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W.Green, G.Swanborough
The Complete Book of Fighters
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W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters

The A.D. Scout. Photograph depicts one of the two Blackburn-built aircraft, No 1536.
An anti-airship fighter, the A.D. Scout proved overweight and handled badly.
Believed to had been designated F.K.6, only one prototype was built.
The rebuilt triplane, probably the F.K.6, was designed as an escort fighter and Zeppelin destroyer.
Built as a private venture, the F.K.9 quadruplane entered flight test in the summer of 1916.
The F.K.9 quadriplane in its modified form, photographed at the Central Flying School, Upavon, late in 1916.
The Armadillo after modification of the undercarriage and the introduction of glazed panels forward of the cockpit for improved view.
The Austin A.F.B.1 in its revised and definitive configuration as flown autumn 1917.
The A.F.B.1 in its final form without wing sweep and SPAD-style interplane bracing.
The sole example of the A.F.T.3 Osprey to be completed and flown.
The A.F.T.3 Osprey was intended to compete with the Snipe, but proved inferior.
The Greyhound was envisaged a potential successor to the two-seat Bristol Fighter.
The Avro 521 two-seater was intended for the long-range and escort fighter tasks
The Avro 523 Pike, the first prototype of which is illustrated, was intended to meet a requirement for a long-range escort and anti-airship fighter.
The Avro 527 with 150 h.p. Sunbeam engine was the final fighter derivative of the basic Avro 504.
The Avro 530 was designed in 1916 as a competitor for the Bristol F.2A, but, when flown, did not afford a sufficient advance.
The Avro 530 was designed in 1916 as a competitor for the Bristol F.2A, but, when flown, did not afford a sufficient advance.
The fifth aircraft from the production batch of Bantam Is built in 1918, in racing trim.
The F.K.23 Bantam in its final form with A.B.C. Wasp engine, photographed on 31 August 1918.
The A.B.C. Wasp-engined B.A.T. F.K.23 Bantam I.
An Admiralty Scout C at RNAS Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey, 1915.
A Scout D from the first production batch, 55 Sqn RFC, Yatesbury, 1917.
The Scout D was the first fully armed version of the Bristol biplane, but many flew unarmed such as that in Australia in 1919.
The tenth of the M.1C production batch built for the RFC being illustrated here. These were used principally in the Middle East.
A Bristol-built, Falcon-engined F.2B Fighter on the strength of No 139 Sqn in Italy, August 1918.
Second prototype of the Bristol F.2A which was powered by a 150 hp Hispano Suiza engine, only 50 aircraft of this type being built.
An example of the Fighter Mk III from the 1926 production batch, with structural revisions.
Bristol F.2B with Rolls-Royce Falcon engine.
An F.B.19 Mk I being started up at Brooklands with Harold Barnwell in the cockpit and Stan Cockerell leaning against the starboard wing.
In its Mk II form, the F.B.19 was produced in small numbers for RFC service.
A D.H.2 of No 24 Sqn, RFC, at Hounslow, late 1915.
A D.H.2 of the first Airco production batch.
A D.H.5 of the batch of 200 fighters of this type built in 1917 by the Darracq Motor Engineering Co.
Negative stagger characterised the D.H.5.
The Martinsyde Elephant in its initial G.100 production form with 120 hp Beardmore.
In its G.102 form (shown) the Elephant had a more powerful engine than was used in the G.100.
In its G.102 form the Elephant had a more powerful engine than was used in the G.100 (shown).
The standard B.E.12b, as used by several RFC Home Defence squadrons in 1917/18.
A drawing of the standard B.E.12a, without armament.
The F.E.2b was utilised by the RFC primarily in the role of armed reconnaissance aircraft.
In the few F.E.2c’s built, the positions of the pilot and gunner were reversed.
An early series F.E.2d built at Farnborough, showing the low-sided pilot’s cockpit.
The more numerous Beardmore-engined F.E.2b.
A 41 Squadron F.E.8, 7616, photographed in flight. The streamers denote that it is piloted by a flight leader.
The F.E.8 with Gnome Monosoupape engine.
S.E.5a, No 74 Sqn, RAF, at Teteghem, France, April 1919, as flown by "Mick” Mannock.
Built by Wolseley, this S.E.5a once used for "skywriting” was restored at the RAE in 1972.
A "presentation” S.E.5a from Addis Ababa, showing the fighter’s standard armament.
The sole example of the S.E.5b, photographed at Farnborough in April 1918, was fitted with a standard S.E.5a wing cellule in 1919.
One of 50 S.E.5a’s, rebuilt in the US by Eberhart as S.E.5E’s with Wright-Hispano E engines.
A drawing, showing the S.E.5a’s standard armament.
Sopwith 1 1/2-Strutter in service in France late 1916 with No 70 Sqn, RFC.
A Sopwith 1 1/2-Strutter in RNAS service
A three-view drawing of the 1 1/2-Strutter.
Sopwith Pup in service with No 45 Sqn, RFC, at Le Hameau, west of Arras, in 1917.
A Beardmore-built RNAS Pup with Le Prieur rockets on the interplane struts.
A standard Triplane flown by Fit Lt R A Little of No 8 (Naval) Sqn, RNAS, from an airfield in Northern France in the spring of 1917.
A Sopwith-built Triplane for the RNAS, with standard armament of a single Vickers gun.
Three-view drawing of the Sopwith Triplane.
Camel F.1 of No 65 Sqn, RFC, 1917.
A Camel of the Estonian Aviation Company at Tallinn, 1919
One of the few surviving Camels, this 2F.1 is now preserved in the US Marine Corps Museum.
A two-gun Camel F.1 in RFC service, with bombs under the fuselage
Camels were often used for bombing, and a bombed-up machine (4 x 16 lb or 20 lb) is seen in the picture.
A three-view drawing of the standard Camel fighter.
The Sopwith Dolphin, a service example showing upward-firing guns.
A Sopwith-built Snipe flown by No 208 Sqn RAF, which re-equipped on this type at Maretz, SE of Cambrai, France, in November 1918.
A series aircraft with No 5 FTS, Sealand, early 1920.
The Ansaldo A.1 Balilla was built in limited numbers and confined largely to home defence.
The Mosca-B bis fighter was built in series with both Le Rhone and Clerget rotary engines.
The RBVZ S-XVI, the first fighter to be designed by Igor I Sikorsky.
The LUSAC-11 was ordered into production, but failed to achieve service status.
One of the 16 ex-Italian HD.1s used until 1930 by Switzerland’s Jagdflieger-Abteilung III.
Of French design, the HD.1 served principally in Italy, Belgium and Switzerland.
One of the prototype HD.2s which were essentially float seaplane versions of the HD.1.
A US Navy HD.2 taking off from the USS Mississippi after conversion from the standard floatplane form.
A US Navy HD.2 in the standard floatplane form as first supplied.
A Caudron R XI used by Escadrille C46 in 1918, providing escort protection for the bombers of 13e Escadre.
A Caudron R XI serving with the 96th Aero Squadron, US Air Service.
A 37-mm Hotchkiss cannon was carried in the front cockpit of the sole Caudron R XIV.
The Caudron R XI three-seat escort fighter.
The shoulder-winged Morane-Saulnier Type N single seater had been completed early in 1914 and was actually in Austria being demonstrated by Roland Garros to the authorities there on 28 June 1914, the day Prince Franz Ferdinand was assassinated and set in train the events quickly leading to war in Europe. Early examples of the Type N that went into French service in 1914 were powered with the 80hp Gnome, as were a small batch delivered to the Imperial Russian Air Service, whereas the final machines delivered to the RFC used the 110hp Le Rhone. Top level speed was 102mph at 6.560 feet, while the aircraft's operational ceiling was 13,125 feet. During the spring of 1915, the Type N, previously used as a fast, unarmed scout, was fitted with the Garros-devised bullet deflecting propeller cuffs and a Hotchkiss machine gun and transformed into a fighter, as with the French machine seen here. Not built in great numbers, the French took only 49 to equip Escadrille MS 23, while the Russians formed one squadron and the RFC took sufficient to partially equip Nos 3 and 60 squadrons.
Essentially a Type N variant, the Type I had a more powerful Le Rhone engine.
No production took place of the fighter version of the Morane-Saulnier Type G.
Little success attended the Type V, a dozen examples of which saw brief service with the RFC.
The Type N had propeller-mounted bullet deflectors for its single machine gun.
Both single-gun MoS 27 and twin-gun MoS 29 (shown) versions of the Type AI were produced.
The early two-seat version of the Nie 10 sesquiplane.
The definitive single-seat version of the Nie 10 sesquiplane.
An Nie 11 of the Romanian Sqn, September 1917.
An Nie 11 built by Nieuport-Macchi in Italy.
The Nieuport 16 proved to be an only partially successful attempt to extend the production life of the Ni 11 Bebe. To do this, the company replaced the Bebe's 80hp rotary with the bigger and heavier 110hp Le Rhone making the machine notoriously nose heavy, particularly with power off. Most Ni 16s ended their days by having their gun removed and replaced by eight Le Prieur rockets for use as 'Zeppelin chasers', as in the case of this French machine.
The Nie 11, popularly known as the Bebe.
The Nie 12 was fundamentally a larger and more powerful derivative of the Nie 10.
The Nie 12bis was an improved Nie 12 which appeared in 1916 with an uprated Clerget engine.
The Nie 20 was a two-seater manufactured in comparatively small numbers for the RFC.
The Nie 12 was fundamentally a larger and more powerful derivative of the Nie 10.
The Nie 21, that being a replica with some genuine components in Brazil’s Museu Aeroespacial.
An Nie 17 of the RFC, this particular example serving in Palestine with No 111 Squadron.
The Nie 23 served side-by-side in French escadrilles with the fundamentally similar Nie 17.
Nie 24 of Escadrille N.91, Aviation Militaire, 1917
Nie 24 with a USAS Construction [training] Sqn, France, early 1918.
Nie 27 of the Italian 81a Squadriglia, summer 1917
Nie 27 of No 1 Sqn, RFC, at Builleul, France, in October 1917.
A preserved example with Nungesser emblem in USA.
The Nie 24bis actually preceded the Nie 24 into service and closely resembled the Nie 17bis.
Little is known about this Nieuport single-seater, which was unarmed and might have been a purely experimental aircraft. Its fuselage and undercarriage might have been similar to those of the Nie.17bis, but its all wood fin and rudder resembled those of the Hispano-Suiza powered fighter; the strut-braced tailplane and elevators appeared to be similar to those of previous production types. A Clerget engine of unknown type and output was fitted, and had on its crankshaft an enormous cone de penetration that must have seriously impaired the cooling of the engine. The tailskid was hinged to a small and inept-looking inverted pyramid of struts. The mainplanes had no sweepback, and straight-edged ailerons were fitted. It is not known precisely where this single-seater fitted chronologically in the sequence of Nieuport types.
The fact that 'N.24‘ was marked on the lower ends of the inlerplane struts does not necessarily mean that this aircraft, N3760, should be regarded as a true Nie.24. It had the faired fuselage and all-wood tail unit of the Nie.24, but it also had the articulated axle in the undercarriage and the sprung tailskid of the Nie.27. More particularly, it had an engine cowling of unusually deep chord encircling an unidentified engine of unknown output. The Vickers gun was on the port upper longeron, and the central struts supporting the upper mainplane were two inverted Vs. Despite all these refinements and novelties, however, this Nieuport still had straight edged ailerons, as on the Nie.17bis. This last detail might indicate that N3760 existed before the Introduction of the more rounded ailerons used on the Nie.24, 24bis, 25 and 27; that is, earlier than May 1917.
An Hispano-Suiza-engined Nieuport prototype was "designed to compete with the SPAD".
The Nie 27 was the last Vee-strutted Nieuport sesquiplane to achieve operational status.
The Nie 27 derivative prototype which used a biplane rather than sesquiplane configuration.
The Nie 17bis which appeared late in 1916.
The Nie 27 was a further Nie 24 derivative.
One of 14 Nie 28s procured for tuitional tasks by the Swiss Fliegertruppe and used in 1923-30.
The "diedre total' prototype of the Nie 28 with pronounced dihedral and abbreviated cabane.
The " demi-diedre" production Nie 28 with 1.5-deg dihedral and deeper cabane.
The Clerget 11E-powered Nieuport fighter that was under test in France late in 1917.
The Nieuport monocoque fighter was tested early in 1918, but had been abandoned by April.
The " demi-diedre" production Nie 28 with 1.5-deg dihedral and deeper cabane.
'MA JEANNE' was one of forty-two Spad A.2s that served with the French Aviation Militaire. The forward nacelle was movable and could be rotated downward to provide access to the engine
The SA.2 saw service with both the Aviation Militaire and the Russian Imperial air arm.
An S.VII of the French Escadrille SPA 81
An S.VII of No 23 Sqn of the RFC at La Lovie in France, July 1917.
A Czechoslovak Army S.VII photographed at Cheb in Western Bohemia during 1920-21.
The S.VII illustrated by the photo being a Mann Egerton-built example.
The cannon-armed S.XII never equipped a complete escadrille of the Aviation Militaire.
The S.XII which mounted a 37-mm cannon.
One of the 20 S.XIIIs operated by a Turkish Army aviation company between 1922 and 1930.
The S.XIII, the photo depicting an aircraft of the 22nd Aero Sqn of US Air Service, 1919.
An S.XIII flown by Capt Eddie Rickenbacker (seen in front of aircraft) of the 94th Aero Sqn.
The first A.E.G. DI which appeared in May 1917.
The second prototype of the A.E.G. D I.
The prototype of the A.E.G. PE Panzer-Einsitzer armoured ground attack fighter.
The DJ I entered flight test in July 1918.
The A.E.G. DJ I armoured ground attack fighter.
The series DI which appeared at the Front in autumn 1916.
An early ex-works Albatros D III with the original centrally-located radiator.
By November 1917 there were well over 400 Albatros DIIIs in front-line service, although by the summer the types had been technologically superseded by the DV.
The D III with Vee-strutted wing cellule.
An Albatros D V of Jasta 5 with a Bavarian Lion motif
A D V of Jasta 5's Jastafuhrer, Lt Wilhelm Lehmann.
The Albatros D V was flown by Vzfw Barth of Jasta 10 in the late autumn of 1917.
The D V reached the Front in September 1917.
The D II was the first original fighter from the Automobil und Aviatik AG.
The Bz IIIbo-powered Aviatik D III, a small series of which was ordered for service test and evaluation
The Aviatik D III was allegedly considered superior in performance to the Albatros D V.
The Aviatik D III, initial type testing of which at Adlershof was performed in February 1918
Single example of the Aviatik D.VI Single-seater Scout (1918). (195 h.p. geared Benz engine).
The Aviatik D VI was too late to join the D-type Contest of June 1918 due to engine problems.
The Aviatik D VII was the last Aviatik single-seat fighter to be flight tested, and was fundamentally similar to the D VI apart from its tail surfaces.
Another of the 1918 designs to find little favour was the compact Aviatik DVIII. Although its performance was reasonable it had an endurance of little more than one hour.
The E II was an improved, more powerful development of the E I with longer-span wing.
The Pfalz E I was broadly based on the Morane-Saulnier Type H and began to arrive at the Front from late October 1915.
The D IIIa embodied relatively minor changes from the D III and reached the Front in December 1917.
The D III which saw service from autumn 1917.
A Pfalz D XII photographed at Riverside, California, in 1959 when owned by Frank Tallman.
The D XII began to reach the Front in quantity in August 1918, but proved unpopular.
A raised top wing and a conventional cabane distinguished the Roland D III from the earlier Roland fighter biplanes.
A raised top wing and a conventional cabane distinguished the Roland D III from the earlier Roland fighter biplanes.
"Роланд" D.VI захваченный американцами и увезенный после войны в США.
The Mercedes-engined D VIa (on photo) was, in other respects, similar to the Benz-engined D VIb.
The LFG Roland D VIb was one of the designs for the 1918 fighter competition. The Germans had realized that numerical superiority rested with the Allies and so instead concentrated on trying to achieve technical superiority. Only limited numbers of the Roland VIb were built and they were mainly used by the Navy for seaplane defence duties. The Roland D VIb fighter began to reach combat units at the Front in mid-1918.
The Mercedes-engined D VIa was, in other respects, similar to the Benz-engined D VIb (on scheme) .
The D I was, in most respects, a very close copy of the Nieuport 11 fighter.
Representing an attempt to improve the basic D I design, the D Ia featured an increase in wing area and a twin-gun armament.
A D III of the first production series, flown in service by Lt V Ziegesar.
A Fokker E I of the Kampf-Einsitzer-Kommando over the Western Front late summer 1915.
The E III was essentially similar to the E II apart from its engine, most E IIs being converted.
A general arrangement drawing of the production E I.
The M16 in its original form with wing warping and a 160 hp Mercedes D III engine.
The M16 in the definitive form in which it was evaluated by the Luftfahrttruppen of Austria-Hungary in the spring of 1916.
The first prototype of the M18, known unofficially as the "Karausche" (Crucian Carp).
The M 21 prototype was the last Fokker fighter design ascribed solely to Martin Kreutzer.
The M16 in the definitive form in which it was evaluated by the Luftfahrttruppen of Austria-Hungary in the spring of 1916.
A general arrangement drawing of the standard production two-bay DI issued to the Fliegertruppen.
The D IV in standard production form.
The single-bay first prototype of the Kreutzer-designed M17 progenitor of the D II
The 80 hp single-bay production D II.
The two-bay D II of the Fliegertruppen that arrived at the Front during the late summer of 1916.
The standard two-bay production D II.
The D V, which made its debut in autumn 1916.
(A Dr I flown by Ltn Fritz Kempf of Jasta Boelcke
A Dr I originally operated by Jasta 18 and subsequently acquired by the French.
A US-built Gnome-engined Dr I replica.
The V 4 was the original progenitor of the Dr I and entered flight test early summer 1917.
Developed in parallel with the V 5, the V 6 had a larger wing span and area, and a water-cooled Mercedes D III engine.
The Dr I, illustrated by the general arrangement drawing, enjoyed notoriety out of all proportion to its success in combat.
Developed in parallel with the V 5, the V 6 had a larger wing span and area, and a water-cooled Mercedes D III engine.
The V 33 was the last wartime Fokker fighter to employ a rotary engine.
D VII of Ltn Veltejns, Jasta 15, summer 1918.
A D VII of the Belgian Aviation Militaire, Bruxelles-Evere, July 1919.
A restored Albatros-built D VII in early Luchtvaartafdeling markings and originally one of 142 shipped to the USA in 1919.
A D VII of Fliegerkompagnie 10 of the Swiss Fliegertruppe in the mid ’twenties.
D VIII of Jasta 6 at Busigny-Escaufort, August 1918
An E V of the Polish Kosciuszko (7th Aviation) Sqn, spring 1919.
A Warner-powered full-scale D VIII replica built in the USA and first flown in September 1968.
A general arrangement drawing of the definitive production D VIII parasol monoplane.
The D III with an Argus As II was otherwise similar to the Mercedes-powered D II (shown).
A Halberstadt D V of the Turkish Army Aviation force, as used in 1917-18.
Last of the Halberstadt single-seaters, the D V remained in service well into 1918.
The Halberstadt D V with Argus As II engine.
The ground-based image shows the same aircraft some 15 months later and looking almost indistinguishable from the prototype D I fighter, many of whose features had been evolved thanks to the J.7.
The J 7 with definitive wing proved faster than all other contenders in the first D-type contest.
The short-fuselage version of the J 9 (D I) photographed fully armed on 8 July 1918.
The Junkers J 7 in its definitive form.
The early-production short-fuselage J 9, found unsuited for contemporary fighter tactics.
The first Austrian Aviatik fighter prototype, the 30.14 which crashed in October 1916.
Julius von Berg's first fighter, the 30.14.
A D I Series 115 (Lohner-built) operated by Flik 60J in 1918.
A DI Series 138 forced down at Treviso on 23 June 1918
"Авиатик" D.I из состава авиароты 74J (Flik 74J), июль 1918 г. Пилот - Йозеф Маршалек
The Aviatik (Berg) DI fitted with a 200 hp Austro-Daimler engine, this being an aircraft of the first series, and one of the first D Is to be fitted with Schwarzlose guns immediately ahead of the cockpit (38.63)
A general arrangement drawing of the 200 hp Austro-Daimler-engined D I in standard form.
The Aviatik (Berg) 30.24 was a triplane derivative of the DI with a 200 hp Austro-Daimler. Only one triplane prototype was completed.
The Aviatik 30.25 experimental single-seat reconnaissance fighter, evolved from the Aviatik (Berg) С I reconnaissance two-seater, had provision for an automatic camera.
The Aviatik (Berg) 30.27 appeared early in 1918 with a Steyr Le Rhone rotary engine.
The Aviatik 30.27 which, together with the similar 30.29, participated in the D-type contest of July 1918
The first prototype of the DII, the Aviatik (Berg) 30.22 entered flight test in summer 1917 and employed much of the structure of the 30.21 which had been the third definitive prototype for the D I.
The DII series aircraft was tested in November 1917, but plans for large-scale production ended with the choice of the Fokker D VII.
The Aviatik 30.30 was designed specifically for high-altitude combat over the Italian front
The Aviatik (Berg) 30.30 was developed for high altitude combat over the Italian front.
The Aviatik 30.40 was the only Berg-designed fighter monoplane
The KD "star strutter" without the overwing gun fairing.
The KD "star strutter" in its 160 hp Austro-Daimler-engined DI production form.
A preserved example of the Phonix D III, or Phonix 222, acquired by the Swedish Army in August 1920.
The Phonix 20.15 mated the fuselage of a Brandenburg D I with a new wing cellule.
Based on the 20.16 prototype, the Phonix D I was built in series during 1917-18.
The Phonix 20.18 prototype of the D II.
The D IIa was essentially a more powerful version of the basic D II, appearing in May 1918.
A modified D IIa (422.23) with ailerons on both upper and lower wings for D III development.
The Phonix D III emerged in mid-1918 in response to fighter pilots' criticism of the Phonix D I and II's excessive degree of stability. What they wanted, above all, was a machine that could be thrown about with ease, not effort. What Phonix did on their D III was to take off the dihedral, or tilting up of the wings from the fore-and-aft centre, and to add a second pair of ailerons to the lower wing. These modifications, along with the use of a 230hp Heiro engine improved both agility and top level speed to 121mph at sea level. Seen here is the prototype D III, production deliveries of which were only beginning to reach the Austro-Hungarian line units at the time of the Armistice. The type, however, did go on to serve with the Swedish forces, who bought 17 in 1919 and built a further 10 locally in 1924.
A Phonix 222 alias D III in Swedish service in 1936 when employed for weather reconnaissance.
The D I, the first Phonix series fighter.
The Phonix D II illustrated by the general arrangement drawing entered service in March 1918.
A general arrangement drawing of the D III.
The W.K.F. 80.06 was officially tested at Aspern, but crashed and was written off.
The Letord 6 derivative of the Letord 3.
The Avro 504C was the first variant of the basic design to be intended specifically for the interception of airships and the most important single-seat fighter variant of the basic Avro 504 and was employed in some numbers by the RNAS
The Avro 504C was the first variant of the basic design to be intended specifically for the interception of airships.
The F.B.5 in its series form with enlarged rudder and tailplane.
A dozen examples of the Vickers F.B.5 were built in Denmark; illustrated is No 7.
The F.B.5 in its series form with enlarged rudder and tailplane.
A B.E.2c in single-seat configuration with single gun, Vee-type undercarriage and original fin.
The B.E.2c in its early standard form.
A Salmson A9 engine installation distinguished the Type 6 from the Renault-engined Type 5.
The standard production Breguet BLC was powered by the Renault 12Fb engine.
A 37-mm Hotchkiss cannon was mounted in the forward cockpit of the Breguet Type 5 fighter
The Breguet de Chasse used by the RNAS, differed from the BUC/BLC in having a Sunbeam Mohawk engine.
With searchlight attached to its Hotchkiss nose-mounted cannon, the Type 12 was a night fighter.
The standard production Breguet BLC was powered by the Renault 12Fb engine.
The Breguet Type 5 (Bre 5 Ca 2) fighter.
The second fighter version of the Type P introduced twin-gun armament.
The second fighter version of the Type P introduced twin-gun armament.
The sole two-seat night fighter version of the S.XI with a searchlight in front of the propeller.
The CL II in standard configuration.
The CL IV was built by Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft (Roland) as well as Halberstadt.
The CL IV derivative of the CL II offered greater manoeuvrability and better performance.
The two-seat Hannover Cl II proved highly manoeuvrable and versatile.
With an engine change and small improvements, the CL III evolved from the CL II.
A further engine change led to the CL IIIa.
The two-seat Hannover Cl II proved highly manoeuvrable and versatile.
Image showing the prototype Junkers J.8 two seat close-support fighter. Work on the sole J.8 started in October 1917, aimed at providing a successor to the armoured Junkers J I. As it transpired, the J.8, with its 160hp Mercedes D III, had a top level speed of 116mph and impressed those that flew it at the first of the 1918 fighter trials. Not only did the J.8 lead directly to the CL I production contract, but its development contributed greatly to solving many of the single seat J.7's ongoing problems. Too late to have any effect in the air war, the 41 Junkers CL Is completed stood up well, alongside their single seat Junkers D I when operated in the 1919 Baltic War. Powered by a 185hp Benz Bz IIIa, the CL I had a top level speed of 118mph and a ceiling of 17,000 feet. Armament on later machines comprised two 7.92 Spandaus for the pilot, along with the flexibly-mounted 7.92mm Parabellum in the rear.
The CL I served post-World War I in the Baltic with the Geschwader Sachsenberg.
The CL I was the ultimate wartime development of the line of Junkers monoplanes.
The Ara was designed around the unsuccessful ABC Dragonfly engine, but two prototypes were completed and flown during 1919.
The second Ara, F4972, differed from the first in having an increased gap between the wings.
Built as a private venture by William Beardmore & Co Ltd in 1917, the W.B.II two-seat fighter is shown at Martlesham Heath in December that year.
Although designed to have a folding undercarriage, most W.B.IIIs had one of jettisonable form.
The second production Beardmore W.B.III with jettisonable undercarriage, as adopted for the subsequent S.B.3D version for naval use.
Tested at Martlesham Heath, the Beardmore W.B.IV had the original underwing tip floats removed.
The Beardmore W.B.IV was designed for shipboard use.
Built in parallel with the W.B.IV, the Beardmore W.B.V was at first armed with a 37-mm Puteaux gun.
Designed by Harris Booth, the Blackburn Triplane carried a Davis two-pounder recoilless gun.
The Blackburn Triplane as first constructed with 110 hp Clerget rotary engine driving a four-bladed airscrew
Blackburn's extraordinary Triplane fighter of 1917.
The Bristol Scout F of 1918 was powered by the unreliable Sunbeam Arab and only two prototypes were built, the first being illustrated.
The Bristol Scout F of 1918 was powered by the unreliable Sunbeam Arab and only two prototypes were built.
Bristol's S.2A featured unusual side-by-side seating, but only a single Lewis gun armament.
The Bristol S.2A, actually 7836, which differed from the 7837 (which was the only other one) by the shape of the cockpit cut-out as well as the engine. It was a 2-seater with side-by-side seating, and was sometimes referred to as the "sociable"; also as the "tubby". Intended as a fighter, it got a little use as a trainer.
The Nighthawk, the third prototype of which is illustrated, evolved into the Sparrowhawk.
F.4 Buzzard of Esquadrilha Independente de Aviacao de Caca, Tancos, Portugal, 1923.
The F.3 version of the Buzzard used the Falcon engine
The HS 8Fb was used in the definitive F.4 version seen in Portuguese service.
The two-bay two-seat version of the Buzzard supplied to Spain
The F.E.9 is seen with the original single-bay wings.
S.E.4a 5611 in flight with Lewis guns on the center section, showing the flat-sided fuselage which distinguished it from the slightly more streamlined prototype.
The S.E.4a with Le Rhone engine.
Very short wings and fully enclosed cockpits were featured by the two-seat Sage 2.
Sopwith Gun Bus Admiralty Type 806, with bomb-carriers outboard of revised undercarriage and two-wheel landing gear, used a Sunbeam engine. Many were built by Robey & Co. of Lincoln.
The Sunbeam-powered Gun Bus which was developed specifically for the RNAS.
By 1920, Norway's Marinens Flyvevaesen had received 17 ex-RNAS Baby floatplanes.
Schneider (No.3734) with wing warping, a series example serving with the RNAS in 1915.
A Blackburn-built Baby with overwing guns
Ten Le Prieur rockets were fitted to a Baby for use in the anti-Zeppelin role.
The sole Swallow used the fuselage of a series Camel, with a new monoplane wing.
The 8F.1 Snail with monocoque fuselage
View, showing the first Salamander E5429 in Sopwith photograph S.362. The panel showing between the unstaggered guns of E5429 bears the word 'Petrol' and a figure for 'gallons' ending in '3/4'.
The extraordinary P.B.29E anti-airship quadruplane intended for prolonged nocturnal cruise.
The P.B.31E was flown only briefly before the inadequacy of its concept was accepted.
The P.B.31E anti-airship fighter quadruplane.
The P.B.23E was unusual for its time in having a light alloy sheet-covered fuselage nacelle.
The P.B.25 was ordered for the RNAS, but proved to be unsuited for operational use.
The P.B.25 was ordered for the RNAS, but proved to be unsuited for operational use.
Elliptical wing-tips distinguished the first F.B.12, here with Gnome Monosoupape engine.
The F.B.16A was the rebuilt prototype with an Hispano-Suiza replacing the Hart engine.
Increased wing chord and more vertical tail area distinguished the F.B.16D.
With a Lorraine-Dietrich engine, the F.B.16E was tested in France, crashing there in July 1918.
Increased wing chord and more vertical tail area distinguished the F.B.16D.
The F.B.26 fitted with Eeman triple-gun mounting in the nose and the definitive wings.
Alone among Vickers' World War I fighters, the F.B.26 received a name, being dubbed Vampire.
The F.B.26 fitted with Eeman triple-gun mounting in the nose and the definitive wings.
This is one of the two Westland Wagtails (J6581/ J6582) built specifically in 1921 for use as a testbed for the new Armstrong-Siddeley Lynx I. This machine had a different nose (owing to the mounting of the Lynx-engine) from the three Wagtails built in WW1 with the A,B,C, Wasp engine. Also the undercarriage was modified as was the tail which in these 1921 machines was more Sopwith-like
This N.1B floatplane fighter, N.16, was the first aircraft designed and built by Petter's Westland Aircraft Works. Changes in naval policy relating to this type of fighter brought its development to an early end.
Second of the Westland N.1B scouts, N17 was flown with long floats designed by Westland.
The Westland N16, as originally flown, with short floats of Sopwith design.
For every new type that enters service there are usually at least two rival designs that failed to make it. One such was the sole, single-seat Wight Quadruplane fighter, completed in August 1916. No doubt designed in the belief that if adding a third wing to the Sopwith Pup can have such a beneficial effect, a fourth should do wonders! Sadly this was not to be so with this machine, serial no N546, seen here in its interim, early 1917 form. Following trials that extended into July 1917, the Admiralty lost interest in this 110hp Clerget-engined machine.
The extraordinary short-span Wight Quadruplane was tested at Martlesham in 1917.
The Type Aa was delivered to the Danish Army in 1917, but was withdrawn in 1919.
The Spyker-Trompenburg V.3, flown mid-1919.
Optional skis allowed the M-11 flying boat to operate from frozen lakes and compacted snow.
С-20, заводской № 267
The S-XX failed to achieve series production, being inferior to newer enemy aircraft.
The M.5 was the first of a series of fighter flying boats developed by Macchi.
The single M.6 was built for comparison with the M.5, differing in wing cellule design.
The Macchi M.5, which appeared in 1917.
A further development of the M.5, the M.7 continued the Macchi fighter flying boat formula.
Remaining in service until 1930, the M.7ter was almost wholly a new design.
Remaining in service until 1930, the M.7ter was almost wholly a new design.
As the S.50, the Marchetti MVT was entered in the Italian fighter contest of 1923.
With a Renault 12K engine, the Breguet Type 17 had an unusual wing planform with massive horn-balanced upper-wing ailerons.
The two-seat HD.3 was the first Hanriot fighter to serve with the French military services.
Wing changes distinguished the HD.3bis from the standard production HD.3.
The standard production HD.3.
The heavy two-seat HD.6 was powered by the unusual Salmson water-cooled radial.
The HD-5 only achieved prototype status.
The heavy two-seat HD.6 was powered by the unusual Salmson water-cooled radial.
Type AN-derived, the Renault-powered ANR was similar to the Salmson-engined ANS (shown).
With a Liberty engine, the ANL was a further prototype derived from the sole Type AN.
Type AN-derived, the Renault-powered ANR (shown) was similar to the Salmson-engined ANS.
The second Nieuport triplane, the unusual configuration proving to offer poor handling.
The first of the extraordinary Nieuport triplanes with centre wing foremost.
An Ni-D 29 of the Escadrille Lafayette, part of the 35 Regiment d'Aviation Mixte.
The Nie (later Ni-D) 29 was built in substantial numbers in five countries.
The cannon-armed S.XIV which was built in small numbers for France’s Aviation Maritime.
The S.XXIV was the last in the line of Bechereau-designed fighters of World War One.
The S.XIV floatplane fighter of 1917.
Albatros D IV featured a close-cowled, geared engine.
Seen here is the second prototype D XI, this fighter departing from the traditional Albatros formula.
First rotary-engined Albatros, the D XI.
Albatros D XII (with Bohme undercarriage), the last World War I Albatros fighter.
A W 4 of the fourth production batch.
A late production W 4 with wing-mounted radiator.
A Mercedes-Daimler L.6 fighter of 1918, using 185 h.p. Daimler D.IIIb engine. Six built as D.Is.
The Daimler L 6 was designed to make use of the company’s own D IIIb water-cooled engine.
First flown with cantilever wings, the L 9 was later fitted with interplane struts.
Daimler’s first fighter design, the L 6 of 1917.
First flown with cantilever wings, the L 9 was later fitted with interplane struts.
Contrasting with the T 28, the DFW T 34-I was a conventional single-bay biplane.
D.F.W. D I (final modification)
The single D I competed, with poor results, in the second D-type fighter contest in 1918.
A D.F.W. D.II Class experimental Single-seater Biplane of 1918.
Contrasting with the T 28, the DFW T 34-I was a conventional single-bay biplane.
The DFW DI with Mercedes D IIIa engine.
The T 34-II was essentially a triplane version of the T 34-I biplane evolved in parallel, and was tested with little success in 1918.
The Euler D I was a copy of the successful French Nieuport 11 fighter but was eventually assigned primarily to the fighter training role after trials at the front.
The Euler D II was a more powerful derivative of the D I, but, owing to tardy delivery, shared the earlier fighter's fate in being relegated to the fighter training role.
Confused erroneously with the DII, the Euler Type 2 biplane appeared in April 1918.
Seen in its initial form, the Type 1 Euler biplane was, in fact, the Type 3 triplane rebuilt.
The compact Type 2 Euler fighting biplane.
The first Euler single-seat fighter triplane was designed by Julius Hromadnik and was under test in the summer of 1917.
The private-venture Type 3 triplane was the second Euler-Werke fighter of this configuration.
The most successful of the Euler-Hromadnik triplanes was the extremely neat Type 4 illustrated here.
The final Euler fighting triplane (Type 5) is seen here in its original form
The final Euler fighting triplane (Type 5) after the application of increased gap and deeper cabane.
The Euler-Werke triplane fighter (Type 3).
Quite what Anthony Fokker and his designers were setting out to achieve with this conventionally-tailed, tandem-winged, quintrupriplane monstrosity is anyone's guess. Completed in the autumn of 1917, months after his Dr I, the sole Fokker V8 is reported to have only made two brief hops, each time with Fokker at the controls before scrapping.
The FF 46 was based broadly on the FF 43, but, in fact, had no commonality with the float fighter other than design origin.
Another contender and Fokker D VIII look-alike that took part in the third 1918 Adlershof fighter trial, held in October, was the Kondor E 3a seen here. The E 3A employed a 180hp Goebel rotary. A second specimen, the 160hp Oberursal U III powered Kondor E 3, also participated in this competition. The external wing ribbing, along with the aft wing centre section cut-out help to highlight that this design employed the still novel thick sectioned, high lift wing. Top level speeds for the E 3 and E 3a were reported to be 120mph and 124mph, respectively.
The D 6 was innovative in its approach to improving forward and upward visibility.
An Early (1917) experimental Roland Triplane. Type D IV. First L.F.G. Roland with the wooden clinker-built fuselage. (160 h.p. Mercedes engine.)
The D IV was the first Roland fighter to adopt the Klinkerrumpf construction method.
Based on the D VII, the single D XIII had the experimental Korting Vee-type engine.
In its initial form, the D XV prototype had paired interplane struts and Mercedes engine.
Retaining the D XV designation, a wholly new design was produced late in 1918.
Last of the Roland single-seat fighters, the D XVII was flown just before the end of World War I.
Second prototype of the D XVI fighter.
An L.V.G. D.IV Type Single-seater Scout of 1918 (195 h.p. Benz Bz IIIb.)
The D IV had the misfortune to suffer recurrent engine problems which resulted in the destruction of both prototypes of this fighter.
Differentially pivoting upper wing tips were an unusual feature of the D V.
An L.V.G. Single-seater Scout produced towards the end of the War, presumably of the D.VI class (195 h.p. Benz Bz IIIb.).
Last of the LVG fighters, the D VI was not tested until the last week of World War I.
Differentially pivoting upper wing tips were an unusual feature of the D V.
The only Naglo fighter to be flown, the D II appears to have had an Albatros D V-type fuselage.
The E V was a Daimler-powered derivative of the E IV, but rendered obsolescent by biplanes.
The D VII was another of the Pfalz entries in the January 1918 D-type Competition at Adlershof.
The D VIII saw limited production and was tested at the Front in the summer of 1918.
The D VIII saw limited production and was tested at the Front in the summer of 1918.
The Dr I was tested at the Front in pre-production form during the spring of 1918.
Actually developed in parallel with the Dr I, the Dr II was both smaller and lighter.
The Dr I was tested at the Front in pre-production form during the spring of 1918.
The Rumpler 6B 1 (shown) and similar 6B 2 were ordered in quantity after prototype test.
The Rumpler 6B 1 (shown) and similar 6B 2 were ordered in quantity after prototype test.
Seen being exhibited at Breslau in December 1918, the Rumpler 7D 3 flew in the summer of 1917.
The Rumpler 7D 4 in its original form with a cellule employing "reverse-C" interplane struts.
The Rumpler 7D 4 with a twin-strut cellule which entered flight test in October 1917.
An improved derivative of the 7D 4, the Rumpler 7D 7 was found ‘‘unacceptable for the Front”.
The pre-series D I, the Rumpler 8D 1, which participated in two D-type contests.
The Rumpler 7D 1 single-seat fighter.
The Rumpler 7D 4 with a twin-strut cellule which entered flight test in October 1917.
The Rumpler 7D 7 with new Gottingen aerofoil.
The pre-series D I, the Rumpler 8D 1, which participated in two D-type contests.
The D IV awaiting installation of its Bz IIIbo engine in March 1918.
Derived from the D III, the Schutte-Lanz D VII was a conventional, but uninspiring, biplane.
The D IV with Benz Bz IIIbo engine.
The Schutte-Lanz D VII of mid 1918.
Schutte-Lanz developed the Dr I in 1918 after studying the Sopwith Triplane.
The single prototype of the DD 5 was rejected owing to poor aerodynamic qualities.
The E I which achieved operational service in small numbers in the summer of 1916.
The E I which achieved operational service in small numbers in the summer of 1916.
Two of the four examples of the D I were taken to the USA for evaluation.
The Dornier-designed V1 which crashed immediately after taking-off on its first flight.
The Zeppelin-Lindau V1 single-seat fighter.
The CC displays post-July 1917 additional interplane struts.
One CC airframe was completed in triplane configuration with extra, short-span wing.
The W11 derivative of the KDW was tested in 1917, but only prototypes were completed.
Brandenburg K.D.W. with 160 h.p. Maybach Mb III engine.
The KDW was essentially a float-equipped conversion of the KD "star strutter”.
Evaluated by the Austro-Hungarian air arm in 1917, the L16 triplane lacked promise.
This Brandenburg W12 was flown operationally from Zeebrugge in early 1918 by Leutnant Becht of the Imperial German Navy Air Service.
Designed by Ernst Heinkel, the W12 float fighter proved exceptionally successful.
The W16 was designed by Heinkel to succeed the KDW, but only three prototypes were built.
Skis could replace the regular floats of the W 33, as seen on this Finnish-built example flown by No 1 Detached Maritime Flying Squadron.
Essentially a monoplane derivative of the W 12 biplane, the W 29 was produced in time to serve with the German Navy from 1918.
Developed from the smaller W 29, the W 33 was built in Norway and Finland after production in Germany was halted by the Armistice.
The sole wartime prototype of the Brandenburg W 34 was essentially a scaled-up W 33 fighter seaplane.
Essentially a monoplane derivative of the W 12 biplane, the W 29 was produced in time to serve with the German Navy from 1918.
Developed from the smaller W 29, the W 33 was built in Norway and Finland after production in Germany was halted by the Armistice.
The Phonix 20.24 was ordered in anticipation of series production as the D IV.
The Phonix 20.24 was ordered in anticipation of series production as the D IV.
The Micropiano failed to achieve production owing to the overthrow of its sponsors.
The Thulin K was used primarily by the Dutch Navy, some being tested with a cannon.
The first of the two Christmas Bullets, both of which crashed on their first flights.
To correct tail-heaviness, the Curtiss 18-T was given five degrees of wing sweepback soon after first flight, as illustrated here. With a speed of 163 mph, it was briefly the fastest aeroplane in the world.
Modified with long-span, two-bay wings, the second Curtiss 18T was redesignated as the 18T-2.
To correct tail-heaviness, the Curtiss 18-T was given five degrees of wing sweepback soon after first flight, as illustrated here.
Prototype Curtiss HA, also known as the "Dunkirk Fighter", intended to serve in Europe.
The second HA (later HA-1) contained some parts of the first but was a new aeroplane with a later Navy serial number.
The Curtiss HA-2 of which only a single prototype was built, differed from the HA in respect of wing and engine cowling detail.
The first Curtiss S-3 seen in August 1917 after the ducted propeller spinner had been discarded.
The first Curtiss S-3 in the form in which it was originally flown.
The Armistice of 1918 ended plans for large-scale production of the M-8.
Flight testing during 1918 of the L.W.F. G-2 was dogged by misfortune.
The Type B, the first example of this fighter being illustrated by the photograph.
The first example of the M-Defense which was delivered to the Signal Corps in January 1918.
The second prototype MB-3 with original tail
A Boeing-built MB-3A in USAAS service, showing the modified, enlarged fin finally adopted.
The basic series form of the MB-3A
The two-seat VE-7G fighter variants of a trainer design.
The VE-9 was, like the VE-7, built in single- (on photo) and two-seat fighter versions.
The single-seat VE-7S fighter variants of a trainer design.
The so-called Torpedo fighter-reconnaissance aircraft designed by Vladimir Ol’khovsky.
The Lebed' X experimental fighter of 1916.
The Engels-designed MI water-borne fighter.
A two-seat B.E.2e armed with four Le Prieur rockets on the interplane struts.
The Euler "Gelber Hund" of 1915 which featured a fixed forward-firing machine gun in the extreme nose of the fuselage pod.
An experimental single-seat pusher design powered with 160 h.p. Mercedes D III engine. No details available.
Known as the "Gelber Hund", this single-seat pusher was the first Euler-Werke fighting scout.
The initial form with nose turret of the Euler two-seat fighter of 1915 intended primarily for anti-airship and escort missions.
The final form of the Euler two-seat fighter of 1915 with faired, pulpit-like gun position, intended primarily for anti-airship and escort missions.
The Roland DV was one of a number of designs for which only a single prototype was built in 1917, a period when the Germans were searching for new fighter designs to develop to counter the growing numbers and capabilities of Allied designs.
The D V was derived from the D III, the shortcomings of which were not overcome.
A parallel development to the D IX, the D X (on photo) participated in the 2nd D-type Contest of June 1918.
Vickers’ E.F.B.1, one of the earliest dedicated fighter aircraft.
In its definitive form, the M.1 flew for fewer than 20 hrs before it crashed.
The single Nestler Scout was built as a private-venture prototype during 1916.
The FF 54 in its original quadruplane form as tested late 1917
The FF 54 after somewhat crude adaptation as a triplane, flown in May 1918.
The W.K.F. 80.05 saw only limited testing owing to restricted view from its cockpit.
The sole fighter of original design built by Robert Esnault-Pelterie (R.E.P.)
Tested in 1917, the L14 was a derivative of the KD (D I), only two prototypes being built.
Two examples of the E.S.1 Mk II were built and, also known as E.S.2s, were briefly tested by the RFC.
Two examples of the E.S.1 Mk II were built and, also known as E.S.2s, were briefly tested by the RFC.
Probably inspired by Sopwith practice, the Whitehead Comet was designed by Edwin Boyle.
Flown in 1918, the HD.7 was unsuccessful in competition with the Nieuport 29.
Built for comparison with the Albatros D X, the sole prototype of the Dr II is illustrated.
The NFW E I was apparently discontinued in favour of the larger and more powerful E II of 1917.
The last original fighter built by the NFW, the E II progressed no further than a prototype.
The first prototype R.R.F.25 anti-Zeppelin aircraft with two-pounder Davis gun in the port nacelle.
This is the only known photo of the first machine, the F 25 MK 1 serial 9498 before its test flight. The second machine 9499 has a revised wing structure and is the one usually pictured.
The equal-span second prototype of the R.R.F.25
The unequal-span first prototype of the R.R.F.25
Aerodynamic cleanliness was an obvious feature of the single example of the Ducrot SLD.
The Ducrot SLD single-seat fighter.
The second of the two prototypes of the Pigeon-Fraser Pursuit of 1917.
The second of the two prototypes of the Pigeon-Fraser Pursuit of 1917.
Orders were placed for 1,000 S.E.A.4s, but the Armistice cut production to only 145.
The S.E.A.4 C2 two-seat recce-fighter.
The Bristol T.T.A. provided a clear field of fire for a pair of Lewis guns in the front cockpit.
Flush-fitting floats on the first Type H (shown) were discarded for the second aircraft.
Tested at the end of 1917, the Type H (second prototype shown) found no official acceptance.
Flush-fitting floats on the first Type H were discarded for the second aircraft (shown).
The extraordinary Dufaux fighter in which the engine drove a propeller amidships.
An S.XX of the 6* Escadrille of the 2e Regiment d‘Aviation de Chasse, circa 1922.
The prototype S.XX, which appeared in August 1918
The series S.XX which differed primarily in having an enlarged vertical tail.
The series production SPAD S.XX fighter.
Flanders-designed E.F.B.7 in original form with Gnome monosoupape engines, and pilot behind wings.
The E.F.B.7 with engine cowlings removed.
Only a single example was built of the F.B.8, developed from the F.B.7.
The Ponnier M.1 is illustrated here in its initial production form without fixed tail fin.
The definitive M.1 with fixed fin and enlarged tailplane and elevators.
The definitive M.1 with fixed fin and enlarged tailplane and elevators.
The F.E.6 was a derivative of the F.E.3.
The short-lived E.F.B.2 was a revision of the original E.F.B.1 design.
E.F.B.3 with metal-sheathed nacelle at Brooklands in 1913 with Harold Barnwell, Vickers' chief pilot, in rear seat.
Appearing in 1914, the E.F.B.3 was the first Vickers warplane to achieve production.
The short-lived E.F.B.2 was a revision of the original E.F.B.1 design.
Designed for the high-altitude fighter role, the Caudron Type O only achieved prototype status.
The diminutive Adamoli-Cattani fighter.
The Adamoli-Cattani fighter prior to flight test.
The VE-8 proved unsuccessful when tested at McCook Field in 1920.
The V 1 was a radical cantilever sesquiplane, designed by Reinhold Platz, which began its flight test programme in December 1916.
Evolved in parallel with the V 1, the V 2 had a water-cooled engine and wing sweepback.
Utilising experience gained with the V 1 and V 2, the V 3 allegedly possessed handling characteristics "too difficult" for frontline pilots.
The V 1 was a radical cantilever sesquiplane, designed by Reinhold Platz, which began its flight test programme in December 1916.
Utilising experience gained with the V 1 and V 2, the V 3 allegedly possessed handling characteristics "too difficult" for frontline pilots.
Conceived as a ground-attack fighter, the A.E.3 Ram was the only Farnborough design to be named.
The A.E.3 Ram II with B.R.2 engine.
An early F.B.9 showing rounded wing tips and tailplane, sharper nose and cleaner lines, leading to the appellation of the Streamline Gunbus.
One of 95 examples of the F.B.9 built by Vickers. Others were licence-built in France.
A derivative of the F.B.5, the F.B.9 saw service in the Battle of the Somme.
The F.B.25 two-seat night fighter of 1917 in modified form, compared with the original design with nose-mounted searchlight. The trial installation of an oleo-pneumatic undercarriage may also be noted, but the outstanding feature was the Crayford rocket gun intended for attacking hostile airships, an operational philosophy revived in Vickers' COW gun fighter of 1931.
A "fighting top" was an unusual feature of the F.B.11, designed to combat airships.
The F.B.24C in its version with a frontal radiator for the Lorraine-Dietrich engine.
The F.B.24C in its version with a frontal radiator for the Lorraine-Dietrich engine.
The sole Curtiss Battleplane (CB) of 1918, also known as the "Liberty Battler”.
The GS-1 "Gnome Scout” triplane was similar in most respects to five GS-2 biplanes that preceded it.
The original Typ AA featured a very deep, but short, slab-sided fuselage.
Extensive revision of the Lohner 10.20 resulted in a single 10.20A prototype.
The Lohner 10.20B combined a new fuselage with wings and tail of the 10.20A.
The third Typ AA series fighter, the Lohner 111.03 was abandoned in favour of the Aviatik D I.
Extensive revision of the Lohner 10.20 resulted in a single 10.20A prototype.
The Lohner 10.20B combined a new fuselage with wings and tail of the 10.20A.
Progenitor of a long line of fighting monoplanes, the GL-1 was the first aircraft designed by MM Gourdou and Leseurre.
The Kondor D 2 participated in the second D-type contest at Adlershof in June 1918.
The Kondor D 2 participated in the second D-type contest at Adlershof in June 1918.
Despite extraordinary appearance, the T 28 Floh achieved a respectable performance.
Designed to succeed the Bristol F.2B, the Weasel failed to attain production.
The D XV was the last of the Pfalz single-seat fighters to appear during World War I.
The D XIV was a participant in the second D-type Competition, but was not ordered in quantity.
Also known as the Speed Scout, the Burgess HT-B sesquiplane (on photo) was the prototype for the slightly modified H-2 of which six were built in 1917.
Also known as the Speed Scout, the Burgess HT-B sesquiplane was the prototype for the slightly modified H-2 (shown) of which six were built in 1917.
The first prototype of the Rex D 6 featured a nose-over structure ahead of the undercarriage.
The second prototype of the Rex D 6 which allegedly owed its inspiration to the Bristol Scout.
Ailerons replaced wing warping on the Type AC, which also featured rigid wing bracing.
The Morane-Saulnier Type AC fighter.
The Nie 31, technically a sesquiplane, entered flight test during 1919.
A standard production D III, seen here with warping control, reached the Front in August 1916.
Fokker D.III 352/16 in which Boelcke scored victories number 20 through 26, the first seven victories for Jasta 2 between 2 September and 17 September 1916. The Kaiser presented this aircraft to the armory museum in the Berlin Zeughaus for exhibition. It was destroyed by the bombings in World War II.
The D III in its definitive production form in which ailerons replaced wing warping for lateral control.
Something of an oddity, the cannon-armed FBA land-based fighter was derived from a flying boat.
The bizarre de Bruyere completed in 1917, and which crashed on its first flight attempt.
Berkmans Speed Scout, a private venture prototype tested by the US Army in 1918.
Badger I F3495 as rebuilt after suffering a crash landing on its first flight, with improved Dragonfly installation and larger rudder; Filton, February 1919.
First Bristol F.2C Badger in its definitive form.
Owing much to the Elephant, the R.G. was discontinued in favour of the Buzzard.
The sole prototype of the F.1 two-seat fighter was tested with little success in 1917.
Evolved in parallel with the F.1, the Martinsyde F.2 was no more successful.
Owing much to the Elephant, the R.G. was discontinued in favour of the Buzzard.
Delayed by engine difficulties, the P.V.9 was discontinued in the summer of 1918.
Sopwith's long-range tractor triplane was a contemporary of the Clerget and Hispano-Suiza triplanes, but was not a success.
The first Bulldog showing the single-bay wings and Clerget engine installation.
The first Hippo in its original form
The first Hippo as later flown with dorsal gun fitted, added fin area and increased dihedral.
The first Snapper. F7031, showing thai the smooth-lined crankcase cowling for the A.B.C. Dragonfly engine still left the greater part of each cylinder, with its prominent valve-gear, exposed.
Designed in parallel with the Snark, the Snapper appeared in April 1919.
A Schwade Stahlherz engine was used to power the same company’s Nr 2 fighter.
Retaining the twin-boom pusher layout of the Nr 1, the Nr 2 was better streamlined.
Tested in 1917, the Typ A triplane was destined to be the last of the Lohner fighters.
The Lohner Typ A (111.04) fighter triplane.
The sole Sturtevant B to be completed, which was destined to effect only one test flight.
The S.R.2, together with many of its contemporaries, was rendered ineffective by the failure of the Dragonfly engine.
The Siddeley Siskin in its initial form with the A.B.C. Dragonfly engine.
Powered by a 300 hp H-S 8Fb engine, the prototype de Marcay 2 flew in 1919.
The FF 43 float fighter evaluated under operational conditions in the North Sea during the last quarter of 1916.
The FF 43 float fighter evaluated under operational conditions in the North Sea from October 1916 by the Seeflugzeug Versuchs Kommando.
First of the Gourdou-Leseurre fighters to enter production, the GL-2 was just too late to serve in World War I.
Despite its very advanced aerodynamic concept, apparent here, the sole prototype of the Breguet LE of 1918 was flown only twice.
The two-seat Brandenburg KF was intended to fulfil both fighting and reconnaissance roles.
The Albatros D VII was tested with a Benz Bz IIIb eight-cylinder engine in the summer of 1917.
Built in 1918, the Cl I (Type 17) recce-fighter was the first military aircraft by BFW.
The second prototype of the BFW Cl I became the Cl II with a MAN III engine.
Evolved from the Cl I, the BFW Cl III featured longer-span wings and a Benz Bz IV engine.
The second prototype of the BFW Cl I became the Cl II with a MAN III engine.
The BFW Cl III was too late for wartime service.
The W18 in production form with Hiero engine.
The single prototype of the Brandenburg W 23.
Conventional strut bracing was used for the W 25 in place of the previously-favoured "star" strutting.
The W 27 (photo) and W 32 were both derived from the W12, with new Benz and Mercedes engine installations respectively.
The W 27 and W 32 (photo) were both derived from the W12, with new Benz and Mercedes engine installations respectively.
Only a single prototype of the Daimler L 8 two-seat escort fighter was completed.
The sole Daimler L11 which was the first aircraft wholly designed by Hanns Klemm.
Last of the fighters to bear the Daimler name, the L14 was a single prototype completed in 1919.
The sole Daimler L11 which was the first aircraft wholly designed by Hanns Klemm.
Referred to as a quadruplane, the Euler fighter was technically of triplane form.
Highly original in concept, the M 9 alias K I utilised twin fuselages and two engines mounted on the fuselage centreline.
The V 17 was the first single-seat fighter monoplane to the designs of Reinhold Platz.
The V 20 fighter monoplane was allegedly designed and built within six-and-a-half days.
The V 25 participated in the 2nd D-type competition at Adlershof in May-June 1918.
The Fokker V 23 fighter monoplane.
The V 25 participated in the 2nd D-type competition at Adlershof in May-June 1918.
The V 34 was essentially similar to the V 36 and one of the last developments of the basic D VII.
The Geest fighter was built in 1919 to demonstrate the capabilities of the Mowe wing.
The Walfisch (whale) fuselage of the Germania JM failed to gain official acceptance for the fighter.
A general arrangement drawing of the JM.
Based on the C VIII reconnaissance biplane, the two- seat Cls I did not enter production.
First of the Halberstadt fighters, the remained a single prototype, but led to the D II.
Last of the Hannover fighters, the CL V was too late for service in World War I.
A licence-built version of the CL V, the F.F.7 remained in service in Norway until 1929.
Last of the Hannover fighters, the CL V was too late for service in World War I.
The first all-metal fighter monoplane, the J 2 began flight test in July 1916.
The first all-metal fighter monoplane, the J 2 began flight test in July 1916.
The D 7 was a biplane rework of the earlier Kondor fighting triplane flown in October 1917.
Revised ailerons and tail unit were applied to the D VII before it was finally abandoned.
The second D IX with overhung ailerons
Basically similar to the D XIII, the D XIV was powered by the unsatisfactory Goebel rotary.
The second D IX with enlarged, horn-balanced rudder.
The LTG FD-1 floatplane fighter is seen in its definitive form with extended fins.
The D10 possessed an unusually deep fuselage which filled the entire wing gap.
The LVG E I two-seat fighter monoplane, the company’s first fighter of original design.
The sole Mark D I was destroyed before it could take part in evaluation at Adlershof.
The E III was considered an interim type and was evolved from the Morane-Saulnier Type L.
The D.4 was the first Pfalz fighter biplane, but offered poor handling.
The D VI which was flown early in 1917.
The Rex D 7 was supposedly sponsored by the German fighter "ace", Leutnant Werner Voss.
The Rumpler 7C 1, seen with original vertical tail, featured the so-called Libelle (Dragonfly) form lower wing.
The Rumpler 7C 1, seen with definitive vertical tail, featured the so-called Libelle (Dragonfly) form lower wing.
Rumpler’s first fighter was the 6A 2, which was tested with little success in 1916.
The sole prototype of the SF 3 escort fighter proved to possess unsatisfactory characteristics.
Three examples of the SF 7 built in 1917 were accepted by the Marineflieger for evaluation.
Elegant appearance belied the poor manoeuvrability displayed by the SF 4 biplane.
The second example of the SF 4 was completed as a triplane, but showed little improvement.
Only one prototype of the SF 4 was completed in biplane configuration.
Few records have survived of the diminutive Schneider fighter, tested in 1918.
Variable wing incidence was an innovative feature of the single Schneider fighter.
Built in 1915, the Schutte-Lanz D I was the first fighter biplane tested in Germany.
The D VI crashed on its first flight in May 1918, and was not rebuilt.
Siemens lattice-tail triplane. Two Siemens rotary engines in tandem, with cockpit between them.
Embodying the centreline thrust concept with fore and aft mounted engines, the DDr I proved to possess inadequate stability.
The extraordinary twin-engined DDr I.
Flight trials with the D VI were earned out in 1919, after the Armistice.
Constructed in such a fashion as to save as much weight as possible, the MB-1 proved structurally inadequate and was only flown twice.
Over-zealous lightening of the airframe made the MB-1 structurally unsound.
A pair of the 2F.1 shipboard versions of the Camel serving at Turnhouse in 1918.
Intended to compete with the P.V.7, the P.V.8 was dubbed Eastchurch Kitten.
In its definitive form the Boccaccio-designed Borel-built Type 3000 fighter underwent various modifications during 1919 trials.
The Farman F 30 in its definitive form as the F 30B with upper and lower wings of equal span and two-bay bracing.
The Farman F 31 was not completed in prototype form until summer 1918, and was abandoned with the Armistice.
The Farman F 31 which was abandoned after the Armistice.
The original S.V.A. fighter prototype which entered flight test in March 1917.
The S.V.A.5 was built in larger numbers than any other Savoia-Verduzio-Ansaldo fighter.
The S.V.A.3 is illustrated here in its ridotto (reduced) span version which was used primarily for airship interception in 1918.
Evolved as a reconnaissance fighter, the S.VA.4 entered service early in 1918.
The I.S.V.A. float fighter was used for the defence of naval bases and coastal reconnaissance.
The S.V.A.3 is illustrated here in its ridotto (reduced) span version which was used primarily for airship interception in 1918.
The S.V.A.5 was a multi-role aircraft.
The Pomilio Gamma, first prototype being illustrated, was not adopted.
The Pomilio Gamma, second prototype being illustrated, was not adopted.
The BAJ Type IV tandem two-seat fighter, of which two prototypes were built in 1918.
First of the three F.K.25 Basilisk fighters built by B.A.T. in 1918/1919 to Koolhoven design.
The Basilisk was the last of the B.A.T. fighters.
The original BAT F.K.22 with A.B.C. Mosquito engine, in late 1917
One of the F.K.22/2s with cowled Gnome Monosoupape.
The Koolhoven-designed BAT F.K.22/2 Bantam II.
Leading-edge flaps on the lower mainplane were a feature of the C.S.L.1, only one example of which was built and flown in 1918.
Although developed by Ordnance Engineering, the Type D fighter was destined to be built in series by the Curtiss company.
For early post-war service with the Army Air Corps, Curtiss built 50 Orenco Ds after modifying designs of the Ordnance Engineering Corp.
One Curtiss-Orenco D was experimentally fitted with Lamblin "pineapple" radiators as seen here.
Although developed by Ordnance Engineering, the Type D fighter was destined to be built in series by the Curtiss company.
For early post-war service with the Army Air Corps, Curtiss built 50 Orenco Ds after modifying designs of the Ordnance Engineering Corp.
Featuring lower-wing forward sweep and built in 1919, the Descamps 27 was bested by the Nieuport 29 in the official trials.
The Diaz Type C was a participant in Spain’s 1919 Concurso de Aviones.
The Pomilio-designed FVL-8 conceived for the US Army’s Engineering Division and of which six were built in Indianapolis.
The sole example of the VCP-1 completed with the original annular radiator.
The Germania DB two-seater carried a gunner ahead of the pilot, firing above the upper wing.
Built for the Schweizerische Fliegertruppe, the DH-4 failed to meet specifications.
Derived from the HD.3, the HD.9 was overtaken by the Armistice and only one was built.
The Salmson 9Z-engined HD.9 of late 1918.
Aerodynamically attractive, the Heinrich Pursuit was tested at McCook Field in 1918.
The Hereter T.H. was completed too late for the fighter competition for which it was designed.
Flown in 1919, the Barron-designed fighter was winner in the Concurso de Aviones.
The Knoller 70.01 as originally flown in November 1917 with wing warping control.
The unconventional Lloyd 40.16 biplane.
Macchi’s first landplane fighter, the M.14 served primarily in the training role.
The first Morane-Saulnier biplane fighter, the Type AF, did not achieve production.
The Nieuport monoplane of 1917 in initial form
The Nieuport monoplane of 1917 in its second form.
The first of the Lorraine-Dietrich-engined Nieuport prototypes.
The second of the Lorraine-Dietrich-engined Nieuport prototypes.
Under test in May 1918, the Hispano-Suiza-engined prototype was overtaken by the Nie 29.
The B.N.1 bore no relationship to any French Nieuport, being designed by H P Folland.
The Type CF appeared in the July 1918 Fighter Evaluation held at Aspern.
The sole example of the Phonix 20.14 which was completed in December 1916.
The Phonix 20.16 is illustrated here in its original sesquiplane configuration.
After tests in June 1917, the Phonix 20.16 was rebuilt with an entirely new wing cellule.
The sole example of the Phonix 20.14 which was completed in December 1916.
The Phonix 20.16 is illustrated here in its original sesquiplane configuration.
The P.V.2 anti-Zeppelin aircraft which was intended to carry a two-pounder Davis gun.
The P.V.2bis introduced significant design changes compared with the original P.V.2.
The P.V.2 anti-Zeppelin aircraft which was intended to carry a two-pounder Davis gun.
The two-seat P.V.4 sesquiplane float fighter lacked the promise to warrant further development.
The P.V.5 was fitted with pontoon-type floats and was flight tested in mid-1917.
The P.V.5a discarded the sesquiplane form of the P.V.5 in favour of that of equi-span biplane.
The P.V.5 was fitted with pontoon-type floats and was flight tested in mid-1917.
The P.V.7 single-seat lightweight anti-Zeppelin fighter flew in June 1917.
Five examples were built for testing in 1918 of the SAB 1 fighter.
Engine-maker Salmson designed the Sal 3 fighter to make use of the company’s unusual Salmson 9Z water-cooled radial engine.
Thoroughly conventional, the D III proved unspectacular when tested in 1918.
The SW 15 enjoyed strictly limited success and only three examples were built.
The concept prototype of the SG.1 was apparently Louis Bechereau’s first attempt to produce a single-seat fighter for the SPAD concern.
The first S.XV in its initial form with a large spinner-like fairing ahead of the propeller.
The S.XV/2 which featured extended wings, redesigned tail and modified engine installation.
The S.XV/2 with extended wing and new tail.
The S.XVII was fundamentally an S.XIII airframe with a 300 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Fb engine.
The S.XXI was basically similar to the S.XVII, but had ailerons on both upper and lower wings.
The S.XXII was unusual in having an aft-mounted, inverse-taper, forward-swept lower wing.
The SPAD S.XXII fighter flown in 1919.
Built in Milan in 1919, the sole Tebaldi-designed fighter was of distinctive appearance and is seen with lower outer wing panels attached.
The final form of the Tebaldi-Zari fighter with detachable lower outer wing panels shown dotted.
The design of the Weymann W-1, built at Villacoublay in 1915, defied convention.
The Weymann W-1 with Clerget engine.
Tested in 1919, the Wibault WIB 1 was bested by the Nieuport 29 in official trials.