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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Phonix D-I/D-II/D-III

Страна: Австро-Венгрия

Год: 1917

Истребитель

Phonix - 20.14 / 20.16 - 1916 - Австро-Венгрия<– –>Phonix - D.IV - 1918 - Австро-Венгрия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


PHONIX D.I/D.II/D.III

  Проведенная весной 1917 года инженерами фирмы "Фёникс" глубокая модернизация истребителя "Ханза-Бранденбург" привела к появлению фактически нового самолета, получившего обозначение "Фёникс" D.I. От своего предшественника он отличался крыльями увеличенного размаха с обычными стойками и расчалками, а также - двигателем "Иеронимус" (Hieronimus, сокращенно - Hiero) мощностью - 200 л.с. Длину фюзеляжа тоже слегка увеличили с целью повышения стабильности в полете. Вооружение состояло из двух синхропулеметов "Шварцлозе", размещенных под капотом.
  Несмотря на более мощный мотор, скоростные данные машины остались на уровне "Ханза-Бранденбурга", а скороподъемность даже слегка понизилась, зато истребитель стал более устойчивым и простым в пилотировании. С августа 1917-го самолет выпускался серийно, а осенью начал поступать на итало-австрийский фронт. Всего построено 120 (по другим данным - 150) "фёниксов" D.I. В марте 1918 г. его сменил в производстве "Фёникс" D.II, отличавшийся измененной формой стабилизатора и рулем высоты с роговой аэродинамической компенсацией. Летные данные остались без изменений. Было заказано 150 таких машин, из них построено 144. Часть самолетов (модификация D.lla) оснащалась новыми 230-сильными моторами Hiero-230.
  Летом 1918-го самолет прошел очередную модернизацию. Для улучшения управляемости элероны установили на обоих крыльях, а пулеметы вынесли наружу, на капот, чтобы улучшить их охлаждение и облегчить устранение задержек в полете. 230-сильный двигатель рассматривался в качестве стандартной силовой установки для этой машины, получившей обозначение "Фёникс" D.III. Но, из-за нехватки таких моторов, до конца войны успели построить менее 50 "троек".
  В боях "фёниксы" проявили себя как прочные и надежные машины, однако по скорости и маневренности они уступали истребителям союзников, особенно - самолеты с 200-сильными моторами, которых было большинство. Конструкция "Фёникса" считалась перетяжеленной, а опытные австро-венгерские пилоты предпочитали ему изделия фирм "Авиатик" и "Оэффаг".
  По окончании Мировой войны некоторые из уцелевших "фёниксов" поступили на вооружение югославской авиации и применялось в конфликте с Италией в Западной Словении.
  В 1919 году Швеция закупила в Австрии 17 "Фёниксов" D.III. Шведам машина понравилась, и в 1924 году авиазавод в Мальмё выпустил еще 10 истребителей, для которых были приобретены немецкие 185-сильные двигатели BMW-IIIa. Самолеты состояли на вооружении шведских ВВС в качестве истребителей до 1930 г., а затем были переведены в метеорологическую службу и там летали еще шесть лет.
  
  
МОДИФИКАЦИИ
  
  D-I; двигатель "Геро", рядный, шестицилиндровый, водяного охлаждения, 200 л.с. Элероны только на верхнем крыле. Построено 160 экз.
  
  D-II; новая форма стабилизатора, рули высоты с аэродинамической компенсацией. Выпущено 144 экз.
  
  D-IIa; двигатель "Геро", 230 л.с. Элероны на обоих крыльях. Построено 48 экземпляров.
  
  D-III; измененная форма носовой части, пулеметы вынесены наружу и размещены поверх капота. Построено 28 серийных экземпляров.
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ: 2 синхр. 8-мм пулемета "Шварцлозе" на всех модификациях.
  
  
ЛЕТНО ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
   D.I D.IIa
  Размах, м 9,80 9,80
  Длина, м 6,75 6,62
  Высота, м 2,79
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 25,00 25,00
  Сухой вес, кг 716 685
  Взлетный вес, кг 951 985
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 180 195
  Время подъема на высоту
   1000 м, мин 3,5 3,0
   2000 м, мин 7,0 7,0
  Продолжительность полета, ч 2 2
  Потолок, м 6000 6800
  Экипаж, чел 1 1


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


PHONIX 20.15 Austria-Hungary

  While the 20.14 sesquiplane prototype was being rebuilt from the 28.48, Phonix completed a further fighter prototype, the 20.15, with a Sparmann-designed single-bay biplane wing cellule. The fuselage of Brandenburg D I 28.50 was used and the 185 hp Austro-Daimler engine was retained. Of fabric-covered wooden construction, the 20.15 was first flown in June 1917, and demonstrated handling characteristics far superior to those of the Brandenburg D I, but a barely improved performance. However, the 20.15 was to be considered as a lineal predecessor of the production Phonix D I, and, later assigned the training role, this prototype survived World War I, being offered for sale to Czechoslovakia in April 1920. No data are available.


PHONIX D I (TYPE 8) Austria-Hungary

  Having proved the superiority of the Sparmann-designed biplane cellule over the sesquiplane cellule, Phonix began in June 1917 to prepare engineering drawings for a series production fighter based on the 20.15 and the rebuilt 20.16 prototypes, and powered by a 200 hp Hiero six-cylinder water-cooled engine. Of wooden construction with plywood and fabric skinning, the new fighter, designated D I, carried an armament of two synchronised Schwarzlose 8-mm machine guns, and the first 11 aircraft were accepted by the K.u.k.Luftfahrttruppen in October 1917. Production for this service totalled 120 aircraft, deliveries being completed in the late spring of 1918, and 20 were also supplied to the Austro-Hungarian Navy. The D I remained at the Front until the end of hostilities (72 being at the Front on 1 August 1918) and was noteworthy for its sturdiness and excellent handling characteristics, although most pilots considered climb rate and level speed to be inadequate.

Max speed, 111 mph (178 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1000 m), 3.05 min.
Empty weight, 1,578 lb (716 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,096 lb (951 kg).
Span, 32 ft 1 4/5 in (9,80 m).
Length, 22 ft 1 3/4 in (6,75 m).
Height, 8 ft 8 1/3 in (2,65 m).
Wing area, 269.1 sqft (25,00 m2).


PHONIX D II (TYPE 9) Austria-Hungary

  Testing of the D I in October 1917 had elicited such responses from pilots as "superb flight characteristics, but only average performance." Phonix responded rapidly with a new prototype, the 20.18, which weighed some 176 lb (80 kg) less than the D I, flight trials commencing in November 1917. This was ordered into production as the D II. Similarly powered to the D I, the D II had a one-piece upper wing, higher aspect ratio ailerons and dihedral eliminated. Balanced ailerons were fitted and tailplane chord was reduced. During trials, the D II attained 16,405 ft (5 000 m) within 20 min as compared with 28 min required by the D I. Acceptances of the first of 48 D II fighters began in March 1918, these being followed by 48 of the D IIa version which differed in having a 230 hp Hiero engine in place of the 200 hp unit, although shortages of the uprated power plant resulted in some 20 per cent of the D IIa fighters being delivered to the K.u.k.Luftfahrttruppen with the lower-powered engine. The first D Ila fighters were despatched to the Front in late May 1918. Ten D Ila fighters were transferred to the Austro-Hungarian Navy in August 1918. The following performance data relate specifically to the D Ila.

Max speed, 115 mph (185 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1000 m), 3.0 min.
Span, 32 ft 1 4/5 in (9,80 m).
Length, 22 ft 1 3/4 in (6,75 m).
Height, 8 ft 8 1/3 in (2,65 m).
Wing area, 269. lsq ft (25,00 m2).


PHONIX D III Austria-Hungary
  
  Among D II derivatives participating in the July 1918 Fighter Evaluation held at Aspern was one D Ila (422.23) with ailerons on both upper and lower wings. After flying all participating fighters, Oblt Benno von Fiala and Oblt Frank Linke-Crawford expressed a preference for the four-aileron D IIa derivative on the basis of handling and manoeuvrability. Phonix immediately initiated work on a production version with a new four-aileron wing cellule of improved planform and the aileron interconnecting struts (which tended to vibrate) replaced by cables. Formal permission to proceed with series production of this aircraft (which had been tentatively designated "D II Series 222-neu) as the D III was received on 18 September 1918, with delivery of 100 aircraft to the K.u.k.Luftfahrttruppen scheduled to start in the following month. A contract had earlier been placed by the Austro-Hungarian Navy for 50 similar fighters powered by the 230 hp Hiero engine, and two or three of these had been accepted by November 1918. However, none was accepted by the K.u.k.Luftfahrttruppen, and when hostilities terminated 60 D III airframes were complete but without engines, 14 were 98 per cent complete and the remaining 26 were 75 per cent complete. On 6 July 1919, Dipl-Ing Edmund Sparmann and Max Perini demonstrated one of the naval D IIIs in Stockholm. This was purchased by the Thulin company from which, in April 1920, it was procured by Flygkompaniet of the Swedish Army, 20 more D IIIs being purchased via Germany for Flygkompaniet. These, referred to as Phonix 222s, were powered by the 200 hp Hiero engine and delivered in August 1920. Subsequently, in 1925, the Army Aircraft Factory at Malmen (CMF) built a further 10 Phonix 222s, these having the 185 hp BMW IIIa engine and additional fuel tanks faired into the upper wing. The first Swedish-built aircraft was delivered on 16 September 1925, and, like the original aircraft built by the parent company, carried two 6.5-mm Schwarzlose M17 guns. When Flygvapnet was established on 1 July 1926, the new service absorbed 12 ex-Army Phonix 222s (including three of the original fighters) which were assigned the designation J1, these being relegated to the training role from 1928 and the last being withdrawn in 1933. The following data relate to the 230 hp Hiero-powered D III.

Max speed, 117 mph (188 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1 000 m), 2.0 min.
Range, 217 mis (350 km).
Empty weight, 1,510 lb (685 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,097 lb (951 kg).
Span, 32 ft 1 4/5 in (9,80 m).
Length, 21 ft 8 2/3 in (6,62 m).
Height, 9 ft 10 1/2 in (3,01m).
Wing area, 269.1 sq ft (25,00 m2).

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Феникс D.I, февраль 1918г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Феникс" D.I серии 228 из состава авиароты Flik 63J австро-венгерских ВВС, весна 1918г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Феникс D.III, пилот Ш.Каша, май 1918г.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A preserved example of the Phonix D III, or Phonix 222, acquired by the Swedish Army in August 1920.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Phonix 20.15 mated the fuselage of a Brandenburg D I with a new wing cellule.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Based on the 20.16 prototype, the Phonix D I was built in series during 1917-18.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Derived from the Hansa-Brandenburg D I, the Phonix D I adopted a more conventional interplane strut arrangement and a prominent fin. First flown in mid-1917, the Phonix D I entered service in February 1918, with 150 going to the Austro-Hungarian Army air arm and 40 to the Austro-Hungarian Navy. Not particularly agile, the D I, with its 200hp Hiero, had a top level speed of 112mph at sea level and was said to have a good rate of climb. Armed with twin 8mm Schwarzlose, the proneness of these guns to jamming, along with their inaccessibility in the D I was a point of major criticism. The machine seen here was the 45th of the second 50 production batch.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Феникс" D.I
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фёникс" D.I австро-венгерской военно-морской авиации.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Феникс" D.I на полевом аэродроме итало-австрийского фронта, лето 1918 г.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Phonix 20.18 prototype of the D II.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Феникс" D.II из 9-й австрийской истребительной авиароты (Flik 9J).
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Oblt Linke-Crawford's Phonix D II.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The D IIa was essentially a more powerful version of the basic D II, appearing in May 1918.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A modified D IIa (422.23) with ailerons on both upper and lower wings for D III development.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Phonix D III emerged in mid-1918 in response to fighter pilots' criticism of the Phonix D I and II's excessive degree of stability. What they wanted, above all, was a machine that could be thrown about with ease, not effort. What Phonix did on their D III was to take off the dihedral, or tilting up of the wings from the fore-and-aft centre, and to add a second pair of ailerons to the lower wing. These modifications, along with the use of a 230hp Heiro engine improved both agility and top level speed to 121mph at sea level. Seen here is the prototype D III, production deliveries of which were only beginning to reach the Austro-Hungarian line units at the time of the Armistice. The type, however, did go on to serve with the Swedish forces, who bought 17 in 1919 and built a further 10 locally in 1924.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Самолет Феникс DIII с дополнительным наружным топливным баком, установленным на нижнем крыле / A Phonix D.III 1918 type Single-seater. A Phonix Two-seater is seen in the background
Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
Phonix D.III
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A Phonix 222 alias D III in Swedish service in 1936 when employed for weather reconnaissance.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The D I, the first Phonix series fighter.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Phonix D II illustrated by the general arrangement drawing entered service in March 1918.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A general arrangement drawing of the D III.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Phonix D-IIa