Книги

Centennial Perspective
J.Forsgren
Swedish Military Aircraft 1911-1926
142

J.Forsgren - Swedish Military Aircraft 1911-1926 /Centennial Perspective/ (68)

Phonix C.I/FVM Dront

  The Phonix C.I enjoyed long, varied and successful career in Sweden. Following the purchase of one Austrian-built Phonix C.I, no less than 36 licence-built aircraft entered service with AFK, and, from 1926, Flygvapnet. In Sweden, the Phonix C.I was colloquially known as the Dront (ie Dodo). Originally intended as a two-seat escort fighter, the Dront was largely operated as reconnaissance aircraft and, later on, as advanced trainers. The Dront was one of the most numerous and important airplanes of the AFK, and, later, Flygvapnet. The last Dront was withdrawn from use in June 1935. Sadly no Dront was set aside for preservation.
  Following invitation by the Swedish Aeronautical Society and the newspaper Dagens Nyheter, two Phonix aircraft, one D.III single-seat fighter (flown by Edmund Sparmann) and one two-seat C.I (flown by Max Perini), serial number 121.105 (c/n 1102), arrived in Stockholm in June 1919 for a series of demonstration flights. Both the D.III and C.I had better overall performance than any of the airplanes then in service with the Swedish army and naval air arms. No funds for their purchase were immediately available, and both the C.I and D.III were purchased by AETA, with the C.I being registered as S-AAA, thus becoming the first civilian-registered aircraft in Sweden. On October 10,1919, the C.I was transferred to AFK, being formally purchased in December the same year, with the funds being provided on December 31. Issued with the serial number 9102, the C.I was evaluated by AFK service pilots, subsequently being deemed highly suitable for service.
  In early 1920, FVM initiated the process of making measurements for new drawings of the Phonix C.I for licence production. Some 40 220 h.p. Benz engines had been acquired in February 1920 for the FVM-built Phonix C.Is.
  On May 10, 1920, an initial batch of 10 aircraft was ordered. It is unclear if any efforts were made to acquire further Austrian-built Phonix C.Is.The Phonix C.I was designated as E 1 (E standing for Escort). However, it soon became known as the Dront (i.e. Dodo), a name bestowed upon the airplane by Gosta von Porat. Apparently, von Porat thought the rather ungainly Phonix had the looks of a Dront. Much to his chagrin, von Porat learned that the Dront was a bird most whose foremost characteristic was its inability to fly! The designation E 1 was rarely used, even in contemporary documentation, the aircraft being commonly known and referred to as the Dront. The E 1 Dronts received the serial numbers 0116, 0120 to 0128, 2170 to 2178, 3180 to 3188 and 4190 to 4198 (even numerals only), with four more, 4120, 4124, 4126, 4174 and 4178 being reassigned to Dronts from other types of airplanes that had been struck off charge.
  Due to a number of reasons, the Swedish-built Dront had lower overall performance characteristics than the original Phonix C.I. Apart from providing less number of horsepower than the original Hiero engine, the Benz engine was also heavier. Additionally, heavier wood was used, with the airframe structure also being strengthened by Henry Kjellson, resulting in a heavier airplane.
  A second batch of 10 was ordered on October 9, 1921, and a further 10 on September 7, 1923. In all, 30 Dront fuselages and 41 sets of wings were built, out of which 26 aircraft were assembled until January 1925. The remaining parts were used as spares, with accidents being quite frequent.
  By 1924, the Dront was showing its age, and, due to the lack of 220 h.p Benz engines, it was decided to discontinue production. However, following the failed attempts of the J 24 fighter powered by the 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine, it was decided to produce an improved Dront, to be powered by Hispano-Suiza engines. One Dront, serial number 4192, was fitted with a Hispano-Suiza for tests. Ten new-build Dront fuselages were ordered on November 20, 1925, with a similar number of sets of wings being ordered on January 8, 1926. This new higher-performance Dront was designated as E 2, but was usually referred to as the Hispano-Dront. Although intended as an attack and escort aircraft, the Hispano-powered Dront was mainly used as an advanced trainer. The Hispano-Dronts were initially assigned the serial numbers 620 to 634 (even numerals only), 336 and 338 respectively.
  When Flygvapnet was established on July 1, 1926, 16 E 1 Dronts remained in service. Most were used by the Flying School at Ljungbyhed as advanced trainers, with one being assigned to the Air Staff HQ in Stockholm, for use as a transport and continuation trainer. By some junior pilots, the Dront commanded great respect, being considered difficult to fly. Nils Soderberg - who ultimately rose to the rank of General - later described the Dront as “An airplane with distinct characteristics. Due to the short lower wing, there was no ground effect on landing. --- Aerobatics could be performed with few problems, although it protested wildly if treated improperly.”
  Things could go wrong, though. On one occasion, the head of the Flying School, Gustaf Strom, decided to show off the proper technique of landing a Dront in front of all the flying instructors and trainee pilots. Strom entered the landing pattern, but, due to a strong cross-wind, the landing turned into a crash. Having watched the Dront turn itself into kindling, the assembled pilots ran towards the wreck, thinking Strom had been seriously injured or even killed. However, Strom simply rose, looked around, then issuing an order to “take this rubbish away”, before marching off.
  In 1928, the E 1 Dront were redesignated as O 4 (Ovningsflygplan 4, ie Practice Airplane Type 4). The O 4’s served out their mundane but important role in diminishing numbers until the final two, serials numbers 6126 and 626 respectively, were withdrawn from use in January 1932. Interestingly, in 1928, two O 4 Dronts were fitted with 260 h.p. Isotta-Fraschini engines, and redesignated as the O 5. The conversion was known as the Isotta-Dront. Both O 5s, serial numbers 530 and 531 respectively, remained at F 5, with one being lost in a crash on October 9, 1929. The sole remaining O 5 was withdrawn from use in October 1930.
  The Hispano-Dronts received the designation A 1 (Attack Airplane Type 1), with most being transferred to Wing F 4 at Froson in central Sweden. Here, the ubiquitous Dront was used as a multi-purpose combat aircraft. However, by 1929, the seven survivors were transferred to F 5 for use as advanced trainers. The final three A 1s, serial numbers 1691, 1692 and 1693 respectively, were struck off charge in June 1935.
  As mentioned previously, no FVM Dront survives in Sweden. During the mid-1980s, a Swedish vintage aircraft enthusiast stated his intention to build a flyable Dront replica. This project has yet to reach fruition.

FVM E 1 and E 2 Dront Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
E 1 Dront E 2 Dront
Engine 220 h.p. Benz 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza
Span 11,00 m 11,00 m
Length 7,53 m 7,70 m
Height 2,95 m 2,95 m
Empty weight 974 kg 924 kg
Take-off weight 1,340 kg 1,450 kg
Maximum speed 168 km/h 195 km/h
Climb to 1,000 metres 5,7 minutes 3,4 minutes
Armament 2x8 mm machine guns One fixed and one flexible 8 mm machine gun
Phonix C.I 0122 in Swedish service.
Dront 9102 in Swedish service.
FVM Hispano-Dront 324 in Swedish service.
The Phonix C.I served asa template for the FVM Dront. It remained in AFK service for three-and-a-half years, being written off on May 20, 1923 after colliding with a tree near Osby following engine failure.
An A 1 Dront of Wing F 4. The photo was most likely taken in 1928. It was one powered by the 300 hp Hispano-Suiza V-8 as shown by the revised nose contours. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
Immaculate Dront serial number 0116 during a regular winter exercise. Note the four skis. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
An FVM S 21 in close formation with an FVM Dront makes an interesting comparison between the two types of airplanes. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
The mortal remains of FVM Dront serial number 0122 following a crash on July 2, 1923.The airplane was rebuilt, being transferred to Flygvapnet in 1926. Note that two of the airmen on the left are smoking! Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Dront serial number 2178 was written off in a landing accident at Harnosand on March 30, 1923. While taxiing, the pilot, Gustaf Strom, noted a patch of tree branches laid out on the ice. Believing this to be the parking area, reinforced by a number of people waving their arms, Strom steered the airplane in the direction of the tree branches. Unfortunately, this turned out to be the source of ice of the local brewery. Despite attempts at pulling the Dront up from the water, the heavy engine resulted in the airplane eventually sinking to the bottom. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
Phonix D.III

  The first Phonix D.III had previously served with the Austro-Hungarian Navy, serial number J.41 (c/n 1145). On the invitation of the Swedish Aeronautical Society and the newspaper Dagens Nyheter, the Phonix D.III was displayed in Stockholm in June 1919. Flown by Edmund Sparmann, the performance of the Phonix D.III impressed both AFL pilots and the media. Purchased by the Thulin works, the Phonix D.III was registered as S-AAB. Eventually sold to AFK in the spring of 1920, with the serial number 935 being issued.
  In the summer of 1920, Ernst Fogman managed to obtain 20 Phonix D.III’s through the brokers Steffen & Heyman. All had been built following the end of the war, and were virtually brand-new. The airplanes arrived by rail in August 1920, with Fogman’s maid Maria Lofmark’s name appearing on the packing slips. The purchase was highly irregular, with Fogman having to obtain the necessary funds after the airplanes had been delivered!
  Four of the D.III’s carried the former Austro-Hungarian Air Force serial numbers 222.122, 142, 143 and 152. The batch of 20 Phonix D.III’s were issued with the serials 941 to 979 (odd numbers only). On November 29, 1920, the first completed airplane (941) was air tested by Gustaf von Segebaden. Powered by 200 h.p. Hiero engines, the Phonix D.III’s had been eagerly expected by the AFK pilots, who finally had a modern, high-performance fighter to hone their skills on.
  Tragedy struck on March 5,1921, when Gustaf von Segebaden was killed when his airplane (935), crashed at Bygdoy, Norway. The cause of the crash was due to the upper wing main spar breaking apart during aerobatics.
  Following von Segebaden’s fatal crash, the wings of 941 were used for load tests, with the engines of 941 and 943 becoming spare engines for the rest of the diminishing fleet of Phonix D.III’s. Attrition was high, with only three of the original airplanes remaining on July 1, 1926 to be transferred to Flygvapnet. Between 1921 and 1924, 15 sets of spare wings were built by FVM, along with one fuselage.
  On January 17, 1925, ten Phonix D.III’s were ordered from FVM. The first airplane was ready for delivery in September 1925, with all having been taken on charge by March 1926. Serial numbers were 5131 to 5149 (odd numbers only). The first of these, 5131, crashed in March 1926. Powered by 185 h.p. BMW IIIa engines (additional supplies of Hiero engines were not possible), also being fitted with two fuel tanks in the upper wing. The less powerful BMW engine, additional wing tanks, as well as the use of heavier-grade wood and several structural reinforcements resulted in lower overall performance and poorer flight characteristics than the original Phonix D.III’s. The FVM-built airplanes also suffered from instability, with the spin characteristics being considered dangerous.
  On July 1,1926, three of the original Phonix D.III’s (947, 965 and 975) and nine FVM-built airplanes were transferred to Flygvapnet.
  During a test flight on July 7,1926 in one of the FVM-built airplanes (5141), entered a flat spin, forcing the pilot, Lieutenant Nils Soderberg, to bale out at an altitude of 400 metres. Soderberg was the first Swedish military pilot to save his life by parachute, thus becoming a member of the Caterpillar Club.
  In November 1928, the seven remaining Phonix D.III’s were transferred to 5.Skolflygkaren (5.Flight Training School) for use as advanced trainers. At the same time, new serial numbers, 060-066, were issued. The final Phonix D.III in Flygvapnet service was damaged in a crash on November 21, 1933, being struck off charge on 22 December.

Phonix D.III Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 220 h.p. Hiero (FVM Phonix D.III 1 x 185 h.p. BMW)
   Length: 6,60 m (6,85 m)
   Wingspan: 9,80 m
   Height: 2,79 m
   Wing area: 23,5 m2 (25 m2)
   Empty weight: 685 kg (660 kg)
   Maximum weight: 951 kg (1,063 kg)
   Maximum speed: 195 km/h (160 km/h)
   Armament: 2x8 mm m/22 machine guns


Preservation

Phonix D.III

  Built by the Phonix Flugzeugwerke post-war, this particular Phonix D.III was one of 20 delivered to Sweden in the summer of 1920. It was issued with the serial number 947. Attrition was high, with only three Austro-Hungarian built Phonix D.III’s surviving to be incorporated into the independent Flygvapnet. Following an accident at Malmen in late 1926, the airplane was struck off charge on November 27, 1926. Through good fortune, the Phonix D.III was not scrapped. It was displayed in central Stockholm in 1951 during the Flygvapnet 25th Anniversary. Since 1984, the Phonix D.III is on display at Flygvapenmuseum. A 200 h.p. Hiero engine (c/n 33231) is fitted. Although doubt has been cast as to whether the airplane is of Austro-Hungarian or Swedish manufacture, research show that the length of the fuselage is 6,6 metres (the Swedish-built Phonix D.III’s were 6,85 metres in length), thus giving strong evidence that the airplane is one of the original Phonix D.III’s imported in 1920.
Phonix D.III 935 in Swedish service.
Phonix D.III 963 in Swedish service.
Phonix D.III serial number 947 photographed on June 20, 2022. Per Bjorkqvist
The unique Phonix D.III photographed on March 23, 2017. Jan Forsgren
The first Phonix D.III, serial 935, was obtained by AFK in April 1920. Note the scorpion insignia. This airplane was lost due to wing spar failure on March 6, 1921 in Norway, with the pilot Gustaf von Segebaden being killed. Via www. digitaltmuseum.se
Phonix D.III serial number 947 on display at Malmen, most likely during the early 1960's. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
An almost idyllic photo from Malmen in the mid-1920's. The airplanes are Phonix D.III's and Tummelisa's. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
A fine air-to-air view of an AFK Phonix D.III. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
The Phonix D.lll was the first real fighter airplane to enter service with the AFK. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
An FVM-built Phonix D.III entering a loop. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
A line-up of six AFK Phonix D.III's. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
The cockpit of Phonix D.III serial number 947, photographed on June 20, 2022. Per Bjorkqvist
Phonix D.III serial number 967 was written off in a ground fire. Most likely, the accident occured during the 1923 ILUG event. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
The attrition rate for the Phonix D.III's was high. This particular accident occured on March 28, 1924, resulting in serial number 961 being struck off charge. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Supermarine Channel II

  Only one Supermarine Channel II was used in Sweden. In 1921, the Swedish Navy dispatched two high-ranking officers to Great Britain was to examine flying boats suitable for the MFV. The Vickers Viking IV was briefly considered, but at the suggestion of Carl Clemens Bucker (a former German naval pilot who in 1921 had founded the company Svenska Aero AB) one three-seat Supermarine Channel II was ordered for comparative trials with the Caspar S.I (redesignated on December 1, 1922 as the Heinkel HE 1). Taken on charge in July 1921, the Supermarine Channel was assigned the serial number Fb 46. Before the proper commencement of the trials the Channel was written off in a crash at Harsfjarden on September 22, 1922.
  Two days later, on Sunday September 24, the newspaper Dagens Nyheter published a brief account of the crash.
  "Flying Boat crashes from an altitude of 30 metres
  On Friday, a nasty accident occurred at Harsfjarden, when one of the Navy’s flying boats crashed from an altitude of almost 30 metres, being severely damaged, with the pilot and passenger escaped without injuries.
  The flying boat in question, number 46, was piloted by Lieutenant Runius of the Coastal Artillery, presently attached to the gunnery school’s air detachment, who during a training flight all of a sudden suffered engine failure. Before the pilot was able to “get (the machine) upwards, it crashed at a terrifying speed towards the water surface. The accident was observed from the armoured ship Dristigheten (Boldness), which was located some 2,000 metres away from the site of the crash. The steam launches of Dristigheten sped to the rescue. However, it all ended better than originally feared by the spectators. When the site of the crash was reached, the pilot, Lieutenant Runius, as well as the observer, a naval corporal, were uninjured. The machine had been filled with water, but was still afloat, with the pair of aviators having suffered an involuntary cold bath.
  The Flying boat was then towed to Dristigheten, and subsequently hoisted aboard a barge, which transported it to the Harsfjarden air station. During the initial examination, it was discovered that the wings and hull had been severely damaged, while the engine was not at all damaged. Damage to the airplane was estimated at SEK 15,000, which was beyond economical repair.”
  The cause of the crash was due to engine trouble during take-off. The reason for this was assumed to be layers of soot on the spark plugs, or water-contaminated fuel. The high winds made the ensuing forced landing more difficult. Another view of the cause of the crash was that the change of centre of gravity which occurred when it was flown without the gunner/observer (or ballast) in the front cockpit. In any event, the pilot, Lieutenant Runius, received no blame for the crash.
  The 240 h.p. A.S. Puma engine (c/n 11432) was salvaged and fitted to a Heinkel HE 1 (Fb 40). This particular airplane later became S 2 serial number 240.

Pilot Impression

  One naval pilot to fly the Channel II was Albin Ahrenberg, who later wrote of his first, hair-raising flight in the flying boat in his memoirs Ett Flygarliv (A life in Aviation).
  “One day we went to Frihamnen (Stockholm harbour) to collect a huge packing crate, which contained the latest naval aircraft acquisition. It was a flying boat, a Supermarine, that had been purchased and test flown in England which we, according to available plans, would assemble. When the airplane was ready, I spoke to the officer who had been present in England when it was delivered, and asked if any particular pilot’s notes regarding the flying characteristics were available. He replied that he was not aware of any such information, but I nevertheless sat down and prepared to make taxiing runs, and then take-off in order to learn more about its performance.
  The construction of the hull was, from a maritime point of view, very appealing. It was extremely strong, built out of veneer, beautifully shaped and had the appearance of being seaworthy. The wings were located on the centre fuselage, with the engine being fitted between the wings. It was reminiscent of the Savoia (S 13) which I had flown previously, although the nose section in front of the wings was much longer, and contained three separate cockpits in a row. The pilot sat nearest the wings, ie most aft, with the radio operator in the middle seat and the gunner/observer up-front. As was common practice with all test flights, the pilot was the only one aboard. There wasn’t much fuel in the tanks, and she lifted off quickly, climbing seemingly with a mind of her own. I did not reflect about this state of affairs quickly enough, otherwise I would have cut the engine at the moment of lift-off. When I did begin to put my mind to it, I had already reached too great an altitude to safely cut the engine. It seemed as if the pusher engine was pressing the nose downwards. Attempting to experiment at low altitude would be life threatening. Better then to climb to have more room to manoeuvre. My thought was to cut the engine, and thus try to bring the nose down. At an altitude of about 500 metres the nose began to slowly turn downwards, and I eased off on the elevator. But, as I reduced the engine revs, the nose turned upwards. I flew around for about half-an-hour, thinking about how in the world I would bring this crate down without killing myself.
  Finally, I flew to Kanholmsfjarden, where the stretch of water was sufficiently long for the type of landing which I had arrived at as being the best, given the circumstances. I flew her down, close to the water, letting her touch the surface at full speed. The landing speed was likely to have been around 175 km/h, and I thanked God that the hull was so well constructed. The friction of the stem against the water provided a powerful braking effect, while the aeroplane at the same time risked turning over. I reduced the engine revs, finally cutting the engine when the speed had been reduced to around 80 km/h. The whole experience had been quite frightening, and I steered for land, attached the mooring rope, and proceeded to fill the front cockpit with rocks equating the weight of two grown men. I then took-off again, finding to my delight that she was one of the nicest machines I had ever flown.
  Following my experience during the test flight, I was able to issue instructions regarding the distribution of weight prior to a flight. The aeroplane was then assigned to serve in the Coastal Fleet, but despite a red warning note in front of the pilot’s nose, clearly warning to fly it without being properly loaded. The pilot panicked when he immediately following lift-off could not get the aeroplane to fly horizontally. He then cut the engine, which resulted in the nose pointing upwards, and the aeroplane falling over one wing from an altitude of 20 metres into the water. This rather strange landing made the hull break into three pieces”.

Supermarine Channel II Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 240 h.p. Armstrong Siddeley Puma
   Length: 9,14 m
   Wingspan: 15,36 m
   Height: 3,96 m
   Wing area: 42,07 m2
   Empty weight: 1,068 kg
   Maximum weight: 1,600 kg
   Maximum speed: 148 km/h
   Armament: -
Acquired for comparative evaluation against the Caspar S.I, the sole MFV Supermarine Channel II was written off in September 1922. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Avro 504K / 504K Mk. II

  A total of five Avro 504K’s served with the MFV. The first two of these were standard Avro 504K’s, with the last three being Avro 504K Mk. Il’s. The Avro 504K Mk. II was a development of the basic Avro 504K. In essence, the Avro 504K Mk. II consisted of a 504K fuselage fitted with 504N wings and landing gear. At the time, the market envisaged by Avro was that of smaller air arms wishing to upgrade their fleets of Avro 504K’s would use conversion kits provided by Avro. In the event, the Avro 504K Mk. II was not a success, with only a few being completed/converted. Sweden was one exception, with three Avro 504K Mk. Il’s being sold to MFV.
  Although a request to obtain fighters had been rejected, higher-performance airplanes were nevertheless deemed necessary. For advanced training, the Avro 504K seemed to fit the bill.
  The first two Avro 504K’s were ordered on October 27, 1923, with the price being £ 1,230 each. In January 1924 two MFV Lieutenants named Palm and Wigert, were despatched to Britain to perform check flights on the Avro 504’s. During their stay in Britain, Palm and Wigert also attended a course in "stunt flying”. Both airplanes were shipped from Hull on January 18,1924, being taken on charge on February 2. Issued with the serial numbers Fb 6 (Avro c/n 10671) and Fb 7 (c/n 10688), the Avro 504K’s were based at Hagernas and used as basic trainers. During the winters, the aircraft were flown on skis. An additional three airplanes were bought in August 1924, being shipped to Sweden in December. The price was £ 750 for each airplane, excluding engines. Captain Ragnar Werner of the MFV made a couple of check flights with the first Avro 504K Mk. II on December 18 and 19. The airplanes were issued with the serial numbers Fb 8 (c/n R3 CL.16915), taken on charge on January 19,1925, Fb 9 (c/n R3 CL.16949), taken on charge on January 7, 1925, and Fb 10 (c/n R3 CL.16932), taken on charge on January 7, 1925.
  In early 1926, Fb 6 sustained damage in two separate incidents, on February 12 (forced landing due to engine failure) and on March 15 (due to lack of engine power on take-off). On February 22, 1926, Fb 8 was damaged in a landing accident. For unknown reasons, Fb 10 was loaned to the AFK, and delivered to Malmen on April 28, 1926.
  Following the establishment of Flygvapnet on July 1, 1926, all five Avro 504K’s were due to be transferred to Ljungbyhed. After entering Flygvapnet service, the serial numbers 072 to 076 (the former Fb 6 to Fb 10) were assigned. As it turned out, Flygvapnet experience with the Avro 504K was not a happy one. Within five months, three of the Avro 504K’s were written off in accidents.
  The first of these occured on November 17, 1927, involving serial number 072. On February 28, 1928, serial number 075 was struck by an Albatros B.II, being damaged beyond repair. Just over a month later, on March 30, 1928, serial number 076 crashed during emergency landing training. The aircraft ended up in a river, with the student pilot in the front seat drowning when the fuselage folded like a jackknife.
  On June 29, 1928, the last two remaining airplanes, serial numbers 073 and 074 were struck off charge due to engine wear and tear. The former Avro 504 was sold to a civilian owner, being registered as S-AABT (later SE-ABT), surviving until the early 1930’s. Interestingly, when a new aircraft designation system came into effect on July 1,1928, the Avro 504 was issued with the designation Sk 3 (Sk being short for Skolflygplan 3, ie Training Airplane Type 3).
  However, as the last Avro 504s had been struck off charge two days before, the Sk 3 designation was, formally speaking, never used.

Avro 504K Mk. II Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 130 h.p. Clerget
   Length: 8,81 m
   Wingspan: 10,97 m
   Height: 3,18 kg
   Wing area: 29,73 m2
   Empty weight: 558 kg
   Maximum weight: 828 kg
   Maximum speed: 137 km/h
   Armament: -
Avro 504K '6', Marinens Flygvasende
Serial number Fb 6 was the first of five Avro 504's delivered to the MFV. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Avro 504K Mk.II serial number 075 following transfer to Flygvapnet. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
One of the three Avro 504K Mk.II's transferred to Flygvapnet. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
AEG G.V

  The AEG G.V heavy bomber first appeared in May 1918, but did enter frontline service. A few were modified as ad hoc airliners by the Deutsche Luftreederei (DLR). Almost immediately after the great War had ended on November
11, 1918, an AEG G.V of the DLR was flown to Eksjo in southern Sweden. Although it was officially stated that the November 23 flight was of the route proving kind for DLR, the Swedish Military Attache in Berlin was aboard the airplane. In early December, the airplane was purchased by AFK. An additional five AEG G.V’s were ordered on December 27, 1918. The Swedish order for a total of six AEG G.V’s was confirmed in letter from AEG, dated November 29, 1918. The cost of the airplanes were 110,000 DM each. They were delivered stripped of all military equipment. Final delivery was to take place on March 31, 1919. However, the last AEG G.V did not arrive until September 1919.
  The AEG G.V’s were classed as twin-engine reconnaissance airplanes. However, their actual use was strictly limited. The Mercedes engines were reused, being fitted to FVM S 18’s.
  Serial number 8500 (intended); crashed in Germany on March 28, 1919 during the delivery flight. Three killed.
  Serial number 8502; previous identity 1718/18. Delivered to Malmen in late 1918, accepted on December 12. Struck off charge in 1920.
  Serial number 9504; accepted on May 19,1919. Crashed in June 1919 due to carburettor ice. The pilot, lieutenant Gustaf von Segebaden, radio operator lt C E Lagerwall, the mechanic Ake Fries and the passenger R A Barring were all uninjured.
  Serial number 9506; previous identity 1712/18. Delivered to Malmen in early 1919, and accepted in May 20. No further information.
  Serial number 9508; accepted on June 2,1919. No further information.
  Serial number 9510; previous identity 1710/18. Accepted on August 11,1919. Crashed two days later at Dansjo farm, Kronobergshed due to engine failure. The pilot, Lieutenant Nils Rodehn and two passengers were uninjured.
  Serial number 9512; previous identity 501/18. Not accepted as the airplane was fitted with used engines. Left at Nasby Field outside Kristianstad on September 15, 1919 during the delivery flight. Destroyed in a storm on November
24, 1919. One of the Maybach engines was subsequently used to power a motorized sled at Solvesborg.

AEG G.V Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engines: 2 x 260 h.p. Mercedes D.IVa
   Length: 10,8 m
   Wingspan: 27,24 m
   Height: 4,5 m
   Wing area: n/a
   Empty weight: 2,700 kg
   Maximum weight: 4,600 kg
   Speed: 145 km/h
AEG G.V 9504 in Swedish service.
View of AEG G.V 301/18 in German markings during the war showing its enlarged, three-bay wing with Flettner tabs to reduce the pilot's aileron control forces. The AEG G.V may have been the best German night bomber to see combat. The AEG G.V was an extended-span development of the G.IV that could carry a heavier bomb load due to its larger wing area. It had a 'box' tail to provide more control authority for better handling in case of engine failure. The first AEG G.V bombers were delivered in August 1918 and 37 were delivered by October of the 50 ordered.
AEG G.V in Sweden postwar. The snow indicates this may be the first aircraft 1708/18, delivered 23 November 1918 before the purchase contract was signed.
Although the AEG G.V's saw limited use for long-range reconnaissance, their most valuable contribution to the AFK (and FVM) was the 260 h.p. Mercedes engines. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
AEG G.V serial number 9504 lasted only a few weeks before being written off at Malmen in June 1919.
AEG G.V after its crash in Sweden in 1919 displays under-fuselage details not normally visible in photos. Swedish markings have already been applied over the German night-bomber printed camouflage fabric.
Albatros B.lla

  First flown in 1914, the Albatros B.II was widely used during the Great War, initially for aerial reconnaissance but later as a primary trainer. Built in large numbers, Albatros B.II’s continued in service with several air arms well into the 1920’s. In 1920, five former Idflieg Albatros B.IIa’s were acquired by the MFV, being issued with the serial numbers Fb 1 to Fb 5.
  The previous identities are known for three of those airplanes; Johannisthal-built c/n 4880, delivered to MFV on June 12, 1920 as serial number Fb 1; c/n 4911 (Fb 2), delivered on July 1, 1920, and 799/17, delivered on December 20, 1920, as Fb 4. Based at Hagernas just east of Stockholm, the Albatros B.IIs were used for primary flight training. Three of the airplanes, serials 1, 2 and 4, were damaged in the devastating fire at Galarvarvet on August 5/6, 1921. Fb 5 was written off in a crash on September 27, 1924, and struck off charge the following month, along with Fb 3.
  The remaining three airplanes were transferred to Flygvapnet in 1926, eventually being designated as Sk 1. However, they did not arrive at Ljungbyhed until November 1926. Two were civilian-registered as S-AABU (Fb 2, on October 22, 1928), and SE-ACR (Fb 4, on September 10, 1931) respectively. The latter airplane has survived.

Albatros B.lla Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 120 h.p. Mercedes
   Length: 7,80 m
   Wingspan: 13,10 m
   Height: 3,25 m
   Wing area: n/a
   Empty weight: n/a
   Maximum weight: 1,092 kg
   Maximum speed: 115 km/h
   Armament: -


Albatros B.ll

  On July 26, 1914, the German pilot Lothar Wieland and the Danish passenger Paul Pollner, arrived in Stockholm in an Albatros B.II. Wieland had been sent on a demonstration and sales tour of Northern Europe, with the final destination apparently being St. Petersburg in Czarist Russia. However, upon landing at a muddy part of Ladugardsgarde in central Stockholm, the airplane turned turtle, with the propeller, fin/rudder and landing gear sustaining damage. Although replacement parts were ordered from the factory, these had not arrived when war broke out a few days later. The damaged airplane was eventually purchased for 25,000 kronor by the Swedish government, and incorporated into the Swedish government.
  At the time, the Albatros B.II was the most modern high performance airplane in Sweden. Inspected in minute detail by the engineer Lars Fjallback, who produced a set of plans while simultaneously repairing the airplane at Svenska Aeroplanfabriken (Swedish Airplane Factory, SAF). Following repairs, the Albatros B.II was flown to Malmen, and incorporated into the AFK as serial number 6. The airplane lasted until 1918, when it was written off in a crash.
  In March 1915, it was decreed that the Albatros B.II were to become a standard type of airplane in for primary flight training in AFK service. With its double set of controls, the Albatros B.II was to prove eminently suitable in this role. Fjallback’s drawings became the basis of licence production of the Albatros B.II in Sweden. In the event, between 1915 and 1925, the Albatros B.II was built by four different manufacturers.
  On July 24, 1915, six Albatros B.II 's were ordered from Svenska Aeroplanfabriken (2) and Sodertelge Verkstader (4). The former were designated SAF 3 by the factory, costing 27,000 kronor each, with the latter being designated as the SW 12, being priced at 31,000 kronor each, without engines. The pair of SAF-built airplanes were delivered in March 1916, and issued with the serial numbers 24 and 28. The four SW 12’s (serial numbers 16, 18, 20 and 22) were accepted between September 1915 and January 1916, despite the fact that all of the airplanes failed the contractual altitude test. In July 1916, an additional SW 12 (serial number 34) was delivered to the AFK in exchange for remains of three Farman HF 22’s.
  One SW 12 was experimentally fitted with floats, but proved to be unsuitable, the major issue apparently being the poor rate of climb.
  An order for four additional airplanes was placed with Sodertelge Verkstader on August 26, 1916. These airplanes were designated as the SW 20, essentially a refinement of the basic Albatros B.II. Among the features introduced on the SW 20 was reversing the pilot and observer positions to the more logical front and rear seats, as well as a redesignated fin/rudder. Additionally, the SW 20’s were powered by licence-built (by Vabis) Mercedes D.I engines. Each SW 20 cost 32,000 kronor, including the engine. The SW 20’s were issued with the serial numbers 746, 750, 752 and 754. The latter airplane was sold in early 1918 to Finland via Nordiska Aviatik AB.
  During the fall of 1916, four Albatros B.II’s were ordered from Nordiska Aviatik AB (NAB). Designated as the NAB 9, all four of these airplanes were delivered in 1917, with the serial numbers being 756, 758, 760 and 762 being issued. With Sodertelge Verkstader having ceased producing airplanes, NAB subsequently built a fifth NAB 9 (854) for the AFK. (NAB also built a few additional NAB 9’s for Finland and for the company’s own flying school, but these are out of the scope of this book.)
  As mentioned above, the primary role of the Albatros B.II in AFK service was flight instruction. However, some were also used for long-range neutrality patrols with the 1.Flygavdelningen (1.Flight Section) based at Vanersborg in southwestern Sweden and the 2.Flygavdelningen (2.Flight Section) based at Boden in northern Sweden. However, by late 1918, the Thulin FA had begun to replace the Albatros B.II in the long-range reconnaissance role.
  Production of the Albatros B.II also took place at FVM, Malmen. In the event, FVM went on to produce no less than 25 Albatros B.II’s. Out of these, 13 were powered by 120 h.p. Mercedes D.II engines (known as the Albatros 120), and 12 by 160 h.p. Mercedes engines (known as the Albatros 160). Final delivery took place in 1925.
  Following the establishment of Flygvapnet, 11 FVM-built Albatros 120’s were transferred. However, only eight of those were given the designation Sk 1 (Skolflygplan 1, ie Training Airplane Type 1) on July 1,1928. The final Sk 1’s were struck off charge in 1929.
  Ten Albatros 160’s were transferred to Flygvapnet. In the event, only seven were actually flown. One, serial number 1150, crashed on November 5, 1926. The remaining nine airplanes became 011-019. On July 1, 1926, the Albatros 160 was designated O 2 (Ovningsflygplan 2, ie Practice Airplane Type 2). Primarily used for basic training, the Albatros 160 remained in use until the early 1930’s.The final O 2 was struck off charge in January 1935.
  One FVM Albatros 120 has been preserved.

Albatros B.II (SW 20) Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 100 h.p. Vabis (licence-built Mercedes D.I)
   Length: 7,77 m
   Wingspan: 13,00 m
   Height: 3,30 m
   Wing area: 42 m2
   Take-off weight: 1,050 kg
   Maximum speed: 112 km/h


Preservation

Albatros B.lla

  One of five Albatros B.Ila’s purchased by the MFV in 1920, this particular airplane was transferred to Flygvapnet in 1926 as serial number 05. Struck off charge on June 27, 1928 (or possibly on April 11, 1929, depending on the source) being deemed an "older type, poor condition”. In the event, the airplane was sold to John S. Ericsson of Gothenburg, receiving the temporary registration SE-94 on May 8, 1931. Just over four months later, on September 10, 1931, the Albatros B.lla was registered as SE-ACR.
  In 1935, ownership of the airplane was transferred (albeit not officially) to the mechanic Evert Larsson, who paid 500 kronor as well as a motorcycle valued at 500 kronor for the old Albatros B.lla. The new owner replaced the Mercedes engine with a 110 h.p. Bristol Lucifer. Already on July 21, 1935, SE-ACR was written off in a crash, with the registration being cancelled shortly afterwards. However, it would appear that Larsson managed to get the airplane airworthy, continuing to fly it until 1939. The airplane was then stored in a barn near Stensjon.
  The Albatros B.lla was eventually rediscovered when an oil-mill company was doing an inventory of its stock of linseed oil. The airplane was in a very poor state of repair, with only the wings being complete. The fuselage was wrecked, with only the forward fuselage steel tube frame being recognizable. Also lacking was the landing gear, pilot’s seat, instrument panel and windscreen. The surviving parts of the Albatros B.lla were transferred by Evert Larsson to the aviation enthusiast Curt Palmblad. In 1961, Larsson donated the airplane to the Gothenburg Museum of Industrial History. Larsson subsequently stated that he had only kept the machine ”in his care”, and that it had been John Ericsson’s intention to transfer the ownership of the airplane to him at some undetermined juncture.
  Eventually restored and put on display as SE-ACR in a blue and silver color scheme, the Albatros B.lla was loaned to the local aviation historical society Kontaktgruppen, and displayed at the Karemo air museum near Kalmar. When the museum folded in the early 1990s, the Albatros B.lla was returned to Gothenburg. This historic airplane remains stored in a disassembled state to this day.


FVM Albatros 120

  Delivered to AFK on August 15, 1925 as serial number 464, this particular Albatros 120 was transferred to Flygvapnet in 1926. In September 1927, the airplane was being repaired. A new serial number, 04, was issued at the same time. On February 20, 1929, a new engine was fitted. By April 1929, the airplane was once again returned to the workshop for repairs.
  Formally struck off charge on June 14, 1929, the Albatros 120 avoided being scrapped. Its Mercedes engine removed, with the airplane being consigned to storage. At some undetermined junction, a wooden engine mock-up was built and fitted to the airplane.
  In 1967, a forward fuselage of a NAB-built Albatros B.II was donated to Flygvapenmuseum by a movie company which had used it as a wind machine, the working Mercedes engine (built by Vabis) was fitted to the Albatros 120. Apparently, it was planned to scrap the forward fuselage due to space considerations and the necessity to avoid duplication. Happily, this was not proceeded with, with the forward fuselage eventually being transferred to Arlanda Flygsamlingar.
  The Albatros 120 is on display at Flygvapenmuseum in Flygvapnet insignia.
Albatros B.II 464 in Swedish service.
Albatros B.II 519 in Swedish service.
FVM Albatros 120 serial number 04, photographed on June 20, 2022. Per Bjorkqvist
In late July 1914, Lothar Wieland and Paul Pollner arrived in Stockholm in an Albatros B.II. The airplane overturned on landing, with the propeller being smashed and the fin and undercarriage being damaged. Although spares were ordered from Germany, these had not arrived when war broke out. The Albatros B.II was obtained by the Swedish government. It is seen here under guard outside the A1 Artillery Regiment barracks in August 1914. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
SW 12 serial number 22 was the fourth SW-built Albatros B.II. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Originally delivered in 1924, Albatros 120 serial number 464 was transferred to Flygvapnet two years later. Struck off charge in 1929, this particular Albatros 120 is preserved at Flygvapenmuseum. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
A close-up of NAB-built Albatros B.II serial number 756 at Malmen. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
NAB-built Albatros B.II serial number 760 at Malmen. Note the enlarged rudder. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
A rare air-to-air picture of FVM-built Albatros 120 serial number 1140. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
A rare air-to-air picture of FVM-built Albatros 120 serial number 1140. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
An unidentified AFK Albatros B.II at a similarly unidentified location. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
MFV Albatros B.II serial number 4 at Hagernas following a slight mishap. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
The Albatros 120 serial number 04 photographed in June 1976 during the 50th Anniversary of Flygvapnet. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Operated by both MFV and Flygvapnet, this Albatros B.II was temporarily registered as SE-94 in 1931. Since the mid-1990's it has been confined to storage in Gothenburg. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Caspar S.I/Heinkel HE 1

  In January 1921, the former Imperial German Navy pilot Carl-Clemens Bucker forwarded information from the Caspar-Werke at Travemunde about the Caspar S.I two-seat reconnaissance floatplane. At the time, Bucker was employed by the MFV as a test pilot. Designed by Ernst Heinkel, the Caspar S.I was a direct development of the highly successful Brandenburg W 29.
  In April 1921, the MFV Commander-in-Chief, Thor Lubeck, with Bucker in tow, visited Travemunde for negotiations. Already on May 4, a contract for the supply of one airplane, along with the rights for licence manufacture, was signed. The prototype Caspar S.I cost 40,000 kronor, with a 3,000 kronor licence fee for each airplane built in Sweden. As expected, on July 29, 1921, the Allies imposed a complete ban of airplane construction and export from Germany. However, the disassembled Caspar S.I had already arrived in Sweden. A 260 h.p. Maybach Mb VIa engine arrived in Stockholm in September, with the assembled airplane commencing flight trials on November 11. (Apparently, getting the airplane out of the workshop provided a few headaches, as the ceiling was too low for a trestle to be used. In the end, the lower surfaces of the floats had to be covered in grease to pull the Caspar S.I outside.)
  It was intended to perform a comparative evaluation of the Caspar S.I against the Supermarine Channel. The evaluation was cut short when the Channel was lost in a crash. Nevertheless, after a series of initial problems, including the floats and the radiator, had been ironed out, the Caspar S.I proved to have very good all-round performance, being highly suited to the needs of the MFV.
  In September 1921, Bucker formed Svenska Aero AB (Swedish Aero Ltd) to produce parts for the Caspar S.I. As the company did not (yet) have the necessary facilities, it was intended that the airplanes would be built at the Stockholm naval yard.
  Issued with the serial number Fb 31, the first Caspar S.I became known as Type 31. An additional ten airplanes were delivered to MFV (serial numbers Fb 32 to Fb 41) in 1922/23. Having detail differences, these were known as Type 32. In the event, all components for the first four airplanes (serial numbers Fb 32 to Fb 35), apart from the rudders and floats, were built by Caspar in Germany, and transported to Sweden. An additional six Type 32’s (serial numbers Fb 36 to Fb 41) were built in Sweden, not by the naval yard but by the Bucker-controlled Svenska Aero AB. On December 1, 1922, the Caspar S.I was redesignated as the Heinkel HE 1.
  The Caspar S.I’s were the first truly high performance airplane in MFV service. They served in a multitude of roles, including long-range maritime reconnaissance, co-operation with naval vessels, artillery spotting, torpedo attacks (albeit torpedoes were not part of the standard armament), antisubmarine warfare, fog dispersing, convoy escort and aerial protection of naval bases and installations.
  In the summer of 1924, five HE 1’s took part in a naval visit to Finland. In 1926, two HE 1’s, along with one S 21H, formed part of a Swedish-Finnish expedition to survey and photograph the border between the two countries.
  Three were written off in crashes in MFV service (two in 1924 and one in 1926), with eight being transferred to Flygvapnet. The Flygvapnet designation for the HE 1 became S 2 (Spaningsflygplan 2, ie Reconnaissance Airplane Type 2). The last S 2’s were struck off charge in 1931.
  In MFV and Flygvapnet service, the Caspar S.I/Heinkel HE 1 were the first of an eventual total of 57 Heinkel HE 1/ HE 2/HE 4 and He 5 maritime reconnaissance floatplanes. Colloqually known as Hansa’s, the last He 5 was not withdrawn from service until 1952!

Caspar S.I/Heinkel HE 1 Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 260 h.p. Maybach IVA
   Length: 12,66 m
   Wingspan: 18,30 m
   Height: 3,83 m
   Wing area: 52,40 m2
   Empty weight: 1,755 kg
   Maximum weight: 2,365 kg
   Maximum speed: 160 km/h
   Armament: 1x8 mm m/22 machine gun
Heinkel HE 1 serial number 39. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
The Caspar S.I (later redesignated as the Heinkel HE 1) soon after assembly at the Stockholm naval yard. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
A Heinkel HE 1 seen prior to take-off. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
A quartet of MFV Heinkel HE 1's sometime in the mid-1920s. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Fokker D.IV

  The story of the four Fokker D.IVs is remarkable from several aspects; the aircraft were ordered for a specific purpose, to consistute the aerial defence of the Swedish capitol Stockholm, but, following arrival in late March 1918, all four were firmly locked away, with all requests for test flights, etc, being curtly denied! The bureaucratic notion behind this interesting (for lack of a better word) take on reality was that the fighters were to remain stored until required, ie in wartime. That pilots and mechanics out of necessity require training on the actual hardware was simply ignored by those in charge. Additionally, the fact that even if the aircraft remained dormant, they required regular maintenance. This appears to have been ignored as well.
  First flown in late 1916, 40 Fokker D.IVs (serial numbers D.1640-1679/16) were ordered by the Idflieg. Due to various reasons, Including doubts about the airframe s structural integrity, none of the D.IVs reached the front. Instead, they were utilized as advanced trainers. On January 24, 1917, four D.IVs were ordered through the Ministry of Fortifications, using funds collected by Foreningen for Stockholms fasta forsvar & Svenska Aeronautiska Sallskapet (The Society for the Fixed Defence of Stockholm & Swedish Aeronautical Society, SAS). The aircraft were intended for the aerial defence of Stockholm. The German serial numbers were D.5850-5853/17 (c/ns 1662-1665). The Fokker D.IVs were powered by 150 h.p. Benz Bz III engines, with the engine serials being 19636 (D.5850/17), 26546 (D.5851/17), 19672 (D.5852/17) and 19843 (D.5853/17). Quite why the Fokker D.IVs were fitted with Benz Bz III engines is unclear, instead of Mercedes D III engines, which was the usual powerplanet for the Fokker D.IV. Prior to delivery, the airplanes were test flown at Schwerin by Swedish pilots.
  All four Fokker D.IVs were shipped to Sweden, arriving at Trelleborg on March 27, 1918 for onward delivery to Barkarby north of Stockholm, where an airfield had recently been established. A hangar was also built. Amazingly, upon arrival at Barkarby, the D.IVs were put inside the hangar, with the hangar door being padlocked. No acceptance test flights were made following their arrival in Sweden, with the aircraft all retaining their German insignia and camouflage.
  In November 1918, the quartet of Fokker D.IVs were mobilized as part of the Stockholm Aerial Section. Several requests, all in vain, were made for the airplanes to be transferred to Malmen. Remarkably, permission to test fly the fighters did not arrive until February 1920. Following transfer by train to Malmen, the Fokker D.IVs remained firmly grounded due to obsolescence. When struck off charge in April 1922, none of the Fokker D.IVs had been flown in Sweden, or even received Swedish serial numbers or insignia. Presumably, the engines were subsequently reused (possibly in Friedrichshafen FF 33s used by the MFV).

Fokker D.IV Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 150 h.p. Benz Bz III
   Length: 6,3 m
   Wingspan: 9,7 m
   Height: 2,45 m
   Wing area: 21,00 m2
   Empty weight: 606 kg
   Maximum weight: 841 kg
   Maximum speed: 160 km/h
Fokker D.IV in Swedish service, 1917
Fokker D.VII

  The Fokker D.VII needs no introduction, being considered as the best fighter of the Great War. One solitary Fokker D.VII was briefly used by the AFK. However, the story behind its acquisition is highly interesting.
  On May 8, 1919, Hermann Goring took off from Schwerin in a Fokker D.VII, landing 75 minutes later in Copenhagen. This particular Fokker D.VII, s/n F.7716/18 (c/n 3568) had been delivered in October 1918. It seems likely that it did not reach any frontline unit. Adorned with black-and-white stripes, the airplane had possibly been earmarked for use by Bruno Loerzer.
  Following the end of the war, the Fokker D.VII was handed over to the Allied Control Commission. On August 25, 1919, it was formally sold back to the Fokker factory at Schwerin. The airplane did not return to Germany, though, remaining with Goring, who used it for demonstration flights on behalf of Fokker. However, already by mid-September, Goring was to all intents and purposes fired by Fokker, who informed the Danish military authorities that the former fighter ace would not be allowed to fly the airplane any longer. Having made himself unpopular in the Danish capitol, both among the German colony and Danish high society, Goring decided to relocate to Sweden. His third visa application, dated December 20, 1919, was met with approval, with Goring travelling to Sweden by train. In Stockholm, Goring was employed by the airline Svenska Lufttrafik AB (SLA), which at the time was commencing operations using seven LVG C.VIs obtained from the Deutsche Luftrederei (DLR).
  Quite exactly how Goring came into possession of the Fokker D.VII isn’t entirely clear. In February 1920, Fokker once again contacted the Danish military authorities, demanding that the D.VII to be returned to the recently relocated factory in Amsterdam. This was not to be, as Goring, during a short visit to Copenhagen in mid-February 1920, prepared the transfer of the Fokker D.VII to Stockholm by rail. His visa application reads "Inspection of airplane for Svenska Lufttrafik".
  On February 23, 1920, the airplane was formally purchased from SLA by the AFK at a price of 8,000 kronor. Before the Fokker D.VII was taken over by Flygkompaniet, Goring found time to use it for aerobatic flights over central Stockholm on April 9 and 11. On April 19, Goring flew the D.VII to Malmen, where the airplane was issued with the serial number 937. Goring appear to have remained at Malmen until May 12, when he flew a repaired SLA LVG C.VI to Gothenburg.
  On July 9,1920, Gustaf von Segebaden used the D.VII to reach an altitude of 7,050 metres, then a Scandinavian record. Somewhat surprisingly, the sole Fokker D.VII saw comparatively little use before being struck off charge in November 1920, having accumulated a mere 21:25 hours. Several post-war offers for Fokker D.VII’s were declined for various reasons.

Fokker D.VII Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 185 h.p. BMW IIIA
   Length: 6,90 m
   Wingspan: 8,90 m
   Height: 2,90 m
   Wing area: 20,50 m2
   Empty weight: 670 kg
   Maximum weight: 906 kg
   Maximum speed: 200 km/h
   Armament: -
BMW IIIa powered Fokker D.VIIF 7716/18 (w/n 1549) is thought to have been specially prepared for Bruno Lorzer, the commander of JG III. Herman Goring flew the machine to Sweden. Whether this was his machine or he was merely a middle-man has not been confirmed. Although a civilian machine it still has the machine gun chutes fitted. The weights legend has been carefully retained on the bands. It was later sold to the AFK.
Friedrichshafen FF 33L

  When, in September 1917, the Kriegsamt stated its intention of selling five airplanes to Sweden, the MFV reacted quickly, asking for the delivery of five maritime reconnaissance airplanes. Although funds were forthcoming, it was not until April 17, 1918, that a formal contract for two Friedrichshafen FF 33L’s and three FF 33E’s (see below) was signed. Following inspection in Germany, the two FF 33L’s were delivered in August 1918. No armament was fitted to the airplanes, which were issued with the serial numbers Fb 18 and Fb 19 respectively. Tragically, the former was lost in a fatal crash at Helsingborg on October 4, 1919. The second FF 33L was destroyed by fire on August 5/6, 1921.
  Prior to the last two Thulin G’s being withdrawn from use, it was decided on June 30, 1920 to manufacture two FF 33L’s at the Stockholm naval yard as replacement airplanes. Being completed in 1922, they were issued with the same serial numbers, Fb 18 and Fb 19, as the original two FF 33L’s. Prior to being destroyed, the sole remaining original FF 33L was copied in minute detail. Nevertheless, the flight and handling characteristics of the Swedish-built airplanes were very poor. According to the MFV pilot Albin Ahrenberg: ’’These ... Friedrichshafen planes (were) very beautiful to look at, but incredibly difficult to get a some sort of understanding of while in the air. I wrestled with the first test airplane for almost one year, but hardly managed in improving it. It would make the most absurd things, if I wanted fly in one direction, the plane wanted to go the other way.”
  Both were still in service when Flygvapnet was established on July 1, 1926. Issued with the serial numbers 218 and 219 and the designation Sk 2 {Skolflygplan 2, ie Training Airplane Type 2), they were flown very sparingly before being struck off charge in 1929.

Friedrichshafen FF 33L Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 150 h.p. Benz
   Length: 8,95 m
   Wingspan: 13,20 m
   Height: 3,70 m
   Wing area: n/a
   Empty weight: n/a
   Maximum weight: 1,115 kg
   Maximum speed: 130 km/h
   Armament: -


Friedrichshafen FF 33E

  Three FF 33E’s were delivered on September 11, 1918, being issued with the serial numbers Fb 20 to Fb 22. Following the loss of serial number Fb 21 on May 20, 1919, it was decided to build at replacement airplane at the Stockholm naval yard. It was decided to construct a ’’more aggressive” airplane by reducing the wing area, as well as redesigning the tail section, wing struts and propeller. The redesigned FF 33E became known as the Type 20-22 Swedish. The replacement FF 33E received the same serial number, Fb 21, as the one lost in a crash. Another two FF 33E’s were built at the Stockholm naval yard in 1924, becoming serial numbers Fb 16 and Fb 17. Apart from maritime reconnaissance, the FF 33E’s were used as basic trainers, being fitted with a double set of controls.
  Two FF 33L’s were written off in quick succession in 1925, May 7 (Fb 17), July 1 (Fb 20) and September 21 (Fb 21) respectively.
  One FF 33E, serial number Fb 22, was fitted with a 180 h.p. Mercedes engine, which improved overall performance.
  Two FF 33E’s remained in service in July 1926, becoming 216 and 222 in Flygvapnet service, being designated Sk 2 {Skolflygplan 2, ie Training Airplane Type 2). They were struck of charge in July 1927 (222) and November 1927 (216) respectively, having seen little use.

Friedrichshafen FF 33E Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 150 h.p. Benz
   Length: 10,22 m
   Wingspan: 16,60 m
   Height: 3,48 m
   Wing area: 52,00 m2
   Empty weight: 1,160 kg
   Maximum weight: 1,580 kg
   Maximum speed: 112 km/h
   Armament: -
No photo showing an FF 33L has been found, with the photo showing an FF 33E, built by the TDS as a Type 20-22 Swedish. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
A rare air-to-air picture of Friedrichshafen FF 33E serial number 22. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Friedrichshafen/Sablatnig FF 49C

  In November 1918, the German naval attache stated that a number of Friedrichshafen floatplanes were available cheaply from German Navy stocks. The following month, contacts between the Swedish Foreign Office and the Swedish naval attache in Berlin resulted in a proposal for four to eight Friedrichshafen FF 49C’s to be acquired from the German Navy. On January 19, 1919, the MFV Commander-in-Chief Thor Lubeck inspected the airplanes at Friedrichshafen, also performing test flights. Lubeck later reported that he had placed a tentative order for two airplanes. This pair of FF 49C’s arrived by air at Karlskrona on February 2. Both were former German Navy airplanes, serial numbers 3064 (c/n 1308) and 3068 (c/n 1312). In MFV service, the serial numbers Fb 23 and Fb 24 were issued to the FF 49C’s.
  In mid-January 1919, tenders for an undetermined number of Friedrichshafen FF 49C’s arrived courtesy of Caspar and Sablatnig, both companies of which had been producing FF 49C’s under licence. After the British Legation in Stockholm politely having mentioned that it was forbidden to purchase and import combat airplanes from Germany, these offers had to be declined.
  However, two Sablatnig-built FF 49C’s (c/ns 6057 and 6058) were acquired from the stillborn airline Svensk Lufttransport (Swedish Air Transport). Modified to carry three passengers, these FF 49C’s were returned to military configuration, entering service in late 1919 as serial numbers Fb and 26. In December 1919, the fuselage, one float and the starboard wings of an FF 49C belonging to the airline Svenska Lufttrafik AB (Swedish Air Traffic Ltd, SLA) destroyed in a storm on November 20, was sold to MFV for use as spares.
  Having an endurance of six hours, the FF 49C’s were used for long-range maritime reconnaissance. One advantage was that the FF 49C’s were fitted with telegraphic radio transmitters. The aircraft were also fitted with a double set of controls, functioning as basic floatplane trainers. During the fall of 1923, torpedo dropping trials were initiated, using FF 49 C serial number 25.
  On June 30, 1923, serial number 24 was destroyed in a take-off accident near Mariestad. Serial number 23 was struck off charge on November 28, 1924, with the final two FF 49C’s lasting until February 5,1926, when they were finally withdrawn from use.

Friedrichshafen/Sablatnig FF 49C Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 220 h.p. Benz
   Length: 11,60 m
   Wingspan: 16,70 m
   Height: 4,05 m
   Wing area: 71,16 m2
   Empty weight: 1,515 kg
   Maximum weight: 2,120 kg
   Maximum speed: 140 km/h
   Armament: -
Friedrichshafen FF49C '26' in Swedish service.
This particular Friedrichshafen FF 49C was obtained from a civilian airline and returned to military configuration. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
The Friedrichshafen FF49C was the first truly modern airplane to enter service with the MFV. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
An air-to-air view of Friedrichshafen FF 49C serial number 25. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
LVG C.VI

  Two former Svenska Lufttrafik AB (SLA) airline LVG C.VIs were purchased in December 1921, with the serial numbers 9 and 10 respectively being allocated. The former had previously been registered in Germany as D-59. When used by SLA, the LVG CVI carried the identity L7. The price was 1,000 kronor, including skis and an assortment of spares. The second LVG CVI was c/n 4929, having served with SLA as serial number L5. Both LVG CVIs were delivered to the naval yard in Stockholm in November 1921, being accepted on November 28.
  Both airplanes had seen considerable use with SLA, with the low price being seen as a good opportunity for a great deal. The LVG C.VIs were intended for gunnery, bomb dropping and observer training. Although seemingly suitable for the job, the aircraft were only used sparingly. It would also appear that neither LVG C.VI ever carried any kind of armament.
  Nevertheless, the pair of LVG C.VIs were the fastest airplanes in naval service, being capable of speeds of up to 175 km/h. The rate of climb was also considered as being excellent. Three major drawbacks were the propensity to turn turtle on landing, constantly leaking radiators, and the fact (or belief) that the wings lacked sufficient strength. As a result, orders were that the LVG C.VIs were to be ’’flown carefully”.
  Beginning on February 19, 1922, LVG C.VI serial number 9 was used for ice reconnaissance off the west coast. Flying the LVG C.VI was Arvid Flory, with Einar Christell serving as observer. The AFK also participated in these flights, with two Dront’s being used. The reasoning behind choosing the LVG C.VI was due it being the fastest naval airplane, also being fitted with wheels instead of floats. Due to poor weather, the flights had to be curtailed by the end of February. On their way back to Hagernas, Flory and Christell became the first naval aviators to land at Malmen in a naval airplane.
  Both LVG C.VIs were struck off charge in November 1923, being sold to navy pilot Albin Ahrenberg. The former serial number 10 registered as S-AXAA on June 20, 1924. It was later registered as S-AABK and SE-ABK, eventually being struck from the civil aircraft register on May 20, 1928. In his memoirs, Ett flygarliv (A Life in Aviation), Ahrenberg describes how he came into possession of the airplanes: "The MFV High Command eventually grew tired of the constant repairs, and the airplanes were withdrawn from use. While peering out the window of my office one beautiful day, I saw people dragging one of the ’planes to the heating central, obviously to hand it over for cremation. I immediately ran to the Boss, who confirmed my suspicions - it would be burnt. I opened the window, yelling that they should wait a bit before starting the act of destruction. The Boss understood.
  “Do you want to buy it?”
  “Yes, that’s right! How much does it cost?”
  “Well, there’s not much firewood in one of these. Shall we say 150 kronor?'
  The offer was immediately accepted.
  Then you can take the other one as well for the same price, just so that we can get rid of this junk!”
  In 1928, the seemingly indestructable LVG C.VI was sold to gun manufacturer Bofors, surviving until 1933 by which time it was expended as a target during anti-aircraft gunnery trials.

LVG C.VI Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV
   Length: 7,45 m
   Wingspan: 13,00 m
   Height: 2,80 m
   Wing area: 34,60 m2
   Empty weight: 930 kg
   Maximum weight: 1,420 kg
   Maximum speed: 170 km/h
During the winters, the pair of LVG C.VI's were usually flown on skis. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Macchi M.7

  Sweden is a country of 90,000 lakes and a very long coast line. This topographical state of things was apparent to AFK, which in early 1921 ordered four Macchi M.7 fighter flying boats. The August 1920 mobilization plans called for two fighter flights, one at Malmen and one in Stockholm-Barkarby, and one combined fighter/reconnaissance flight at Boden, which contained the largest military concentration in northern Sweden, being close to the border with Finland. As neither airfields nor hangars were available at Boden, Ernst Fogman requested, on 18 April 1921, that the flight at Boden should receive “hydro fighters”. Colonel Conrad Eriksson, who commanded the army regiment Ing 3 (which AFK was officially a part of) was very anxious that the AFK must have a proper fighting value, instead of remaining just a paper force. Eriksson had previously been assigned as a fortification officer at Boden, and it is likely the he was closely involved in the acquisition of the Macchi M.7 fighter flying boats.
  The four M.7’s arrived in July 1921, with the serial numbers 941, 943, 945 and 951 being issued. These serial numbers had originally been allocated to Phonix D.III fighters, but reused after these had been struck off charge, two to accidents and two for reduction to spares. At least some of the Macchi’s were second-hand airplanes, having possibly seen previous military use in Italy. Two of the Macchi M.7’s carried the Italian serials 20813 (which probably became serial number 941) and 20923 respectively. Upon delivery, the four flying boats were erected by FVM.
  Initially, the M.7’s were flown from Lake Roxen, close to Malmen. The Macchi M.7’s were rarely used, though, only being flown by the most experienced pilots. The Macchi’s were rarely, if ever, used in the fighter role. They did, however, see some use in the artillery observation role.
  One AFK Flight Instructor, Fredrik Adilz, later reminisced about an almost fatal accident at Lake Roxen: “During the early summer, it became a very popular pastime among the older pilots to practice sea flying. This year’s student pilots had become sufficiently proficient to make solo flights. As a result, their training flights were often supervised by a solitary Flight Instructor. As I was the youngest Flight Instructor, this task was handed down to me, with the senior Flight Instructors found other things to do.
  As a result of this, I did not get an opportunity to test the flying boat until August, after the holidays. Several of my colleagues, including ‘Quisse’ Strom, joined me for the occasion. (...)
  Quisse was due to drive the air station’s motorboat. He began by colliding with the stone barrier close to the farthest lock, damaging the boat’s propeller. One of us, Georg Gardin, made several rather - albeit very eloquently - disparaging remarks about Quisse’s apparent lack of seamanship.
  During the intense dialogue that followed, we slowly progressed towards the flying boat. I climbed aboard, and took off. Due to the rather heated argument between Quisse and Gardin, the Head Flight Instructor, Oscar Philipsson, completely forgot about providing me with any instructions on flying the Macchi.
  However, the Macchi was rather nice to fly. After about 20 minutes, the radiator coolant temperature had risen to 95 degrees. I reduced power and slowly descended towards the surface of the lake, and at the right altitude, I cut the engine. As it was fitted with a pusher propeller, the nose rose slightly, something which I was unprepared for. As a result, the flying boat splashed into the water from an altitude of about two or three metres.
  I thought the landing, albeit rather rough, had gone well, and I began to slowly taxy towards the air station. After a while, I noticed that the flying boat had begun to tilt severely to the left. When I looked down, I noticed I that water had reached quite a long way up my Wellingtons. I quickly took off my Wellingtons and coat, and jumped overboard before the ‘boat capsized.
  I had landed at the middle of Lake Roxen. As I had never been a particularly good swimmer, reaching the shore was out of the question. One wingtip was still above the water surface, and I grabbed hold of it. I did not expect any timely assistance from the air station’s motor boat. However, my time was not yet up, as I glanced a steamer about 200 metres to the east of me. Both I and the flying boat were taken aboard, along with my coat and one of my Wellingtons. The second one was gone. When examined, it was discovered that the bottom hull veneer was rotten.”
  On 2 September 1925, Nils Kindberg commenced a long distance flight, visiting Finland and Estonia before arriving back in Sweden one week later.
  Two of the M.7’s, serial numbers 941 and 943 respectively, were struck off charge in December 1923. The two remaining M.7’s remained on charge when Flygvapnet was established, with one of them, serial number 951, was struck off charge in July 1926. The last Macchi M.7, serial number 945, lasted until December 7, 1927 before being struck off charge. It is unclear when the last flight took place, but it may be presumed that it had been remained grounded for some time. Incidentally, in a letter, dated 27 November 1926, from the Air Board to the Commander of Wing F 3 Malmen, it was decreed that the flying boat would be designated as a Nieuport-Macchi (the manufacturers name until 1924). At the time, the airplane was undergoing refurbishment.
  As described elsewhere, the Isotta-Fraschini engines saw further use, being used to power two Dront’s.

Macchi M.7 Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 250 h.p. Isotta Fraschini V6
   Length: 8,10 m
   Wingspan: 9,90 m
   Height: 3,0 m
   Wing area: 26,00 m2
   Empty weight: 775 kg
   Maximum weight: 1,080 kg
   Maximum speed: 210 km/h
   Armament: 2x8 mm m/22 machine guns


Preservation

Macchi M.7

  Remarkably, one of the Macchi M.7’s, serial number 951, was set aside for preservation. However, the Isotta-Fraschini engine was removed for reuse in a FVM-built Dront. In its place, a wooden engine mock-up was fitted. For unknown reasons, the serial number 945 was applied to the hull. In 1951, the Commander of F 3, Colonel Hugo Beckhammar, secured permission to store a number of old aircraft, including the Macchi M.7, in a small wooden building (usually referred to as Lagerhyddan, ie Camp Hut). The Macchi M.7 was hung from the roofbeams.
  During an August 26, 1951 air show to celebrate the 25th anniversary of Flygvapnet, it was possible for the general public to visit the ‘museum’. The 50th Anniversary airshow, held at Malmen on September 1 and 2, 1962, saw the Macchi M.7 on display in the static park. In February 1967, a larger, 1,760 m2 storage hangar was erected at Ryd, just south of Linkoping. On March 8, 1984, Flygvapenmuseum officially opened to the public, with the unique Macchi M.7 - the only one of its kind in the world - being one of the most prized exhibits. The flying boat remained on display until 2009, when it was removed for restoration by the volunteer Tullinge Group. Flygvapenmuseum then closed for an extensive expansion program, before being reopened on June 12, 2010.
  An original Isotta-Fraschini I.F.V. engine, received from Italy in 1994 in an exchange deal for Fiat CR 42 parts, arrived at Tullinge on December 1,2011, with the wings and fuselage arriving two months later. The veneer hull shows signs of having been repaired in several places. Initial survey work showed signs of a different serial number, 951, beneath ‘945’ on the left-hand side. The black color scheme was stripped off, with the serial number 951 appearing “everywhere” on the airplane, along with the Italian c/n, 13203.
  Inside the fuselage, two texts, written with lead pencils, were discovered. The first of these was in Italian: “Pace e non piu Guerra” (“Peace and no more war”), most likely applied during construction. The second text: “Wer hat dieses geschreiben?” (“Who has written this?”), was most likely written by a German-speaking mechanic during assembly or repair in Sweden.
  Restoration lasted until early 2016, with the Macchi M.7 being assembled at the Flygvapenmuseum workshops during the summer months. On October 24, 2016, the Macchi M.7 formally rejoined the Flygvapenmuseum exhibition.
The Macchi M.7 following delivery to Flygvapenmuseum in October 2016. Tor Johnsson
Macchi M.7 serial number 945 at Lake Roxen. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
The berthing crew of Macchi M.7 serial number 945 posing for the camera. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Macchi M.7 serial number 943 following a mishap. The Clydesdale truck was built at Clyde, Ohio. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
A Macchi M.7 being assembled at Malmen. Note the former Italian serial number, 20813, on the nose. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Macchi M.8

  A three-seat bomber/reconnaissance biplane flying boat, the Macchi M.8 saw limited action with both Italian and US naval squadrons during the latter stages of the war. In 1919, one solitary Macchi M.8 and one Savoia S.13 (with an additional three S.13s being purchased the following year) were donated by Italy. The M.8 was flown by Count Carlo Nicolis Di Robilant. Formal handover took place on November 9,1919, by Captain Gravina, the then Italian naval attache. A silver plaque with the text ’’IDROVOLANTE MACCHI TIPO 8 IN VOLO AMSTERDAM-ESBJERG-GOTEBORG-STOCKHOLM 20-21 OTTOBRE 1919, PILOTA DI ROBILANT. DONATO DELLA R MARINA ITALIANA ALLA R MARINA SVEDESE NOVEMBRE 1919” was mounted on the hull.
  Taken on charge in November 1919 as serial number 50 (amended the following month to 41), the Macchi M.8 was struck off charge in August 1922. Unfortunately, the Macchi M.8 saw little use due to persistent engine problems.

Macchi M.8 Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 180 h.p. Franco Tosi (probably a licence-built Isotta Fraschini V4)
   Length: 9,90 m
   Wingspan: 13,80 m
   Height: 3,25 m
   Wing area: n/a
   Empty weight: 980 kg
   Maximum weight: 1,400 kg
   Maximum speed: 140 km/h
   Armament: -
A rare picture of the Macchi M.8 soon after being taken on charge with MFV. Note the mixed Swedish/Italian national insignia. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
The Macchi M.8 seen during the formal hand-over ceremony at the Stockholm naval yard. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Savoia S.13

  One Savoia S.13 flying boat was donated in November 1919, having been flown to Sweden in company with a Savoia S.9 and a Macchi M.8. Among the Italian pilots were Count di Robilant and Umberto Maddalena. The three Italian flying boats had taken off from Amsterdam on October 19, arriving in the Swedish capitol two days later. On October 24, di Robilant had a lucky escape in the S.13 when he struck power lines near Drottningholm castle. Although the hull was ruptured, the S.13 was towed to Stockholm for repairs. The bad luck for the S.13 did not end there, as the flying boat was struck by a tug boat on November 2. Repaired once again, the S.13 was donated to the MFV on November 9. Initially, the serial number Fb 51 was issued, later being changed to Fb 42.
  The Savoia S.13 was considered particularly suitable as a ’’fast reconnaissance and bomber airplane”. In December 1919, an order for three additional S.13s was placed. However, the delivery flight from Varese, Italy to Sweden was fraught with difficulties, with one S.13 being written off and another one damaged. The destroyed airplanes were eventually replaced. The three S.13’s did not reach Sweden until the summer of 1920. The serial numbers 42 to 45 were issued to the S.13’s.
  All four S.13’s were damaged in the fire at Galarvarvet on August 5/6, 1921. Although all four were repairable, the entire spares stock had been destroyed, thus limiting their usefulness. One, serial number Fb 45, was cannibalized for spares. Serial number Fb 43 was lost on August 30, 1922, when it crashed off Marsgarn Island in the Stockholm archipelago. Interestingly, the fuselage was later used in the construction of a hydrocopter. Fb 44 was written off on November 7,1922, with the final S.13, Fb 42, lasting until January 1924.

Savoia S.13 Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 250 h.p. Isotta Fraschini V6
   Length: 9,9 m
   Wingspan: 13,8 m
   Height: n/a
   Wing area: n/a
   Empty weight: n/a
   Maximum weight: 1,400 kg
   Maximum speed: 197 km/h
   Armament: 1x8 mm m/22 machine gun
A nice three-quarter front view of Savoia S.13 serial number 43. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Although high hopes were held for the Savoia S.13, their practical use was cut short by the disastrous fire at the Stockholm naval yard. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Savoia S 13 serial number 44 seen soon after landing. The location is possibly either Hagernas or Karlskrona. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
The majority of MFV frontline strength are seen here at Karlskrona, including two Savoia S.13’s and four Friedrichshafens. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Bleriot XI

  Almost inevitably, a small number of Bleriot XIs entered service with the AFK. The first two were bought in December 1913 from Skandinaviska Aviatik AB (a company controlled by Carl Cederstrom), both being taken on charge January 7, 1914. Powered by 24 and 35 h.p. Anzani engines respectively, these Bleriot XIs were used at Malmen as non-flying taxiing trainers. Neither of them received a serial number, with both being struck off charge in December 1916.
  Following outbreak of war, three Bleriot XIs were purchased on August 8, 1914 from civilian owners. All were powered by 50 h.p. Gnome Omega rotary engines. The first of these was an AVIS-built Bleriot XI, being serialled 7. After being struck off charge in November 1916, this Bleriot XI was sold to AETA, eventually emerging as Thulin A s/n A8. In this context, mention must be made of Enoch Thulin’s company AETA, which during the fall of 1914 had begun building the Bleriot XI under licence as the Thulin A. Thulin appear to have expected the AFK placing a substantial order for Bleriot XI/Thulin As, something which, in the event, never materialized.
  The second Bleriot XI had been built in 1912 for Skandinaviska Aviatik AB. Following arrival in Stockholm, the airplane was assembled by Wiklunds Maskinfabrik, being air tested on September 3,1912. Already in October 1912, the Bleriot XI was sold to the magazine publishers E. Akerlund and J.P. Ahlen. Initially named Ugglan (The Owl), the airplane was renamed in July 1914 as Vecko-Journalen (the name being one of the magazines published by Ahlen & Akerlund). In May 1914, AVIS had refurbished the airplane, which was then air tested by Enoch Thulin on June 6, 1914. After being taken on charge by the AFK as serial number 11, it was used at Malmen as a primary trainer. It was struck off charge in November 1916.
  The third Bleriot XI had originally been bought in France in 1911 by Carl Cederstrom. Apparently, the airplane was ’’strengthened for loopings”. Arriving in Stockholm on May 11, 1911, the airplane was assembled by Wiklunds Maskinfabrik. Following an air test on May 20, the Bleriot XI was named Nordstjernan (Northern Star) by Cederstrom. Used extensively by Cederstrom for exhibition flying tours around Norway and Sweden, the airplane was sold to Enoch Thulin and Tord Angstrom on June 5, 1913, with Thulin becoming the sole owner two-and-a-half months later, on August 15. Following purchase by Thulin and Angstrom, the airplane underwent and extensive refurbishment, involving the replacement of the fuselage and wings.
  After being taken on charge by Flygkompaniet in August 1914, the serial number 13 was assigned to the airplane. Following a crash in September 1915, the Bleriot XI was rebuilt, and issued with a new serial number; 17. On November 21, 1916, it was written off in a crash at Silows kulle (Silow’s hill, the place of Carl Silow’s fatal crash on May 1, 1915). Seemingly a case of having nine lives, the remains of the Bleriot XI was sold to AETA, subsequently reemerging as Thulin A s/n A9.
  Additionally, one Bleriot Big Bat (possibly built in Great Britain), was offered to AFK in August 1914 by its owner, Filip Bjorklund, but rejected. In February 1915, Bjorklund sold his Bleriot to Denmark.

Bleriot XI Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 50 h.p Gnome rotary engine
   Length: 7,5 m
   Wingspan: 8,85 m
   Height: 2,7 m
   Wing area: 14,00 m2
   Empty weight: 320 kg
   Maximum weight: 400 kg
   Maximum speed: 80 km/h
   Armament: -
Carl Cederstrom in front of one of his Bleriot XI's at Malmen. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
Photographed at the Thulin flying school at Ljungbyhed, this particular Thulin A consisted of parts from an original AFK Bleriot XI. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
The AVIS-built Bleriot XI later became serial number 7 with the AFK. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Breguet C.U-1

  A single Breguet C.U-1 (c/n 53) was delivered to the Royal Swedish Army. Pre-delivery test flights were made at Douai on June 1,1912 by Allan Jungner and Breguet factory test pilot Bebuisy. These tests included altitude, endurance, and load carrying capability. The airplane was then disassembled, and shipped directly to Axvall, where the regular summer army exercises were due to be held.
  Henrik Hamilton, the Commander of the Kungl. Falttelegrafkarens Flygskola (Royal Field Telegraphic Corps Flying School), had learned to fly on Breguet biplanes, and was a strong advocate for such airplanes. As a result, assembly of the Breguet C.U-1 took precedence over the Nieuport IVG.The Breguet was designated B 1, ie Biplane 1.
  Following assembly, much time was spent on taxiing the airplane around the field. On July 13, Allan Jungner made the first flight, which consisted of a single circuit around the field. The following day, Hamilton took off for his first flight. Just after taking off and having reached an altitude of between 25 to 30 metres, two cylinders suffered ignition failure. Although Hamilton escaped injuries in the resulting crash, the Breguet did not. The wings and landing gear were completely wrecked, with the engine also being badly damaged. After inspecting the bits and pieces, it was decided that airplane could be rebuilt.
  Following repairs, the Breguet returned to the air on September 3. The last flight, on October 3, lasted 20 minutes, with Jungner and the observer Lieutenant Hogman landing due to strong winds. During the night, water pump froze, resulting in the airplane being dismantled and shipped to Stockholm for storage at the regiment Ing 3.
  Between July 13 and October 3, the B 1 had flown a total of five hours and 49 minutes during 23 flights.
  In early February 1913, the Breguet (along with the Nieuport IVG) moved to Lidingo outside Stockholm for winter flying exercise. On February 4, the newspaper Stockholms-Tidningen wrote: ’’The Bleriot machine (...) appear as fragile toys in comparison with these powerful behemoths (...) The Breguet in particular, the world’s fastest biplane - 104 kilometres per hour! - seems to be a terrible war machine, when the engine thundering like several machine guns in action, is started.” Almost daily flights were made on the icy lake surface.
  By May 1913, the B 1 was based at Malmen outside Linkoping. On May 29, three flights were made. The following day, the Breguet landing gear suffered slight damage in a landing accident. The wheel was exchanged in 30 minutes, but when another flight was attempted, the engine decided to stop working.
  On May 31, Hamilton, along with Sergeant Eugen Andersson as a passenger, made a return flight from Malmen to Norrkoping. On their way back, a forced landing had to be made at Kallerstad. When Hamilton and Andersson took off in the early hours of June 1, the engine stopped at an altitude of 100 metres. Hamilton had no choice but to set the airplane down in a muddy field. The Breguet overturned when it hit the ground, with the lower left wing being damaged beyond repair.
  Repairs were quickly made, with the B 1 flying again on June 17. On July 17, Lieutenant Jungner flew to Stockholm, returning to Malmen three days later. During this time, between one and three flights were made daily.
  On August 24, Jungner suffered engine failure, being forced down at Ekstrommen. The left wings were smashed, as was the propeller. Nevertheless, after only eight days, the B 1 was flying once again! The second crash of the year (and third in total) occured on October 28, when Hamilton (along with a conscript named Kallstrom) had to force land at Skanninge. Once again, the lower left wing and propeller took the brunt of the crash, with the landing gear also suffering damage. According to Hamilton’s post-crash report: "this damage is easily repaired.”
  Along with the pair of Nieuports, the B 1 was temporarily based at Lidingo in early February 1914, before moving to Ostersund for winter trials. Continuous engine trouble resulted in the B 1 being flown only on a few occasions. Although skis were fitted, it is unclear if the airplane ever flew on skis. Neither is there no mention of the B 1 being used for the bomb dropping trials. On April 13, the winter trials ended, with the airplanes being dismantled and returned by train to Malmen.
  On June 17, 1914, the B 1 was severely damaged for a fourth time when Hamilton force landed at Eslov. The propeller and one wing was damaged beyond repair. Upon mobilization on August 6, 1914, the B 1 was still undergoing repairs at Malmen. On September 1, the B 1 once again emerged from the workshop. Only four days later, on September 5, Hamilton suffered yet another forced landing, this time during army maneouvres at Arsta Garde south of Stockholm. According to a contemporary diary, the "machine (was) smashed.”
  In an inventory list of available airplanes, dated January 15,1915, the B 1 is listed as “being repaired, whether or not capable of use afterwards cannot be determined.”
  Nevertheless, the Breguet rose from the ashes once again. By early August 1915, the airplane was ready to fly. As Hamilton had retired from flying (and Jungner being killed in an automobile accident the previous year), a new pilot, Lieutenant Bror Mannstrom, was ordered to test fly the B 1. On August 12, Mannstrom conducted taxiing trials, making his first flight in the B 1 two days later.
  On September 9, Mannstrom suffered a forced landing at Tolefors, with the airplane turning turtle. This time around, it was decided that enough was enough. Nevertheless, the B 1 was not formally struck off charge until January 19, 1917.
  A reproduction B 1 (including some original components) can be seen at Flygvapenmuseum.

Breguet C.U-1 Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 85 h.p. Canton-Unne
   Length: 8,35 m
   Wingspan: 12,70 m
   Height: 3,25 m
   Wing area: 35,25 m2
   Empty weight: 500 kg
   Maximum weight: 780 kg
   Maximum speed: 105 km/h
   Armament: -


Preservation

Breguet C.U-1

  Following the Breguet’s demise, a few parts were set aside for preservation. Among these were the engine and the tail section. During the 1977 annual meeting of the Swedish Aviation Historical Society (SAHS), the possibility of constructing a full-scale reproduction of the B 1 was discussed at length. Thirteen contemporary drawings - showing the fuselage, wings and landing gear - were located at the National Museum of Science and Technology in Stockholm. Even though the set of drawings were incomplete (two drawings were missing), it was decided to push forward with the project.
  Other contemporary documentation included military reports, photographs, articles from French and Swedish aviation and technical-oriented magazines, and even 35 mm film footage, taken in 1913 and 1914. A few individuals, who had worked on the B 1 between 1912 and 1916, were interviewed, but only one, Karl Lignell, could provide useful information, particularly regarding the background to some of the photographs and the B 1’s color scheme.
  The volunteer Arlanda Group (which later changed their name to the Tullinge Group after relocating to Tullinge), led by Gothe Johansson, were to reconstruct the airplane, with financial backing from Flygvapenmuseum and the Swedish Aviation Historical Society. Contacts with the Musee de I’Air, which was about to refurbish the Breguet R.U-1 (c/n 40), preserved by the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers in Paris, resulted in the Swedish team being given complete access to this airplane.
  Actual work began in 1978 in a workshop at Barkarby north of Stockholm. Gothe Johansson built the wooden fuselage in his house, with the wings being constructed using information collated during the refurbishment of the French Breguet R.U-1. The progress of the B 1 reconstruction was covered by Swedish media, which occasionally resulted in new information, or parts, emerging. Among the latter was an engine magneto coil.
  By 1988, the airplane was essentially complete, with the liquid-cooled radial Canton-Unne engine being restored to running order. On February 11,1989, the B 1 was pulled out of its hangar for an engine test. Careful preparations had been made to only run the engine on four out of its seven cylinders. This was made possible by using an ignition system off a Ford Model T. The sound of the engine, bursting into life after 73 years, sounded exactly like as it had been vividly described in contemporary newspapers; "like one-hundred machine guns firing at once!”
  On February 22, the B 1 was disassembled, and trucked to Flygvapenmuseum, where the airplane was formally handed over on February 27. It has remained on display ever since.
The Breguet B 1 soon after completion. The man sitting in the cockpit is one of the restoration team, Borje Holmberg. Gunnar Granberg via Borje Holmberg
The Breguet B 1 photographed at Flygvapenmuseum on September 8, 2014. Tor Johnsson
The Breguet B 1 prior to take-off, with Henrik Hamilton behind the wheel. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
The Breguet B 1 following assembly at Axevalla Hed in June 1912. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
The reconstructed Breguet B 1 at Flygvapenmuseum, photographed on February 26, 1989. The airplane was formally handed over the following day. Tor Johnsson
The Breguet B 1 being prepared for flight at Askrikefjarden near Stockholm in early 1913. The man sitting in the cockpit is possibly Sergeant Andersson. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
A picture reminiscent of big game hunters posing in front of their prey, mechanics have begun dismantling the Breguet B 1 following a mishap at Kallerstad on June 1, 1913. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Breguet XIV A.2

  Only one Breguet XIV A.2 (c/n 2030) was used by Flygkompaniet. The story behind its acquisition includes a few interesting twists and turns. In summer of 1919, the Danish-born pilot Paulli Krause-Jensen, who had served in the French Air Force during the war, made a long distance flight between Paris and Stockholm, arriving safely at Barkarby just north of the Swedish capitol. (Some sources claim that Krause-Jensen had intended to fly to Finland, but this appears to be without foundation.) On his way back to Paris, Krause-Jensen was obliged to make an emergency landing near Enkoping due to engine trouble. Some enterprising members of the local population subsequently took the opportunity to rob the engine of its copper tubes for use in moonshine distilleries. The Breguet XIV A.2 was eventually donated to Flygkompaniet, and taken on charge in October 1919.
  Assigned the serial number 9100, the Breguet XIV was rarely used. The fuel system was considered overly complicated due to the installation of extra fuel tanks, with the 300 h.p. Renault engine also having a mind of its own. Struck off charge on 5 January 1923, it was put up for auction. The Breguet was acquired by AFK pilot Nils Soderberg for 1,000 kronor, who intended to use the airplane in the forthcoming ILUG arrival contest. His Breguet XIV was registered as S-AIAA, with restoration to airworthiness costing Soderberg another 1,781 kronor. Soderberg won the ILUG arrival contest, flying from Amsterdam in the Netherlands to Gothenburg. Arriving at Gothenburg on August 4, Soderberg won first prize, 10,000 kronor, also securing an additional 4,000 kronor for securing first place in the arrival contest, as well as the King’s cup. Being paid to fly military airplanes, Soderberg did not have any further need for the Breguet XIV. He managed to sell it to the Swedish Red Cross for use as spares for their Breguet XIV T, S-ASAA.

Breguet XIV A.2 Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 300 h.p. Renault
   Length: 8,86 m
   Wingspan: 14,40 m
   Height: 3,50 m
   Wing area: 48,5 m2
   Empty weight: 1,017 kg
   Maximum weight: 1,900 kg
   Maximum speed: 165 km/h
   Armament: -
Breguet 14 B2 '9100' in Swedish service
Although a very modern airplane, the sole Breguet 14 was rarely flown by the AFK due to its complicated fuel system. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Donnet-Leveque

  Originally designed by F Denhaut as a pure flying boat, the airplane very quickly caught the attention of Mrss Donnet and Leveque. Further development resulted in the Donnet-Leveque A, the world’s first amphibian. Further development included the Donnet-Leveque B and C variants, which featured ailerons. After Donnet left in early 1913, the company became known as Hydroaeroplanes Leveque. Soon afterwards, Leveque joined forces with Louis Schreck. The basic Donnet-Leveque airplane proved the stepping stone for the FBA flying boats.
  Using some of the funds raised through the armored ship collection, one Donnet-Leveque amphibian ordered in 1913. The engineless airplane was delivered in October 1913, being transferred to the naval flight school at Oscar- Fredriksborg at Vaxholm, east of Stockholm. The 50 h.p. Gnome engine removed from the Nyrop No:3 was fitted to the Donnet-Leveque. The designation L I was issued to the amphibian, with the serial number S22 being assigned shortly afterwards. Apart from flight training, the amphibian was also based at Marsgarn in the Stockholm archipelago, and used for maritime reconnaissance. Wear and tear saw L I being withdrawn from use in April 1916.
  Prior to the delivery of L I, another Donnet-Leveque had been imported to Sweden. This particular airplane was bought in the summer of 1913 by Carl Cederstrom, who intended to use the amphibian at the state-supported Skandinaviska Aviatik AB flying school. (Although unsubstantiated in contemporary sources, it is believed that L I was originally intended for Cederstrom, but rejected by him as being underpowered.) Named Flygfisken (The Flying Fish), the airplane was flown from Malmen aerodrome, as well as nearby Lake Roxen.
  Although not confirmed, it may have been a Donnet-Leveque Type C, with the upper wing being fitted with ailerons. In late 1913, the amphibian was acquired by the navy for 10,000 kronor, eventually being taken on charge in February 1914. Designated L II and issued with the serial number S23 (later changed to 10), the amphibian was initially based at Marsgarn. It was later based at Gothenburg and Karlskrona respectively, before being struck off charge in August 1918, having accumulated just over 131 hours in the air. The Donnet-Leveque led a quite adventurous existence, being involved in several accidents. On May 14, 1914, Carl-Gustaf Krokstedt attempted to fly to the island of Gotland. Due to a broken oil pipe, Krokstedt was forced down in the Baltic Sea. He spent the next seven hours scooping water from the airplane before being rescued by a ferry. In 1915, the Donnet-Leveque was primarily used for flight training. Apparently, this was not very successful, as the amphibian was very heavy due to having become waterlogged.
  Two major accidents involving L II took place in 1916. On the first occasion, on May 11,1916, the hull ruptured during a heavy take-off, with the amphibian quickly overturning in the swells. The pilot, Arvid Flory, was making his first take-off in the Donnet-Leveque, had a lucky escape when he was thrown clear of the wreck. Being somewhat dazed, Flory nevertheless managed to climb onto the airplane. When the rescue boat arrived, the crew roared with laughter when they saw that the seat was still attached to Flory’s rear end. Flory later wrote of an interesting construction detail; the support wingtip floats were made out of papier mache. Repairs lasted for several months. The next accident, also involving Flory, occured on November 5, 1916, when the airplane overturned on take-off from Karlskrona. The third accident took place on July 26, 1917, when Lieutenant Sandstrom crashed at Nynashamn while taking off in foggy weather.
  This particular Donnet-Leveque has been preserved.

Donnet-Leveque Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 50 - 80 h.p. Gnome
   Length: 7,90 m
   Wingspan: 11,60 m
   Height: 2,90 m
   Wing area: 17,00 m2
   Empty weight: n/a
   Maximum weight: 560 kg
   Maximum speed: 108 km/h
   Armament:-


Preservation

Donnet-Leveque

  On September 15, 1919, the last of the two Donnet-Leveque amphibians, serial number 10, was donated to the National Maritime Museum in Stockholm. Along with the Nyrop No:3, the Donnet-Leveque was transferred to the National Museum of Science and Technology. The amphibian remained on public display from 1936 until April 1983, hanging from the ceiling of the museum’s Machine Hall. By 1983, it was in fairly poor condition. Following lengthy negotiations, the Donnet-Leveque was transferred to Flygvapenmuseum ownership in December 1997.
  In 2010, the volunteer Tullinge Group initiated a thorough restoration of the unique amphibian. Following restoration by Tullingegruppen, the Donnet-Leveque was put on display at Flygvapenmuseum on December 10, 2013.
The Donnet-Leveque at Flygvapenmuseum on March 23, 2017. Jan Forsgren
With its fish scale color scheme, Carl Cederstrom’s Donnet-Leveque amphibian was appropriately named Flygfisken (Flying Fish). The airplane was later sold to MFV. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Two Donnet-Leveque amphibians were used by MFV. This is L II, which was previously owned by Carl Cederstrom. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Farman HF 23 (also SW 11)

  The most numerous type of airplane in MFV service during the Great War was the Farman HF 23, with a total of 11 being used. Some of the HF 23’s were fitted with a double set of controls, being utilized for primary flight training, with their long endurance also making them suitable for maritime patrols. By 1917/18, the delivery of Thulin G’s resulted in the Farman HF 23’s being largely withdrawn from frontline service. Nevertheless, the last HF 23’s were not struck off charge until October 1920, with one, serial number F III, having accumulated more than 260 hours in the air.
  In 1913, one HF 23 was purchased from France, using funds from the Bjorkquist National Defense Collection. One additional HF 23 was obtained secondhand from France prior to the start of the war. A total of seven HF 23 s were built under licence at Sodertelge Verkstader, being known as the SW 11. One of these, serial number F VI, was donated in January 1915 by the famous artist Anders Zorn. Two additional aircraft were assembled by the naval yard in Stockholm, using spares and parts crashed airplanes. On January 8, 1915, the naval yard received an order for one Farman fuselage gondola, to be fitted with a double set of controls.
  During the war, the MFV HF 23’s were used for patrolling the long Swedish coastline, searching for foreign ships and airplanes which might cross into Swedish territorial waters. During one such patrol in February 1915, Hugo Sundstedt and Fritz Netzler spotted two ships from the Imperial Navy Hochsee fleet: ’’They are steering toward the Swedish land, appearing to be in an awful hurry. I point them out to Sundstedt, and he nods and turn to port to cut them off. I wonder what they’re up to, but when I’m standing up, behind the port float, I spot a schooner close to shore. So that’s the reason for the behavior of the Germans.
  Both destroyers were close to the neutrality border - and yet they careened on in the most cheeky manner. This is almost too much!
  I strike Sundstedt’s back, and give the sign for ’gliding flight’. At the same moment, some signals head up the mast of the first destroyer, and a few seconds later, both of them make an elegant port turn, heading south.
  Sundstedt turns and smiles happily: ’You see them! They appear to have forgotten something back home’. Yes, so it seems, but just to be on the safe side, we’ll fly close to them for a while. With our flying boat turning around the destroyers masts, the officers and crew greet us with a strict German salute.
  We then fly on for a while, and then all of a sudden, it happens. The carburettor - it can’t possibly be of German manufacture, can it? Appears to be less than pleased with us, rumbling off.
  I had no choice other than lay on top of the fuel tank and keep the carburettor in place with my bare hands.
  It wasn’t a particularly nice job at minus 15 degrees Centigrade, and in an airplane that behaved like a crow with shot-out wings. As if this wasn’t enough, we head straight into heavy snow, which makes navigation difficult. We are flying over the fortifications near Karlskrona, being close to shore. But the sea beneath us! It blows sticks and straws down there.
  I feel happy that we nevertheless are safe, when at the same moment, our ’Farman-Coach’ starts behaving in a very strange way.
  The crate twists and turns almost like a harbor sailor from the old days. Sundstedt takes a look around, and I grab hold in anything within reach so that I won’t have to ’get off’ before we’ve landed. Then Sundstedt reduces the engine rpm, and says calm as ever: ’Perhaps you can get hold of the control fine?’
  But before I’ve managed to out on the wing in my Lunkentuss-boots, the port control line has disappeared to the rear. It has twisted off in the cold weather. At the same moment, Sundstedt put the machine 'on the nose’, and I had to keep on, riding backwards lying on the wing.
  In a shallow starboard turn, we would be able to get down in one piece, if Sundstedt could fly straight into the wind. This was successful, and we’re splashing away on the water surface about a mile away from the base. The landing was rough, but we were safe.”

Farman HF 23 (SW 11) Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 90 h.p. Thulin A
   Length: 8,89 m
   Wingspan: 18,08 m
   Height: 3,55 m
   Wing area: 35,00 m2
   Empty weight: n/a
   Maximum weight: 850 kg
   Maximum speed: 90 km/h
   Armament: -
During the early stages of the Great War, the Farman HF 23’s were the MFV’s most numerous type of airplane, being heavily used for maritime reconnaissance. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
A moored MFV Farman HF 23 under the gaze of curious locals. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Lieutenant Fritz Netzler demonstrating a Farman HF 23 to Prince Wilhelm in 1917. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
During the winters, the MFV Farman HF 23’s were usually flown on wheels. The exact purpose of the pair of vertical tubes fitted to the side of the fuselage is unclear, but may have been used for bomb dropping trials. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
The crew of a Farman HF 22 being greeted following landing. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Carl Silow prepares to fly a Farman HF 22. With the engine running, a number of mechanics are holding the airplane back prior to take-off. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Farman HF 22

  Using funds from the Bjorkquist National Defense Fund Raising, one Farman HF 22 was delivered in 1913. Accepted in September 1913, the airplane was designated as B 2, ie Biplane Number 2. When the individual airplane identification system was amended, the airplane became serial number 4. Another French-built HF 22 arrived just before the war, being issued with the serial number 10. An additional three Farman HF 22’s, built by Sodertelge Verkstader as the SW 10, were delivered in August 1914, December 1914 and January 1915 respectively, becoming serial numbers 8, 12 and 14. The first of these was donated by renowned artist Anders Zorn.
  Gosta von Porat: ’’One day, the well-known painter Anders Zorn arrived at Ostersund, immediately manifesting a great interest in aviation. He intended to donate an airplane to the government, and wanted to become oriented in this topic. We spent the evening at Hotel Standard, talking about flying until he asked if he could come along for a flight the next day. (Allan) Jungner and myself looked rather hesitantly at his quite sizeable circumference, but both of us thought that, with the aid of a shoehorn or other suitable means, one might get him down into the seat. So we replied, that this could be arranged.
  ’’The next day, the snow was thawing, resulting in much water on the ice. Zorn came down to the station, looking even bigger than the day before. He also appeared less enthusiastic in the daylight than the previous evening.
  My wife, who had come to visit me, stepped forward to be introduced to the great man, but as she jumped between the planks which had been laid out, she missed and fell, travelling at high speed across the shallow water, almost hitting Zorn. The poor man looked shocked, and did not want to go flying anymore. A good thing, perhaps - I wonder how much he weighed?”
  In AFK service, the Farman HF 22’s were heavily used for flight training as well as reconnaissance. During the winters, the Farmans were flown on skis. One HF 22 (the original B 2) was lost on May 1,1915, killing Carl Silow. This was the first fatal accident in Swedish military aviation. Between February 5,1916 and May 26,1916, the remaining Farmans were or written off in accidents. In late 1916, the remaining Farman components were traded to Sodertelge Verkstader in exchange for one SW-built Albatros B.II.
  A sixth Farman HF 22, originally intended for the civilian pilot Hugo Sundstedt, was offered to AFK in mid-1914. However, when the war broke out, the airplane was embargoed by the French authorities.

Farman HF 22 (SW 10) Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 80 h.p. Gnome, later 1 x 90 h.p. Thulin A
   Length: 8,81 m
   Wingspan: 15,58 m
   Height: 3,20 m
   Wing area: 46,00 m2
   Empty weight: 400 kg
   Maximum weight: 590 kg
   Maximum speed: 110 km/h
   Armament: -
Carl Silow perched in an Farman HF 22. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Morane-Saulnier MS 3L

  In December 1913, Enoch Thulin visited the Paris Salon. One of the various types of airplanes on display was the Morane-Saulnier MS 3L. Determined to a obtain a more modern airplane than the Bleriot XI, Thulin bought one MS 3L. During the spring of 1914, Thulin flew the MS 3L from Paris to Landskrona. He also secured the licence rights for the improved Morane-Saulnier G, with the seven Thulin-built airplanes being designated as the Thulin B.
  When war broke out, the MS 3L was bought by the army. The airplane was taken on charge on August 8, and issued with the serial number 5. In September 1914, the MS 3L was flown by Thulin during the annual army exercises. The airplane was slightly damaged when it overturned on landing. When refurbished in 1917, a 90 h.p. Thulin A rotary engine was installed, which resulted in improved overall performance. In 1917/18, the MS 3L was regularly flown by Nils Rodehn when the pair of Thulin K’s were out of action. On April 23,1918, Rodehn reached an altitude of 5,000 metres in the MS 3L, an unofficial Scandinavian altitude record. The serial number was amended to 405 before the MS 3L was struck off charge in June 1918.

Morane Saulnier MS 3L Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 60 h.p. Le Rhone (replaced in 1917 with a 90 h.p. Thulin A)
   Length: 6,88 m
   Wingspan: 11,18 m
   Height: 3,35 m
   Wing area: n/a
   Empty weight: n/a
Maximum weight: 680 kg
Maximum speed: 130 km/h
Armament: -
Upon outbreak of war in August 1914, the Morane Saulnier MS 3L was incorporated into Army service. By that time, it was called 'The fastest aircraft in Northern Europe'. Note the Three Crowns national insignia beneath the left wing. Unfortunately, the person standing in front of the airplane is unidentified. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
The army pilot Nils Kindberg in the Morane Saulnier MS 3L. The picture was taken at Malmen on July 17,1915. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Nieuport IVG

  Built at Suresnes outside Paris, the Nieuport IVG (c/n 138) was air tested at Villacoublay on May 28, 1912. The Nieuport IVG was then shipped to Axvall, Sweden, where it was assembled on July 16. It eventually became known as M 1, ie Monoplane 1. Before actively taking part in the Army exercises, several things, such learning to operate the airplane under different conditions and devising tactics, had to be learned. However, heavy winds prevented all aerial activities until July 21, when Gosta von Porat made two flights:
  “About a week after the biplane (ie the B 1) had crashed, it was time for the debut of the monoplane. I had adjusted the wings as best as could through the Mark One Eyeball (there weren’t any other method), with the engine running like clockwork when groundrun, although not particularly fast - about 1,000 rpm instead of the desireable 1,100 a 1,200. Very early one Sunday morning, I think about 4 a.m., in calm sunny weather, I first made a so-called belly jump over the aforementioned hollow in a vain attempt to, during the few seconds the flight lasted, try to get a feel on how the airplane “layed” on the wings. After landing I turned round, took off again and flew a few turns over the plain - five maybe ten minutes - but sufficient enough to wake everyone in the neighborhood. When I landed, lots of people were swarming around the barracks and living quarters - with most having rushed out into the night in their pajamas. When I jumped out of the machine, I was treated to a round of applause, one of the very few I’ve received in my life!”
  Daily flights were made until August 8, when bad weather once again grounded the Nieuport. Flights resumed the following day, with a new fuel pump being fitted. On August 28-29, the Gnome engine was dismantled and cleaned.
  Although a few problems had been experienced the engine, the Nieuport IVG showed itself to be a capable airplane. A few passenger flights were made, the first with Allan Jungner July 27, with another flight lasting 51 minutes.
  On September 30, the engine lost rpm during take-off, resulting in a damaged landing skid.
  The first "proper” reconnaissance flight took place on October 3,1912. In poor weather, von Porat and the observer Beck-Friis attempted to spot the ’enemy’ forces. Spotting a field through the low clouds, von Porat chose to land. The Nieuport IVG overturned on landing, and splintering the propeller and slightly damaging the engine. While von Porat inspected the airplane and Beck-Friis attempted to locate a telephone, the enemy’ forces arrived. The officer in charge declared his intention to destroy the "enemy airplane”, to which von Porat immediately replied that he had already seen to that.
  In the event, the airplane was dismantled and transported to Stockholm for storage with the regiment Ing 3, the parent unit of the flying school.
  Between July 21 and October 3, the Nieuport IVG had accumulated a total of nine hours and 54 minutes in the air during 45 flights.
  With repairs effected, the Nieuport IVG took part in the February 2 - March 12, 1913 winter exercises, held at Lidingo near Stockholm. A temporary base was set near the home of inventor Carl Richard Nyberg, who ten years earlier had constructed a half-scale steam-powered airplane named Flugan (The Fly). Flights were conducted almost on a daily basis, with both the Nieuport IVG and Breguet C.U-1 flying from the icy surface.
  When the ice began to thaw, the airplanes were dismantled, and transported to Malmen outside Linkoping. On May 19, the Royal Army Flying School was established at Malmen. A hangar was erected on May 23, with the airplane making a brief hop on the same day. Most importantly, a workshop shed was erected on May 26.
  For the next couple of weeks, the Gnome engine proved troublesome. On July 12, a test flight was conducted, with von Porat taking off for Stockholm three days later. On July 22, von Porat made a non-stop flight from Stockholm to Malmen, remaining airborne for two hours and 14 minutes. An 80 h.p. Gnome engine was subsequently fitted, substantially increasing performance. The first flight with the more powerful engine took place on July 27. While taking off from Axvall on August 28, von Porat collided with a powerline. The right wing was damaged beyond repair, but quickly replaced, with von Porat flying to Gothenburg on August 30.
  On February 2,1914, the two Nieuport IVG’s (M 1 and M 2) and the Breguet C.U-1 (B 1) were deployed to Lidingo. However, due to bad weather, very little flying took place. The three airplanes and staff were then transported by train to Ostersund for winter trials. A specially constructed ski landing gear was fitted, with the M 1 making the first flight on skis on March 23. (This was possibly the world’s first flight with a ski-equipped airplane.)
  Tests with dropping 2 kg bombs were also conducted at Ostersund, with so-called Balloon Grenades being dropped through vertical tubes. The gear, including 30 bombs, had been acquired from the Danish company Defenseur Ltd. Originally designed to be dropped from balloons, each bomb was fitted with a small parachute. Both the M I and the SAK-built M II were used during these trials. By April 8, the Farman HF 22 (B 2) had arrived at Ostersund.
  When the armed forces were mobilized on August 6, 1914, the Nieuport IVG was based at Malmen, with von Porat being its regular pilot.
  With the delivery of higher performance airplanes, the Nieuport IVG was gradually reduced to second-line duties. Nevertheless, it was not struck off charge until April 1919. The Nieuport IVG is preserved with Flygvapenmuseum.

Nieuport IVG Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 50 - 80 h.p. Gnome
   Length: 7,80 m
   Wingspan: 10,90 m
   Height: 2,50 m
   Wing area: n/a
   Empty weight: n/a
   Maximum weight: 450 kg
   Maximum speed: 90 km/h
   Armament: (see above)



SAK Nieuport IVG

  Formed on March 30 1913, the Svenska Aeroplankonsortiet (Swedish Airplane Consortium, SAK) was founded by Lars Fjallback, Allan Jungner, Gosta von Porat and Tord Angstrom, with funding being provided by the wholesaler Gosta Fraenkel. The intention was to construct a copy of the Nieuport IVG, which at the time was stored in Stockholm. The airplane was built in a basement in central Stockholm, being finished in September 1913. The airplane was sold to the Army for 4,300 kronor, with funds being allocated from the Bjorkqvist National Defense Fund Raising. The Nieuport IVG arrived at Axvall in mid-September, with the first flight, with von Porat at the helm, taking place on September 23.
  Although the SAK Nieuport IVG closely resembled its French-built predecessor, the former was somewhat larger, being powered by a 80 h.p. Gnome rotary engine, which required widening the fuselage. A fin was also fitted, according to von Porat: "mostly or the sake of appearance”. Designated as the M 2 (ie Monoplane No. 2, later becoming serial number 3), the SAK Nieuport IVG was used during the February-April 1914 winter exercises at Ostersund, regularly flying on skis.
  On June 16,1914, the M 2 was severely damaged in a take-off accident at Skillingaryd. Gosta von Porat: ’’Early the following morning, we were to take off and continue our flight southward. The fuel tanks of the airplane had been topped up, and the machine itself having been pulled as far as possible into a corner. As usual, I was hoping that the field would prove suitable for taking off. But, either it wasn’t, or I acted stupidly - during the take-off the opposing wooded area was coming dangerously close after I had lifted a metre or so from the ground. I then turned slightly to the left, which appeared safer, but all of a sudden, a telephone pole appeared in front of me, which I judged would be impossible to climb over. An attempt to turn failed, the left wing struck the ground and we ended up in a pile.
  The big main tank came loose, and fell on my left leg - I cannot recall if I felt any pain when the femur snapped off, but I heard the bang. Luckily, the tank did not burst, so the scrapheap did not catch fire. The accompanying observer, Lieutenant (Reserves) Allan Hygerth, suffered only slight injuries.”
  Gosta von Porat was hospitalized for nearly one year before returning to service. The airplane was rebuilt, eventually being written off in a crash on May 29,1916.

SAK Nieuport IVG Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 80 h.p. Gnome
   Length: 8,4 m
   Wingspan: 11,00 m
   Height: 2,30 m
   Wing area: 23,40 m2
   Empty weight: 350 kg
   Maximum weight: 450 kg
   Maximum speed: 95 km/h
   Armament: -


Preservation

Nieuport IVG

  The first Army monoplane, the Nieuport IVG, has, through a series of lucky circumstances, survived. Having been struck off charge in 1919, several contemporary documents state that: "the M 1 has now been scrapped”. It would appear the airplane was consigned to storage at Malmen, most likely due to the intervention of Gosta von Porat (the airplane’s first pilot), instead of ending up on a bonfire.
  Prior to 1923’s ILUG event, the airplane was, according to von Porat: "dug out (...) from storage, quickly refurbished, becoming an item in the display section for has beens.”
  In 1937, when von Porat was Commander of Wing F 3 at Malmen, he discovered to his joy that his old airplane still existed in very good condition. In the summer of 1945, the Nieuport IVG was displayed at an F 3 airshow, alongside an RAF Avro Lancaster and Lockheed Hudson as well as various former Luftwaffe airplanes.
  During the Flygvapnet 25th Anniversary celebrations in 1951, the airplane was put on display in central Stockholm, together with the Phonix D.III and one of the prototype SAAB 29 jet fighters. That same year, the Commander of Wing F 3, Colonel Hugo Beckhammar, allocated a storage hut for a number of old airplanes. This collection was to be the foundation for the future Flygvapenmuseum (Air Force Museum). Beckhammar was determined to save the old airplanes for posterity, despite the complete lack of support from Flygvapnet High Command, and, in particular, its Commander-in-Chief, General Bengt Nordenskiold.
  In early 1962, rumors began to spread that the Nieuport IVG was to be restored to flying condition in anticipation of the Swedish Military Aviation 50th Anniversary airshow, due to be held on September 1 and 2 at Malmen. As it turned out, the rumor was true, with the work of getting the old Nieuport back into the air being assigned to the Wing F 3 workshop.
  Work commenced in April 1962, with the whole airplane being dismantled and the fabric removed from the fuselage, wings, stabilizer, elevators and rudder. The original propeller was removed and used as a template for a new propeller. The wheels were also temporarily replaced with new units. The control system was modified, with the wing warping (no ailerons were fitted) control being moved to the control column. A temporary foot pedal for rudder control was also fitted, along with a newly manufactured propeller. These measures were, of course, made for safety reasons. (After the Nieuport’s airshow appearance, the original control system was reinstalled, as was the original propeller.) The 50 h.p. Gnome engine was overhauled and installed in the uncovered fuselage. The engine was ground run for about two hours.
  As for who would receive the honor of flying the Nieuport, Fritz Crona, then Commander of Flight Operations at Wing F 3, pulled rank. He, and no-one else, was going to fly this airplane. Crona had lengthy discussions with Gosta von Porat, who had flown the Nieuport IVG back in 1912, about the flight and handling qualities (or lack thereof) of the airplane.
  After making a series of hops, Crona made the first lengthy flight in the Nieuport: ”(It is) a brilliant day with even and moderate winds, when the airplane is let loose by the ’mech(anic)s’, with the engine being well adjusted to maximum revs. The pulse of the pilot is most likely also at maximum revs. The airplane climbs elegantly to an altitude of about 40 metres. The revs drops somewhat. Certain lack of roll control appear to point to too low speed. Push the stick forward. Adjust throttle and fuel mixture levers. The revs increase somewhat. The airplane maintains altitude. The runway threshold is getting closer... and passed - that’s a lost opportunity! We have to get higher up. Adjusting the engine again - same revs. Perhaps we’ve climbed a few metres. If I turn, we might lose altitude. It would perhaps be best to land straight ahead on one of the fields. A few people alongside a tractor are waving at my contraption.
  That field seems suitable. No, the crops are too high. If I turn back toward the field I will lose too much altitude. With a tailwind, things will happen fast. That field looks nice, I should be able to get down in one piece. The comes the forest, followed by the entire province of Smaland. That field is the last chance. Oh well, it’s time to turn. Carefully! Wonder if I’ll be able to maintain altitude? Things appear to work out rather nicely. And then, we’re on our way back to the airfield. I do believe my heart will settle back in my stomach for the time being. With the tailwind, things are proceeding fast. We’ve lost some altitude. Landing in a tailwind does not appear to be a great idea. Have to turn into the wind when we get back to the airfield. I do believe we’ve regained some altitude. Here comes the airfield. Now, a careful turn. It actually appears to be working. Nose straight into the wind, more than a kilometre of grass airfield in front of me. Things could not be better. It’s just a question of reducing altitude, cut the engine, and land. We made it, but why did we not get any higher? When inspecting the engine, it was discovered that an exhaust nozzle had got stuck in an open position. Apparently, six out of seven working cylinders provide the exact amount of power required the maintain level flight.”
  Crona subsequently made several more flights in the Nieuport IVG, accumulating two hours and 20 minutes in the (then) fifty-year old airplane. The longest flight lasted 28 minutes, with Crona reaching the respectable altitude of 600 metres. During the 50th Anniversary airshow, the Nieuport IVG only appeared on Saturday, September 1, 1962, with poor weather preventing its participation on Sunday.
  Since 1984, the unique Nieuport IVG has been on display at Flygvapenmuseum.
Nieuport IVG in Swedish service.
The Nieuport IVG M I was the Army's first monoplane. The picture was taken at Axevalla Hed in the summer of 1912. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Starting a rotary engine could be tricky, especially in wintertime. The airplane is the Nieuport M II, which was tested on skis in early 1914. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
The Nieuport M II being prepared for flight. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
A poor but interesting picture of Nieuport IVG M I dismantled for road transport. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
The Nieuport IVG M II following Gosta von Porath's near fatal crash at Skillingaryd. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
The Nieuport IVG photographed in the early 1960s at the embryonic Flygvapenmuseum at Lagerhyddan. The other airplanes are a Fokker C.V-E and a Seversky EP-106. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Fritz Crona flying the Nieuport IVG in 1962. A number of Saab J 29 fighters are visible in the lower righthand corner of the picture. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
Nieuport IVM (N 1)

  Following the 1911 general elections, the new government decreed that defense spending was to be drastically reduced. As a result, on January 14, 1912, the teacher Manfred Bjorkqvist issued a call for the general public to raise money for a new armoured naval vessel. By May 4, 15,021.530 kronor had been raised, more than enough for the construction of the naval vessel Sverige (Sweden). This particular fund raising effort subsequently became known as Pansarbatsinsamlingen (The armored ship fund raising). In 1913, some of the surplus funds were spent on three naval airplanes; one Nieuport IVM, one Donnet-Leveque amphibian and one Farman HF 23, as well as a few army airplanes.
  Delivered in October 1913, the Nieuport IVM was a two-seat, float-equipped monoplane deemed suitable for flight training. It was designated N 1, indicating the first Nieuport-type airplane. Lieutenant Olle Dahlbeck was despatched to France to test fly the Nieuport. Dahlbeck complained that the airplane was difficult to fly, which apparently was largely due to the different control system that he was used to. No ailerons were fitted, which meant that wing warping, controlled by means of the foot pedals, was used. Nevertheless, the Nieuport IVM was based at the first naval flight school, located at Oscar-Fredriksborg near Vaxholm, east of Stockholm. The airplane was rarely used, being grounded in late 1914. However, it was not struck off charge until October 1918.

Nieuport IVM Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 100 h.p. Gnome
   Length: 7,80 m
   Wingspan: 11,60 m
   Height: 2,50 m
   Wing area: n/a
   Empty weight: n/a
   Maximum weight: 450 kg
   Maximum speed: 100 km/h
   Armament: -
The Nieuport IVm at the Stockholm naval yard, presumably in late 1913. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Nieuport-Delage 29C-1

  The last type of airplane to enter service with AFK was the Nieuport-Delage 29C-1. One year prior to the formal establishment of an independent Flygvapnet, Karl A.B. Amundson was appointed as its first Commander-in-Chief. Upon his own initiative, Amundson ordered ten Nieuport-Delage 29C-1’s. Although some criticism was levelled at Amundson, he was well aware that the necessary funds would be forthcoming. The price for the ten airplanes, 175,575 kronor, was considered a bargain. On the same day that Flygvapnet was established, July 1,1926, the government duly paid for the airplanes. Delivery took place between March and May 1926, with the designation J 25 being assigned. The ten Nieuport-Delage 29C-1’s were issued with the serial numbers 63 (c/n 1205), 65 (c/n 1206), 67 (c/n 1207), 69 (c/n 1208), 611 (c/n 1209), 613 (c/n 1210), 615 (c/n 1211), 617 (c/n 1212), 619 (c/n 1213) and 621 (c/n 1214). The Nieuports entered service with 3.Flygkaren (3.Air Corps) at Malmen. One, serial number 67, was destroyed on August 15, 1926, when the engine starter air pressure tube exploded. A conscript mechanic, Karl-Bertil Norman, was killed.
  On July 1,1928, the Flygvapnet designation J 2 was assigned to the remaining Nieuports. It is notable that the airplanes remained unarmed until 1927, which meant that their primary use was as advanced trainers. With the manufacturing quality being considered substandard, the J 2’s saw comparatively little use. The last J 2’s were struck off charge in 1930.

Nieuport-Delage 29C-1 Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 300 h.p. Hispano Suiza 8 Fb
   Length: 6,50 m
   Wingspan: 9,70 m
   Height: 2,26 m
   Wing area: 26,84 m2
   Empty weight: 873 kg
   Maximum weight: 1,200 kg
   Maximum speed: 220 km/h
   Armament: 2 x 6,5 mm machine guns
Nieuport 29 in Swedish service.
Nieuport 29 in Swedish service.
Ten Nieuport 29's were taken on charge in the spring of 1926. Note the alternative national insignia, consisting of blue and yellow vertical stripes. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
An excellent view of Nieuport 29 serial number 39. This picture was taken in 1927, when the national insignia had been amended to three black crowns. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Although a relatively modern design, the Nieuport 29's suffered from poor manufacturing standards, being mostly confined to the advanced trainer role. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Fjallback Naktergalen (Nightingale)

  While learning to fly in 1912 at the Bleriot flying school at Pau, France, the engineer Lars Fjallback began to design an airplane. Upon arriving back in Stockholm, Fjallback became a part of the Svenska Aeroplankonsortiet (Swedish Airplane Consortium), which in 1913 built a Nieuport IVG.
  After the Nieuport had been completed, Fjallback formed Svenska Aeroplanfabriken (The Swedish Airplane Factory) in November 1913 together with Tord Angstrom, initiating the construction of his own airplane design. Liberally borrowing design features from Nieuport, Harlan and Hanriot, the resulting airplane was named Fjallback Naktergalen (Nightingale). This name was rarely used, though, with Fjallback’s airplane after being drafted into military service commonly being referred to as Bastarden (which roughly translates to someone being born out of wedlock).
  By late 1913, the Nightingale had been completed. The first flight was delayed due to the Gnome engine not arriving until early 1914. On April 3, the airplane made its maiden flight in the hands of Tord Angstrom. During the summer of 1914, Fjallback and Angstrom secured sponsorship from the toothpaste manufacturer Stomatol, the name of which was painted on the airplane. A tour of central Sweden, promoting Stomatol, had to be cut short due to the outbreak of war.
  On August 8, 1914, the Nightingale was purchased by the army. Transferred to Malmen, the Nightingale was issued with the serial number 9. In AFK service, the airplane was assigned to Tord Angstrom, but also flown by other pilots as well. During two weeks in July 1915, the Nightingale was used in ground-to-air firing trials. During these trials, the pilot Nils Kindberg threw small objects out of the airplane, with the objects descending slowly to the ground by parachute. The idea was to train troops in firing at aerial targets. According to Kindberg: ”How many of the brave shooters on the ground, that aimed at the airplane No. 9 Fjallback and how many that aimed at the target parachutes will never be known. No hits were recorded in either target, though.
  In November 1916, the airplane was struck off charge due to age and wear and tear.

Fjallback Bastarden Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 50 h.p. Gnome
   Length: 7,30 m
   Wingspan: 8,80 m
   Height: 2,40 m
   Wing area: 14 m2
   Empty weight: n/a
   Maximum weight: 450 kg (?)
   Maximum speed: 100 km/h
   Armament: -
The Fjallback Nightingale after being drafted into AFK service. Note the Blue-and-yellow national insignia roundel beneath the wing, and the Swedish flag on the rudder. The colors have been reversed due to the use of ortochromatic film. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
FVM Triplanet

  Using the fuselage of a discarded Thulin L, Henry Kjellson and Gosta von Porat constructed a two-seat triplane, intended for basic flight training. The airplane was given the name Triplanet (ie The Triplane), and the serial number 831. Powered by a 90 h.p. Thulin A rotary engine, the Triplanet was first flown in September 1918 by Nils Rodehn. Although a number of Thulin A engines had been purchased for the possible series production of the Triplanet, it was quickly discovered that this type of engine provided insufficient power. Tragically, the Triplanet crashed on April 12, 1919 after entering a spin at an altitude of 200 metres, killing Lieutenants Gosta D:son Carlsson and Folke Soderlindh. As a result, plans to build additional aircraft were cancelled.

FVM Triplanet Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 90 h.p. Thulin A rotary engine
   Length: 6,50 m
   Wingspan: 9,00 m
   Height: 2,96 m
   Maximum take-off weight: 990 kg
   Maximum speed: 150 km/h
   Armament: -
The FVM Triplanet was the sole Swedish-designed triplane. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
FVM S 18

  The first indigenous design of FVM was the large two-seat S 18 reconnaisance biplane. The S was short for Spaningsflygplan (ie reconnaissance airplane), with 18 indicating the year 1918. Designed by Henry Kjellson, a total of 15 S 18’s were eventually built. It appears likely that Kjellson’s main source of inspiration was the Thulin FA, as well as various contemporary German airplanes.
  An initial contract for four airplanes, referred to as ’’Albatros 260 h.p.”, was signed on September 9, 1918, with an additional six being ordered in February 1919. The first S 18, serial number 980, was flown for the first time on 20 March 1919. The following month, this airplane was statically displayed at the Skandinavian Aero Exhibition in Copenhagen. After the completion of the ten S 18’s, an additional five airplanes were built. With funds not yet being allocated, these were referred to as spare fuselages and wings. Nevertheless, as the mobilization called for a total of 15 S 18’s, these were eventually completed. The last S 18 was delivered in August 1920. Many of the 260 h.p. Mercedes engines came from the batch of AEG G.V’s imported in 1919. However, the first and last production S 18’s were fitted with 260 h.p. Maybach engines.
  The S 18 was AFK’s main reconnaissance airplane during the early 1920s. Many long distance flights were made, with one pilot, Axel Ljungdahl, managing to stay aloft for 14 hours. One S 18 was experimentally fitted with twin floats, but protracted tests showed the airplane being wholly unsuitable in the maritime reconnaissance role.
  In 1923, one S 18, serial number 0112, was leased to Hugo Montgomery and registered as S-ALAA for participation in the ILUG arrival contest. Tragically, the heavily loaded airplane spun in prior to landing at Rotterdam, the Netherlands, on August 1, 1923, killing all three aboard.
  The last two S 18’s, serial numbers 998 and 0108, were struck off charge in April 1926.
  One trainee pilot later wrote: ’’For reasons of range, the wing area of the S 18 was overwhelmingly huge. It is of course something of an exaggeration to say that if one wingtip scraped the brick tower (at Malmen), the other scraped the barracks on the other side of the field. At first glance, one had that kind of vision, or something like that. The machine was huge and heavy.
  For some darned inexplicable reason, the control column was so short that it barely reached one’s knees. Superhuman armstrength, often combined with similarly strong legs, proved necessary to maneouver the colossous. In other words, it was not popular. At least among us student pilots, who did not have any aspirations of achieving long distance records.”

FVM S 18 Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 260 h.p. Mercedes
   Length: 8,70 m
   Wingspan: 14,00 m
   Height: 3,42 m
   Wing area: 45 m2
   Empty weight: 1,250 kg
   Maximum weight: 1,850 kg
   Maximum speed: 156 km/h
   Armament: 1x8 mm m/22 machine gun
A rare air-to-air picture of FVM S 18 serial number 980. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Nyrop No: 3 (Aeroplanet No: 1)

  The first Swedish military airplane can be traced to the brewery manager Otto-Emil Neumuller (1860-1925), who in February 1911 ordered the construction of an airplane to be donated to the Royal Swedish Navy. Neumuller paid a total of 20,000 kronor for the airplane. On June 8,1911, Neumuller wrote to the Naval Ministry: ’’Influenced by my son, sub-lieutenant Fredrik M.(agnus) Neumuller and his brother-in-law, sub-lieutenant Olle Dahlbeck, both serving with the Royal Navy, the undersigned has ordered the construction at Landskrona of a military airplane, of the Bleriot type. (...) This has now been completed, and only awaits a knowledgeable pilot to enter service.”
  Two of the conditions for the donation was that the Navy would pay for Dahlbeck’s flight tuition in Britain, the other being that Neumuller’s own son, Fredrik Magnus, must not become a pilot!
  The airplane was built by Hjalmar Nyrop, who had previously built and flown two airplanes together with his business partner, Oskar Ask. However, by the time of Neumuller’s order, relations between Nyrop and Ask had soured. As a result, construction of the Nyrop No:3 at Nyrop’s boatwharf at Landskrona became the sole responsibility of Nyrop.
  The two-seat Nyrop No:3 was basically a two-seat Bleriot XI-2 bis. Although unsubstantiated, Nyrop may have obtained plans and technical information of the Bleriot XI-2 bis from Great Britain, where the type was known as ’Big Bat’.
  On August 29,1911, Olle Dahlbeck obtained his pilot’s licence at the Claude Grahame-White flying school at Hendon. After returning to Sweden, Dahlbeck acquainted himself with the Nyrop No:3 at Ljungbyhed, with the airplane being referred to as ’’Kiddy”.
  On December 1,1911, the Nyrop No:3 was formally handed over to the Navy, being received ’’with pleasure” by the Minister of Naval Affairs, Jacob Larsson. Although designated as the "Aeroplanet Nr:1” (Aeroplane No:1), it was colloqually known as Bryggarkarran (The Brewer’s Cart) in recognition of Neumuller’s occupation.
  The first flight in Swedish royal naval service took place on February 3,1912. Although it had been intended to use the airplane for maritime reconnaissance, it was soon realized that it was unsuitable for this task. Dahlbeck considered it to be difficult to fly, but very funny to taxi on icy surfaces. In 1913, its 50 h.p. Gnome rotary engine was removed and fitted to a Donnet-Leveque amphibian. However, the Nyrop No:3 was not struck off charge until April 1916. Thankfully, this historic airplane has been preserved.


Aeroplanet No: 1 (Nyrop No: 3) Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 50 h.p. Gnome Omega rotary engine
   Length: 8,38 m
   Wingspan: 10,97 m
   Height: 2,90 m
   Wing area: 24,43 m2
   Empty weight: 310 kg
   Maximum weight: N/a
   Maximum speed: 80 km/h
   Armament: -


Preservation

Nyrop No:3

  After being withdrawn from use in 1916, the Nyrop No:3’s historical significance and importance as the first Swedish military airplane was recognized, as it was handed over to Sjohistoriska Museet (The National Naval History Museum) in Stockholm for preservation. Apparently never put on display, Bryggarkarran was subsequently transferred on February 23, 1934 to the adjacent National Museum of Science and Technology following a Royal decree dated February 28, 1934. Although briefly exhibited during the inauguration of the museum in 1936, the airplane was consigned to storage soon afterwards. By the early 1970s, it was in poor condition. Part of the longerons on the righthand side of the fuselage had been sawn off, with the section removed being put on display to show airplane construction technique of yore. In the spring of 1975, the Bryggarkarran was restored and displayed at Teknorama (part of the National Museum of Science and Technology) in May of that year during the 75th Anniversary of the Swedish Royal Aero Club. In the mid-1990s, new fabric was applied. In 2010, the Bryggarkarran was loaned to Flygvapenmuseum for the 100th Anniversary of Aviation in Sweden. Subsequently returned to the National Museum of Science and Technology, the airplane remained on display until 2019. On January 4, 2022, the airplane was transported to Flygvapenmuseum at Malmen, having been loaned for an initial period of five years. The historic airplane will be put on display when Flygvapenmuseum reopens in 2023.
In 1975, the Nyrop No:3 was restored and put on display during the Technorama event at the National Museum of Science and Technology. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
The Nyrop No:3 on display at the National Museum of Science and Technology on June 10, 2019. Shortly afterwards, the airplane was placed in storage. It has since been transferred to Flygvapenmuseum on loan. Jan Forsgren
The Nyrop No:3 prior to being trucked to Flygvapenmuseum on January 4, 2022. Jan Forsgren
The Nyrop No:3 seen at Ljungbyhed during a pre-delivery test flight. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
A historic picture, showing Olle Dahlbeck's first flight with the Nyrop No:3 in naval service. However, there have suggestions that the picture may be a composite. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Sodertelge Verkstader SW15

  Better known as the Lottery Pursuit, and unofficially known as the Po-fighter (Po after Gosta von Porat), the Sodertelge Verkstader SW 15 was clearly inspired by contemporary German fighters. Drawings and technical information for a single-seat fighter were supplied to SW’s managing director Carl Cederstrom, apparently via Villehad Forssman, who at the time was working for Siemens-Schuckert.
  However, in 1916, Cederstrom was replaced by army pilot Gosta von Porat, with the designer Henry Kjellson soon joining the company. Kjellson and von Porat began preparing the drawings of a fighter aircraft. By mid-1916, a small, neat-looking biplane fighter, designated as the SW 15, was rolled out. The fuselage consisted of a welded steel-tube frame. The front fuselage was covered in aluminium sheet metal, while the rear fuselage was fabric covered. The fabric-covered wings were built entirely of wood. The SW 15 was powered by a 100 h.p. Vabis six-cylinder inline engine (the Mercedes D 1 built under licence by Vabis).
  Some Swedish sources state that the SW 15 was inspired by the Siemens-Schuckert D.Ia. Although the SW 15 was similar in configuration to the German fighter, confirmation of the Siemens-Schuckert D.Ia connection is lacking.
  The completed airplane was put on display in March 1917 at an exhibition organized by the Svenska Aeronautiska Sallskapet (Swedish Aeronautical Society, SAS). Interestingly, the as yet unflown SW 15 was the first prize in an SAS lottery! As a result, the SW 15 was nicknamed Lotterijagaren (The Lottery Pursuit)
  Following its maiden flight on June 17, 1917, the SW 15 prototype overturned on landing, with the pilot, Bertil de Mare, being killed. The aircraft had suffered little damage, and was quickly repaired. Gosta von Porat, who had replaced Carl Cederstrom as company executive, referred to the SW 15 as ‘The Beast’: “It had incredibly staggered (offset) wings, lacking a stabilizer (as well as a fin). The wheels were also undoubtedly located too far back, so that the airplane easily turned turtle. It would of course have been possible to make a “three-point landing”, ie with a low tail, without risks, but the test pilot, lieutenant Bertil de Mare, one of Flygkompaniet’s best, did what was usual at the time, namely a “wheel landing, with the tail section high up in the air, overturning and breaking his neck.
  Despite changes, nothing good ever came of the type.” Even though the SW 15 had claimed de Mare’s life, it had suffered very little damage, apart from a broken left wingstrut, returning to the air in September 1917. Modifications included fitting a fin and an enlarged rudder. The SW 15 was subsequently delivered to Flygkompaniet as serial number 825.
  A Schwarzlose m/14 machine gun was fitted, and ground firing trials initiated, using a synchronization mechanism developed by von Porat and Captain Kolthoff. However, during each trial, the synchronization mechanism failed, which resulted in the destruction of the propeller. For obvious reasons, no air firing trials were attempted.
  In March 1918, two further SW 15’s were, apparently with some reluctance, taken on charge by the AFK. Issued with the serial numbers 827 and 829 respectively, the SW 15’s were flown exclusively by Nils Rodehn. Between March 1918 and January 1919, serial number 827 was flown 19 times, and 829 on only four occasions. Rodehn did not particularly enjoy flying the SW 15’s, referring to them as “crocodiles”. In early 1919, the SW 15’s were consigned to storage, being accounted for as “In museum”. On December 5, 1921, the SW 15’s were officially struck off charge, having not flown for nearly three years.

Sodertelge Verkstader SW 15 Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 100 h.p. Vabis (licence-built Mercedes D.I)
   Wingspan: 8,26 m
   Length: 5,90 m
   Height: 2,50 m
   Empty weight: 500 kg
   Max take-off weight: 640 kg
   Maximum Speed: 125 km/h
   Armament: 2 x Schwarzlose machine guns
The second SW 15, serial number 827. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
SW 15 serial number 827 at Malmen. Via www. digitaltmuseum.se
A close-up of the m/14 Schwarzlose machine gun. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
Sodertelge Verkstader SW 16

  In connection with the competition for a two-seat reconnaissance airplane that would be able to operate on wheels, skis or floats, five 150-165 h.p. Benz III engines were imported from Germany. The specification was submitted to three manufacturers; AETA, which offered a land-based variant with a wing area of 42 m2 of the Thulin G, NAB with the NAB 13 (landplane) and NAB 14 (floatplane), essentially scaled-up variants of the NAB 9, and SW, which offered the SW 16. On July 15, 1917, the Kriegsamt allowed the export of the five Benz engines to Sweden.
  Already on April 11, 1917, one SW 16 had been ordered for comparative evaluation. However, after reviewing the different offers from AETA, NAB and SW on July 10, the recently-appointed Commander of the AFK, Ernst Fogman, suggested the purchase of four SW 16s. Three weeks later, the Minister of War suggested that the comparative evaluation would take place with the various operational units in northern and southwestern Sweden. In the event, none of the competing designs were built. It has been suggested that Fogman thought the matter getting the airplanes - any airplanes - into active service was paramount, with a comparative evaluation only being a waste of precious time.
  The SW 16 design appear to have been highly influenced through information provided to Carl Cederstrom by Swedish-German designer Villehad Forsmann, who at the time was employed by Siemens-Schuckert. The fuselage consisted of a veneer (front fuselage and upper fuselage decking) and fabric-covered welded steel tube frame. The area around the engine was covered by sheet metal. The wings consisted of a fabric-covered steel tube frame, with ailerons being fitted to the upper wing, otherwise being identical to those of the SW 12. Interestingly, no fin was fitted to the SW 16 prototype. The SW 16 was the first Swedish-designed airplane fitted with armament, which was to consist of a single machine gun mounted on a scarff ring and operated by the rear seat gunner/observer. From available evidence, it would appear that no gun was ever fitted though. On September 12, a second SW 16 fuselage was ordered, and delivered to Malmen. On September 26, 1917, the SW 16 prototype caught fire during the seventh and final test flight at Malmen. Both the pilot, Lieutenant Hans von Blixen-Finecke and the passenger, Lieutenant H.G. Pfeiff, were killed. It was subsequently established that the fire and resulting crash had been caused by fuel leakage. It had been intended that Pfeiff was to continue with the SW 16 field trials during the forthcoming fall exercises, due to start in late September.
  The fatal crash doomed the SW 16, with no further airplanes being ordered. However, the second SW 16 was assembled by FVM in October 1918, with the serial number 878 being issued. Apparently, it became known as ’Horungen (Bastard Child). The airplane was destroyed in a crash on April 19, 1919.

Sodertelge Verkstader SW 16 Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 160 h.p. Benz III inline engine
   Length: 8,76 m
   Wingspan: 13,40 m
   Height: 3,28 m
   Maximum weight: 1,350 kg
   Maximum speed: 125 km/h
The sole SW 16 delivered to AFK. Note the lack of fin, and the Swedish flag on the rudder and the Three Crown national insignia on the upper wing. Via www.digitaltmuseum.se
SAF H 2/SW 17

  Designed by Lars Fjallback, the SAF H 2/SW 17 was a twin-float biplane rather similar in appearance to the Sopwith Baby. The design was a response to the MFV’s requirement for four small flying boats. On February 5,1916, the MFV placed an order for four H-2s, all to be delivered no later than May 5. However, five days before, on February 1, SAF was merged with Sodertalje Verkstader. The contract for the H-2s was formally taken over on February 14, and with the type being redesignated as the SW 17. In July 1916, the airplane was test flown at Bjorkudden near Sodertalje. In the event, the SW 17 proved disappointing, with the 80 h.p. Thulin A rotary engine being deemed largely responsible for the airplane’s performance being well below expectations.
  Subsequent test flights at Karlskrona showed the H 2 to have poor flight characteristics, particularly with regards to anticipated speed and rate of climb. When flown on skis during wintertime, with a redesigned upper wing having been fitted, performance was acceptable. Nevertheless, the SW 17 repeatedly failed to reach an altitude of 1,000 metres. As a result, the SW 17 was not accepted for service with the contract being cancelled on March 31,1917. Interestingly, in February 1917, SW officials stated that the SW 17 was “...a mathematical impossibility”, with Fjallback (who by this time had travelled to the USA) being deemed as “incompetent as a designer”.
  In the event, a buyer for the quartet of SW 17s was found in the Royal Danish Army Air Service. The intention was to use the SW 17s as landbased training airplanes. An export licence was granted on November 2, 1917, with all four incomplete SW 17s being delivered to Denmark during this month. Only two of the SW 17s were completed in Denmark, both being test flown in January 1918. However, only a very limited amount of flying was conducted, with one SW 17 being written off in a crash in May 1918. Unsurprisingly, the acquisition of the seemingly useless airplanes from Sweden resulted in harsh criticism in the Danish media.

SAF H 2/SW 17 Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1x80 h.p. Thulin A
   Length: 7,10 m
   Wingspan: 8,06 m
   Height: 2,90 m
   Wing area: 23,00 m2
   Empty weight: n/a
   Maximum weight: n/a
   Maximum speed: 108 km/h
  Armament: -
The SW 17 was not accepted by the MFV. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Thulin B

  The Thulin B was a licence-built Morane Saulnier MS 3L. A total of seven Thulin Bs were built, with two being donated to the navy. The first completed Thulin B featured an increased wing area (17,5 m2), being offered to the navy on February 16,1915. Although Thulin offered the Thulin B for maritime reconnaissance purposes, the type was considered too fragile as well as lacking the necessary engine power.
  Nevertheless,Thulin donated one Thulin B (c/n B1, most likely the one mentioned above) to the navy, with the airplane being accepted in August 1915. A second Thulin B (c/n B5) was obtained through a donation in August 1916, this time through funds (amounting to 24,288.63 kronor) provided by ’Women of Vasternorrland Province’.
  The Thulin B’s were initially issued with the designations M I and M II respectively, indicating the first and second Morane-Saulnier Type of airplanes. This was soon amended to Flygbat (Flying Boat, usually shortened to Fb) 1 and 2. Some sources quote another two serial numbers, 81 and 82.
  The Thulin B could carry a crew of two, pilot and observer. One each was based at Landskrona, covering the Oresund Strait, and Karlskrona, covering the southern Baltic Sea approaches. Both were flown on floats, augmenting the Farman HF 23’s on neutrality patrols.
  Remarkably, both of the Thulin B’s were lost on the same day, September 2, 1917. The first to go down was Fb 2, which crashed at New Cemetary near the Malmo gas works. The 28-year old pilot, Lieutenant Ivar B. Sandstrom was killed when he fell out of the airplane due to strong winds. The remaining Thulin B, Fb 1, crashed a few hours later, when lieutenant Beckman suffered engine failure off Landskrona. Although Beckman was uninjured, his Thulin B was damaged beyond repair in the rough seas. Both Thulin Bs were struck off charge in October 1917.

Thulin B floatplane Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 90 h.p. Thulin A rotary engine
   Length: 6,5 m
   Wingspan: 9,5 m
   Height: 2,55 m
   Wing area: 16,00 m2
   Empty weight: 422 kg
   Maximum weight: 582 kg
   Maximum speed: 135 km/h
   Rate of climb to 1,000 metres: Six minutes
   Armament: -
Two Thulin B’s were delivered to the MFV. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Thulin D

  The Morane-Saulnier Parasol built under licence, two Thulin D’s were purchased using funds collected by the Society for Women of Skane Province. Completed in early 1915, the first production Thulin D was displayed in Stockholm in May 1915 at an exhibition organized by Sveriges Aeronautiska Sallskap (Swedish Aeronautical Society, SAS). This Thulin D had a completely rectangular fuselage, similar to the French Morane-Saulnier Parasol. The four subsequent production airplanes featured a more rounded forward fuselage.
  Initially powered by a 50 h.p. Gnome engine, this had been exchanged for a 80 h.p. Gnome by September 5, when the airplane was handed over to the AFK. Issued with the serial number 15, the Thulin D was considered particularly useful for observation and artillery spotting: ”As this particular type of airplane during trials over the winter and spring of this year, it has shown itself eminently suitable for warfare during Swedish conditions, the Corps Commander hereby submit a request on behalf of the Crown to receive the offered airplane of the suggested type.”
  The second Thulin D was handed over on July 3, 1916, becoming serial number 19. Tragically, this Thulin D was lost in a fatal crash at Skillingaryd just over two weeks later, on July 19. Both the pilot, Lieutenant Karl Mannstrom and the observer, Lieutenant Magnus Kruse, were killed. The cause of the crash was due to a broken rudder.
  Formally struck off charge in April 1918, Thulin D serial number 15 was obtained by the Friends of Finland Society, and secretly sent by rail to Finland on March 18/19, 1918. With the Civil War raging in Finland, many Swedish citizens felt a strong committment to support the White’ Army, which fought against the Bolzhevik ’Red’ Army. With the Swedish government maintaining a policy of neutrality, several airplanes were smuggled to Finland through various enterprising individuals. The Thulin D was given the identification number F3 (short for Flygmaskin 3, ie Airplane Number 3). Nine days after arriving in Finland, the Thulin D crashed at Orives after the engine caught fire.
  Incidentally, another Thulin D was the first airplane to enter service with the Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force). Donated by the Count Eric von Rosen, the Thulin D was flown from Umea to Vasa on March 6, 1918. The ’lucky sign' of Count von Rosen, a Swastika, was painted on the airplane. Until 1945, the Swastika became the national insignia of the Finnish Air Force. During the 1980’s, a full-scale Thulin D reproduction was constructed. It is on display at the Finnish Air Force Museum at Jyvaskyla.

Thulin D Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 80 h.p. Gnome rotary engine
   Length: 6,5 m
   Wingspan: 11,00 m
   Height: 3,1 m
   Wing area: 18,00 m2
   Take-off weight: 635 kg
   Maximum speed: 115 km/h
Thulin D '15' in Swedish service.
Thulin D serial number 15 at Malmen. With its virtually unrestricted downward view, the Thulin D was an excellent observation airplane. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
A rare picture of the second AFK Thulin D, serial number 19. The text translates as 'The second airplane of the Society of Women of Skane Province'. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Thulin D serial number 15 during a typical Swedish winter. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Thulin E

  Following the outbreak of war, the Swedish parliament decreed to purchase four reconnaissance biplanes. Following receipt of the order, AETA commenced the design of a two-seat biplane. Although the resulting Thulin E was very similar to the Gotha LD 5 (Kavallerie Flugzeug), the Thulin E could with some stretch of the imagination be considered as the first indigenous Thulin design. Incidentally,Thulin made the rather preposterous claim that the Thulin E was similar in appearance to the Albatros B.II!
  All four airplanes had been completed in the spring of 1916. After being test flown, the first two Thulin E’s were delivered to AFK, becoming serial numbers 26 and 30. As per contemporary standards, the pilot sat in the rear seat, and the observer (encumbered by struts and wings to block his view) in the front seat. The third production Thulin E was fitted with floats, after which it was handed over to AFK for continued trials as serial number 32. The final Thulin E became serial number 36.
  One Thulin E, serial number 32, was destroyed in a crash on January 26,1917.
  All four Thulin E’s were despatched to the north of Sweden for the 2.Flygavdelningen (2.Flight Section), being used to patrol the border with Finland. During summertime, the airplanes were fitted with twin floats, and skis during the winters. According to Gosta von Porat, the quartet of Thulin E’s formed the ’’Aerial Armada of northern Sweden.”
  The last three remaining Thulin E’s were struck off charge in December 1920, not having been flown for a considerable time.
  Gosta von Porat considered the Thulin E as being a substandard airplane: Tt was not beautiful, the upper wing sat very high and was entirely straight, without V-shape. The rear fuselage was very short and the tail section lacked a stabilizer, it was replaced with a huge compensating elevator. (...) It was also a beast to fly. As it turned out, the elevator was over compensated, being overly sensitive, the rudder possibly normal, and the ailerons largely without effect. It was very unstable, staggering in despair during the slightest uneveness in the air. And for years, I struggled with that rascal. Without enthusiasm, it must be admitted.”

Thulin E Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 90 h.p. Thulin A rotary engine
   Length: 6,45 m
   Wingspan: 11,40 m
   Height: 3,00 m
   Wing area: 32,00 m2
   Take-off weight: 785 kg


Thulin L

  By early 1916, plans to expand AFK strength resulted in 12 reconnaissance airplanes being ordered from AETA (four Thulin L’s), Nordiska Aviatik AB (four NAB 9’s, ie Albatros B.II) and Sodertelge Verkstader (four SW 12’s, ie Albatros B.II), respectively. It is interesting to note that Enoch Thulin was strongly opposed to the Albatros B.II, claiming it to be both too heavy and unsuited for AFK requirements.
  A development of the Thulin E, the Thulin L featured a number of improvements, including a redesigned tail plane. Another external difference from the earlier Thulin E was the sloped upper section of engine cowling. The pilot’s seat was moved to the front, with the observer occupying the rear seat. According to the contract, signed on July 4, 1916, the Thulin L was to have a maximum speed of 115 km/h (landplane) and 105 km/h (floatplane), a take-off run of 60 metres and landing run of 70 metres (both landplane). Also, four men would be able to assemble a Thulin L in 45 minutes, and disassemble it in 15 minutes. In order to further improve the working conditions for the observer, large cut-outs were made in the lower wings to ease vertical photography.
  The four Thulin L’s were delivered between November 1916 and March 1917, becoming serial numbers 38, 40, 42 and 44, respectively. By April 1917, the Thulin L’s were serving with the 2.Flygavdelningen (2.Flight Section). The following month, the unit deployed to Abisko in the far north of Sweden, close to the Norwegian border. When flown on skis and with full military load, the fuel load (and, consequently, endurance) had to be reduced.
  On January 5, 1918, one Thulin L (44), crashed off Umea after running out of fuel during a long distance flight.
  Already from the beginning, it had been intended to fit a twin float landing gear to the Thulin L. Special ’’Hydro-wings” with increased wing area to 42 m2 were built, with flight tests being conducted at Lake Roxen outside Linkoping. When fitted with floats, the Thulin L had a much reduced performance, particularly with regards to the rate of climb. Nevertheless, six sets of twin floats and 24 ’’Hydro-wings” were ordered. In the event, these floats and wings were not issued for service. On May 14,1918, it was proposed to sell off these items.
  In October 1917, a fifth Thulin L (serial number 48) was obtained in part-exchange for a Bleriot XI. This particular Thulin L was fitted with a double set of controls.
  When the war ended in November 1918, the 2.Flygavdelningen (2.Flight Section) disbanded, with the remaining Thulin L’s all being returned to Malmen. They were used for basic flight training as well as artillery spotting before being struck off charge in December 1920. However, the airplanes had by then been grounded for several months.
Incidentally, the fuselage of a Thulin L was later used in the construction of the FVM Triplanet.

Thulin L Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 90 h.p. Thulin A rotary engine
   Length: 7,50 m
   Wingspan: 11,60 m
   Height: 3,52 m
   Wing area: 36,50 m2
   Take-off weight: 965 kg
An unidentified AFK Thulin E. The location is possibly Boden. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society.
A float-equipped Thulin E moored at an unknown location. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society.
Thulin E serial number 32 seen during floatplane trials. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Like most of the early AFK airplanes, the Thulin L underwent floatplane tests. In the event, these proved unsuccessful. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
Thulin K

  With the appearance of the dedicated single-seat fighter over the Western Front in 1915, it was becoming obvious that the air war was expanding both with regards of its roles and capabilities. This development did not pass unnoticed in Sweden. On September 21, 1916, a government committee proposed the purchase of about 20 fighters. However, this was turned down as operating fighters went beyond the role of the AFK according to the then current Army Regulations.
  At the time, the biggest aeroplane manufacturing company in Sweden was AETA, better known as the Thulin works. Already in 1915, its founder Enoch Thulin had proposed the Thulin B (the Morane-Saulnier MS 3L) as a single-seat fighter. This offer was declined, with Thulin commencing work on an improved airplane, known as the Thulin K. On December 19, 1916, one Thulin K was ordered through funds donated by the Society for Women of Skane Province. Delivered in early March 1917, the serial 21 was issued to the Thulin K. A second Thulin K, serial number 23, arrived in September 1917, paid for by the Society for Women of Smaland Province. Although the contract stated that a “machine gun can be mounted ahead of the pilot”, the airplanes remained unarmed.
  Although none of the Thulin K’s received any armament, their delivery has been seen as the initial tentative step towards a Swedish fighter arm.
  In his diary entrance for March 10, Nils Rohden wrote: “Sweden’s first fighter has arrived. I’ve been given it and would test fly it today.” However, during the first take-off, the propeller cut the wire to the left ski, the propeller splintered and Rohden had to force land, the Thulin K turning turtle. Damage was minimal, and the aircraft was quickly repaired. On March 21, Rohden noted in his diary: “Today ... I reached an altitude of 5 000 metres, more than 1 000 metres higher than the Scandinavian record, -28°”.
  The Thulin K’s were almost exclusively flown by Nils Rohden, earning him the honor of being Sweden’s first fighter pilot.
  During mid-1918, both Thulin Ks were modified with ailerons and conventional stabilizer and elevators. On July 17, Rohden flew serial number 23, encountering no problems during the test flight.
  On October 15, 1918, serial number 23 was written off at Malmen, with the second one, 21, being destroyed in a crash at Skovde on March 23, 1919. Although the Thulin K definitely did not have the performance of contemporary fighters, it did serve a useful role in developing tactics for future Swedish fighter aircraft.
  A further 16 Thulin Ks were eventually built, 15 for the Royal Netherlands Navy and one for the personal use of Dr. Enoch Thulin. Tragically, Dr. Thulin died in 1919 when his Thulin K crashed in Landskrona, thus spelling the end for the Thulin company.

Thulin K Technical Data and Performance Characteristics:
   Engine: 1 x 90 h.p. Thulin A
   Wingspan: 9,10 m
   Length: 6,50 m
   Height: 2,55 m
   Wing area: 14m2
   Max take-off weight: 522 kg
   Maximum Speed: 150 km/h
   Endurance: 3 hours
   Armament: -
The Thulin K was used primarily by the Dutch Navy, some being tested with a cannon.
Nils Rohden waving to the photographer from his Thulin K. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Nils Rohden cavorting around the sky in a Thulin K. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Thulin G

  Recognizing the obsolescence of the Farman HF 23, a request for five heavy and four light flying boats was distributed to different manufacturers. AETA put forward offers both for the heavy and light flying boats, with the latter being the Thulin B and D monoplanes. As these types of airplanes were considered insufficient for the MFV’s needs, lacking in engine power and endurance, that contract went to SAF and its H 2.
  For the heavy flying boat contract, a modified 160 h.p. Albatros was offered by AETA. It was expected that five Mercedes engines could be obtained from Germany. In competition with Sodertelge Verkstader, whose cost estimate was five times higher than AETA’s, the AETA offer was accepted. A contract for five Thulin G’s was signed on January 19, 1916. The contract specified a rather modest overall performance, a maximum speed of 100 km/h, an empty weight of 520 kg, a six hour endurance, and a 20 minute climb rate to an altitude of 800 metres(!) The airplane was to be armed with a machine gun, and bomb tubes for 10 and 60 kg bombs. A radio was also to be installed. The first airplane was to be delivered four months after the signing of the contract, followed by one airplane each month.
  Despite many requests, the Mercedes engines were not delivered, eventually being replaced by 150 h.p. Benz engines. However, these engines were not released by Germany until December 16, 1916, with actual delivery taking place in the spring of 1917.
  As a result, the first Thulin G was not launched until July 10, 1917, being flown for the first time the following day. The first two Thulin G’s were not delivered until August 1917. Two more were delivered the following month, with the last one being arriving in October. The five Thulin G’s were issued with the serial number 11 to 15.
  Although initial test flights had shown some promise, it was later found that the Thulin lacked inherent stability, and well as having poor flight and handling characteristics. Modifications included a two-degree wing sweepback, and fitting a considerably enlarged rudder. When the Thulin G’s were fitted with a radio and machine gun, the upper wing had to be moved back seven centimeters in order to maintain centre of gravity. The Thulin G’s were heavily used for maritime reconnaissance. On July 15, 1918, serial number 11 was lost off Lysekil. Both crew, Fritz Netzler and Fredrik Thalin, were never found, with the cause of the crash being unknown. On July 19, 1920, serial number 12, was written off in a crash.
  A third Thulin G, serial number, 14 was destroyed by fire on August 5/6, 1921. The two remaining Thulin G’s were struck off charge in January 1922. One Thulin G, serial number 15, has been preserved.

Thulin G Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 160 h.p. Benz
   Length: 9,40 m
   Wingspan: 17,20 m
   Height: 4,00 m
   Wing area: 52,00 m2
   Empty weight: 1,340 kg
   Maximum weight: 1,538 kg
   Maximum speed: 118 km/h
   Armament: 1x8 mm machine gun


Preservation

Thulin G

  After being struck off charge in January 1922, Thulin G serial number 15 was donated to the National Maritime Museum in Stockholm. The big flying boat remained in storage until transferred to the adjacent National Museum of Science and Technology, along with other historical airplanes, in the mid-1930’s. Although the fuselage was briefly put on display, it was not fully assembled. Consigned to storage, the Thulin G was roaded to Malmen in 1977. By this time, the airplane had lost its engine and propeller. Formal ownership of the Thulin G was transferred to Flygvapenmuseum in 1997.
  On September 27, 2004, the fuselage and main floats were transported to Tullinge for refurbishment by the Tullinge Group. Upon close inspection, it was discovered that the fuselage was in very good condition, with the few dents being due to damage during storage and transportation. The fuselage was cleaned, with the metal components being treated for corrosion. A new windscreen was constructed, along with an alumunium nose cone. Interestingly, electrical wiring, possibly used for R/T trials were found in the airplane. The floats were also in good condition, with work involving straightening some of the float struts. The paint showed signs of having been subjected to heat, the conclusion being that they had been stored at the Stockholm naval yard during the August 1921 fire.
  In January 2009, the fuselage and floats were trucked to Flygvapenmuseum. Two months later, the wings arrived at Tullinge. Although a great deal of cleaning had to be performed, the wings were in an excellent state of preservation. A Benz Bz III engine (W Nr 20086), possibly having originally been delivered in September 1918 for use in a Friedrichshafen FF.33, subsequently arrived at Tullinge. The engine looked like something from the scrapheap, with a broken crankshaft and many missing parts. The engine was restored to static condition, with a new propeller being built by Mikael Carlson. In 2010, the wings and engine were transported to Flygvapenmuseum, where the Thulin G was assembled for the first time since 1922, and placed on display.


Thulin GA

  With two Thulin G’s having been lost, two replacement airplanes were ordered from AETA. However, there were to be no sixth and seventh Thulin G. Instead, Thulin redesigned the basic Thulin G in order to accomodate a 200 h.p. Curtiss engine, two of which had been delivered to AETA courtesy of the Naval Department. In December 1917, two Thulin GAs were offered to the MFV, a formal order being placed during in early 1918. By March 12, 1918, work on the fuselage drawings commenced, with the first Thulin GA being completed on July 15. The first flight took place five days later, with the pilot, Nils Kindberg, nearly writing off the airplane. This was only the beginning of what seemed to be an almost endless series of problems with the Thulin GA, particularly with regards to the airplane being inherently unstable in flight.
  While the first airplane was being repaired, the second Thulin GA was launched on August 13. Almost exactly one month later, on September 12, the first production Thulin GA was launched for the second time. Protracted tests lasted until early 1919. The pair of Thulin GA’s did not leave the factory until March 18/19, 1919, with the carpenter ’Palle’ Mellbom noting in his diary: ’’Loaded two GA’s, nice feeling after this had been done”.
  Following delivery, the Thulin GA’s were issued with the serial numbers 16 and 17. In late 1920, serial number 16 was fitted with a 200 h.p. Benz engine, flight test commencing in early December. During a test flight, the airplane crashed into Askrikefjarden near Stockholm on January 10,1921. Both crew, Lieutenant Sten G.S. Berthelson and the observer Fritz Pettersson were killed. The airplane was struck off charge in April 1921. The sole remaining Thulin GA was destroyed in the disastrous fire at Galarvarvet on August 5/6, 1921.

Thulin GA Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 200 h.p. Curtiss
   Length: 9,2 m
   Wingspan: 17,2 m
   Height: 3,65 m
   Wing area: 53,5 m2
   Empty weight: 1,350 kg
   Maximum weight: 1,750 kg
   Maximum speed: 135 km/h
   Armament: -
The Thulin G on display at Flygvapenmuseum. The picture was taken on April 17, 2010. Tor Johnsson
Thulin G serial number 13 at the Stockholm naval yard during the early 1920's. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
The first Thulin GA prior to the first flight on July 20, 1918. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Thulin H

  With AFK requesting a larger combat airplane for bombing and long range reconnaissance, a requirement for a ’’Cruiser-Type Airplane” was issued in March 1916. The airplane was to have a crew of two or three, forward and rearward armament, and armour protection. AETA responded on April 16, 1916, with a tender for the three-engine Thulin H and the twin-engine Thulin I (which remained an unbuilt project). Thulin himself recommended the former due to its three engines providing better performance.
  On September 7, 1916, an order was placed for a single prototype. The Department of Fortifications hoped to order a total of eight Thulin H’s. In the event, the requested funds were denied. In August 1917, the Thulin H had been completed, with the first two flights taking place on August 26. Powered by three 90 h.p. Thulin A rotary engines, the Thulin H was the first multi-engine airplane designed and built in Sweden. Twin floats were fitted for the sea trials, but it was found that these were too small. Protracted tests resulted in a wheel landing gear being fitted in February 1918. The contract was then cancelled, due to the delivery schedule lagging behind.
  The Thulin H was then modified as an airliner, having room for four passengers. It was statically displayed in Oslo (then named Kristiania) in April 1922. The airplane was eventually scrapped following the liquidation of AETA, with some parts surviving until October 1922.

Thulin H Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 3 x 90 h.p. Thulin A
   Length: 9,90 m
   Wingspan: 19,40 m
   Height: 3,40 m
   Wing area: 60,00 m2
   Empty weight: 1,770 kg
   Maximum weight: 2,100 kg
   Maximum speed: 125 km/h
   Armament: -
Intended as a long-range 'Cruiser', the Thulin H was cancelled before delivery. Note the national insignia on the fin and wings. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Thulin N

  A single-seat biplane powered by a 120 h.p. Thulin G rotary engine, the Thulin N had excellent performance. Flown for the first time on December 30, 1917. With the cancellation of the Thulin H, it was proposed to use the available funds for two Thulin N’s instead. For a number of reasons, this never happened.
  The Thulin N was later fitted with a twin-float landing gear. It appears unlikely that it was ever flown on floats.
  When the war ended, surplus airplanes was cheap and readily available. With the Phonix D.III costing about 4,000 kronor, the rotary-engine Thulin N was at a distinct disadvantage, costing 35,000 kronor. In the event, only one Thulin N was built. This airplane is preserved with the National museum of Science and Technology. At the time of writing, the Thulin N is stored at Siljansnas.

Thulin N Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 120 h.p. Thulin G
   Length: 5,65 m
   Wingspan: 7,86 m
   Height: 2,74 m
   Wing area: 21,75 m2
   Empty weight: 400 kg
   Maximum weight: 560 kg
   Maximum speed: 160 km/h
   Armament: -


Thulin NA

  Completed in early 1919, the Thulin NA was essentially a larger, two-seat development of the Thulin N. Put on static display in Copenhagen in April 1919, the Thulin NA was offered to the AFK on April 15, 1920, but rejected due to the availability of cheap airplanes from foreign manufacturers. Although described as a ”two-seat fighter”, the Thulin NA never received any type of armament. Lack of space would have precluded fitting and operating a flexible machine gun in the rear seat.
  Nevertheless, it was later said that: ’’without exaggeration (the Thulin NA), can be said to have been in the same league as the best foreign contemporary fighters.” Powered by a 120 h.p. Thulin G rotary engine, the Thulin NA remained for some undetermined reason unflown until 1921, when the German pilot Graf von Bismarck was able to fly the airplane. Although von Bismarck spoke highly of the Thulin NA’s flight and handling characteristics, the airplane remained unsold.
  The sole Thulin NA is preserved at the Landskrona Museum.

Thulin NA Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 135 h.p. Thulin G
   Length: 5,80 m
   Wingspan: 8,10 m
   Height: 2,53 m
   Wing area: 20,45 m2
   Empty weight: 400 kg
   Maximum weight: 700 kg
   Maximum speed: 215 km/h
   Armament: -
The Thulin N was an attempt to produce a high performance fighter. However, no Thulin N's were bought by the AFK. The photo was taken on December 30, 1917. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
The two-seat Thulin NA was air tested in 1921 by the German pilot Graf von Bismarck. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Thulin FA

  According to a Royal Decree, dated September 22, 1917, funds were set aside for the purchase of four two-seat reconnaissance airplanes, to be powered by 160 h.p. Benz or Mercedes engines. The airplane was to be armed with one flexible machine gun, being fitted with radio gear and having the ability of operating both with wheels and on floats. Four days after the Royal Decree, the Sodertelge Verkstader SW 16 was destroyed in a fatal crash at Malmen, resulting in the SW 16 being out of the competition. Both AETA and NAB submitted offers, with the former being accepted.
  In the event, the available funds proved enough for seven airplanes, at the cost of 16,350 kronor each. A contract for the delivery of seven Thulin FA’s was signed on February 22, 1918, four of which were to be powered by Benz engines and the remainder with Mercedes engines. One of the conditions was that the Thulin FA would be able to operate on wheels, skis, as well as on floats. A highly unrealistic delivery schedule called for the first airplane to be delivered on May 17. The first Thulin FA, serial number 864, did not fly until August 5.
  A period of intense test flying commenced, with the airplane finally being delivered on September 8. On the same day, tragedy struck when the second Thulin FA (866) was destroyed in a fatal crash. The cause of the crash was due to the airplane entering a stall on take-off. The post-crash investigation put forward recommendations of increasing the wing’s angle of incidence, as well as fitting an additional front strut to the lower wings.
  Two additional Thulin FA’s (868 and 870) were delivered in October and September respectively. One Thulin FA was experimentally fitted with floats, but trials showed a distinct lack of performance, mostly due to the low output of the engine. The last three Thulin FA’s were delivered in January 1919 (872 and 874) and November 1919 (876) respectively.
  In service, it was quickly recognized that the Thulin FA was underpowered, resulting in poor overall performance. Additionally, it also proved to be unstable in flight. Nevertheless, the Thulin FA’s were flown quite intensely, with three accumulating 200 flight hours. Two were written off, on August 17, 1919 (872) and September 30, 1919 (868), the latter due to engine failure on take-off. The final three Thulin FA’s were struck off charge on December 5, 1921.
  An eighth Thulin FA, powered by a Thulin D inline engine, was exhibited in Copenhagen in April 1919. Two Thulin FA’s were sold to the Netherlands in November 1918. The ultimate fate of these three airplanes is unknown.

Thulin FA Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 150 h.p. Benz or 160 h.p. Mercedes
   Wingspan: 12,80 m
   Length: 7,20 m
   Height: 3,32 m
   Wing area: 44 m2
   Max take-off weight: 1,595 kg
   Empty weight: 1,095 kg
   Maximum Speed: 130 km/h
   Endurance: 6 hours
Thulin FA serial number 876 was the last of seven delivered to the AFK. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
Thulin FA serial number 870 having its engine changed. Note the Morell-type anemometer on the wing strut. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society
A Thulin FA undergoes static tests in August 1918. Via Swedish Aviation Historical Society