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Nieuport Triplane

Страна: Франция

Год: 1916

Fighter

Nieuport - Nieuport-17/21/23 - 1916 - Франция<– –>Nieuport - Nieuport (Lorraine-Dietrich) / (Hispano-Suiza) - 1917 - Франция


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


NIEUPORT Triplane

  During 1915, Gustave Delage had fitted a Nieuport 10 fuselage with triplane wings of unusual fore-and-aft geometry for experimental purposes, the arrangement being patented on 10 January 1916. Progressive development led, later in 1916, to an even more unorthodox triplane arrangement in which the middle wing, attached to the forward ends of the upper fuselage longerons, was foremost and the upper wing rearmost. Utilising a Nie 17 fuselage, powered by a 110 hp Le Rhone engine and armed with a single synchronised Lewis gun, this triplane was officially tested late in 1916, but was not ordered for the Aviation Militate, and, in consequence, received no official SFA type designation. One example armed with a Vickers gun was acquired for evaluation by the RFC on 26 January 1917, but its flying characteristics were found to be unacceptable. The RNAS also acquired one example in March 1917, this differing in having a Nie 17bis fuselage and a 130 hp Clerget engine. Although allotted to No 11 (Naval) Sqn, it had been discarded by 27 June 1917. The following data relate to the 110 hp version.

Max speed, 110 mph (176 km/h) at 3,000 ft (915 m).
Time to 10,000 ft (3 050 m), 13.6 min.
Empty weight, 919 lb (417 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,386 lb (629 kg).
Span, 26 ft 3 1/2 in (8,01 m).
Length, 19 ft 2 1/2 in (5,85 m).
Height, 7 ft 5 in (2,26m).
Wing area, 143.16 sq ft (13,30 m2).


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The Nieuport triplanes were designed with three wings staggered so that each formed an apex of a triangle. it was believed that this arrangement would eliminate the need for cross-bracing wires, increase stability, and improve lift. All three wings had very narrow chord and each had only a single spar. The staggered arrangement permitted each of the wings to serve as an empennage for the other two, thus producing a lightweight aircraft with improved lift and stability but without heavy, drag inducing struts. This arrangement was first tried on a Nieuport 10 fuselage with the top wing placed in front of the pilot; the middle wing was at the rear and the bottom wing was staggered ; lightly ahead of the middle wing. There were two upright center section struts in the shape of inverted Vs. The engine of his first triplane was a 80 hp Le Rhone. The aircraft was tested in 1916 but the results are not known; however, the type was not ordered into production.
  It is quite possible that the tests with the first Nieuport were not unsatisfactory, as another Nieuport triplane was built. This was a single seater and, unlike the previous design, the upper wing was located to the rear. The middle wing was located ahead of the other wings, being mounted just behind the cowling. The bottom wing was located behind the middle wing. Armament was a single Lewis machine gun. The fuselage seems to have been based on the Nieuport 17. Power was supplied by a 110? hp, Le Rhone 9J engine. The propeller had a large "cone de penetration." The type was tested in October 1916 and declared obsolete in November 1916.
  The RFC and RNAS obtained an example of a Nieuport triplane. The aircraft was tested on 2 February 1917 and favorable comments were made on the pilot's view from the cockpit and the climb rate. However, a subsequent report dated April 1917 stated that the view directly downward and forward was poor because of the location of the middle wing. Longitudinal stability was described as poor and lateral control was only fair. Controllability was good except during taxiing; landing was described as difficult because the triplane was prone to "slew round on the ground." After these tests, the RFC, as with the Aviation Militaire, took no further interest in the aircraft.
  The RNAS obtained two examples for evaluation. N521 was powered by a 130 hp Clerget engine, had a faired fuselage, and was assigned to No. 11 Squadron. It was deleted on 27 June 1917. A second aircraft, N532, is believed to have been sent to No. 11, and later No. 10 Squadrons. It was deleted from service in February 1918.
  
  
Powerplant: Two with a 110-hp Le Rhone 9J
   One with a 130-hp Clerget
  
Data for Triplane N1388
  Span 8.01 m
  Length 5.85m
  Height 2.26 m
  Wing area 43.16 sq.m.
  Empty weight 417 kg
  Loaded weight l,629 kg
  Max speed 176 km/h at 3,000 m
  climb to
   1,000 m 13.6 minutes
  Armament one synchronized 0.303 Lewis, machine gun
  Production Approximately three built

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The first Nieuport triplane, serial N1118. The unusual wing layout was first tried on a modified Nieuport 10
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Nieuport triplane two-seater. N 1118
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Nieuport triplane two-seater
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The second Nieuport Triplane
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The second Nieuport Triplane
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The second Nieuport Triplane
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A6686 at Hounslow
Nieuport triplane fighter N 1388 was evaluated by the RFC in 1916
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The second Nieuport triplane, the unusual configuration proving to offer poor handling.
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The RFC's Nieuport triplane, presumably still at Candas and apparently before the finishing touches were put to the painting of its RFC serial number A6686
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Carrying the French serial number N1388 on the tail, this triplane variant was based on an Nie.17 fuselage, and is armed with a single centrally mounted Vickers machine gun. The original photograph is dated 26 January 1917
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This rear view of N1388 shows that on the starboard side the rudder number lacks any prefix. It was also repeated in miniscule figures on the rear fuselage
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Nieuport triplane fighter N 1388 was evaluated by the RFC in 1916
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A6686 was tested at Martlesham Heath in April 1917 where this photograph was taken; the test report was anything but flattering
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A6686 at an unknown, but extremely interesting location
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N1946, this triplane had a 130-hp Clerget engine and was apparently a converted Nieuport 17bis
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Nieuport Triplane #1
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The first of the extraordinary Nieuport triplanes with centre wing foremost.
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Nieuport Triplane #2
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Nieuport Triplane #3