.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The four-leaf clover on the fuselage worked; this crew is happy to survive a forced landing on a grassy field. The W12 was a sturdy warplane and this aircraft turned out to be almost undamaged from its experience.
The Brandenburg W12 shows its innovative tail design that gave the gunner a nearly unobstructed field of fire to the rear. The gunner could also fire forward over the wing or between the wings. The floats were strong enough to tolerate emergency landings on land.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The Hansa-Brandenburg W 12, another of Ernst Heinkel's creations, was a float-equipped, two seat reconnaissance fighter that first flew in January 1917 and started to replace the single seat Albatros W 4 from April 1917 onwards. Powered by either a 150hp Benz Bz III or 160hp Mercedes D III, the W 12 had a top level speed of 99.4mph and a ceiling of 16,400 feet. The machine seen here, serial 2016, was a Benz-equipped early production example. Armament comprised one, later two fixed, forward-firing 7.92mm Spandaus, plus the observer's flexibly mounted 7.92mm Parabellum. W 12 deliveries began in April 1917 and ended in March 1918, totalling 145 machines, excluding the prototype that had been destroyed early in flight testing.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Marine #2052, a Brandenburg W12 of the fourth production batch, has a nose radiator and ailerons on all wings, with upper and lower ailerons connected by an actuating strut. It also mounted two fixed machine guns for the pilot in addition to the observer's flexible gun, making it a category C3MG. The outer portion of the propeller leading edge was covered with metal to reduce erosion from water spray.
Disappointed with the operational limitations of its single-seat floatplane fighters, which could intercept opposing reconnaissance airplanes but could not undertake longer-range offensive operations or compete with land-based fighters, the German Navy requested two-seat floatplane fighters. The innovative Brandenburg W12 was a breakthrough two-seat floatplane fighter design. Its clever integration of float bracing struts nearly eliminated the need for drag-producing bracing wires. More important, the W12 had the speed and maneuverability of the similarly-powered single-seat floatplanes coupled with the great advantage of a gunner with flexible gun and longer range. The W12 fought very effectively over the North Sea against British flying boats on antisubmarine operations and made such an impact that it inspired all subsequent German floatplane fighter designs.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Brandenburg W12 Marine #2094 has come to grief between the Helgoland launching ramps. Staffel number 3 is just behind the interim national insignia.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Brandenburg W12 #2108 was a category C2MG. Some German army air service observers were given short courses in over-water navigation, accounting for their presence in the photograph.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
A Brandenburg W.12 Sea Biplane of 1918.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
W12 #2128, a C3MG, in difficulty.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The combat effectiveness of the new Brandenburg W12 two-seat fighter immediately rendered all other floatplane fighters obsolete. All subsequent production floatplane fighters were developed from the W12. Here a pair of W12 fighters escort a U-Boat into harbor on the Flanders coast.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/