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Junkers D.I

Страна: Германия

Год: 1918

Истребитель

Junkers - CL-I - 1918 - Германия<– –>Junkers - J 11 / CLS I - 1918 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"ЮНКЕРС" D.I / JUNKERS D.I
  
  Первый в мире цельнометаллический истребитель, построенный по прогрессивной схеме свободнонесущего низкоплана, был разработан в КБ фирмы "Юнкерс Флюгцойгверк" весной 1918 года на базе экспериментального одноместного моноплана J7. Новый самолет получил заводской индекс J9. Его фюзеляж, крыло и оперение имели каркас, склепанный из дюралевых труб и обшивку из тонких листов гофрированного металла. Двигатель - "Мерседес" D-III мощностью 160 л.с. Вооружение - два синхропулемета LMG 08/15.
  J9 впервые поднялся в воздух 12 мая 1918 г. и в следующем месяце принял участие во втором конкурсе истребителей в Адлерсхофе. Самолет показал неплохие скоростные данные, но по маневренности он уступал новым истребителям бипланной схемы, а летчики жаловались на "вялое" управление и недостаточный обзор вниз. Однако важным достоинством машины посчитали ее очень прочную и выносливую конструкцию, которая согласно прогнозам должна была выдерживать значительные боевые повреждения и хорошо противостоять атмосферным воздействиям.
  Фирме оплатили постройку 100 экземпляров истребителя, однако из-за различных технических проблем, а также из-за перебоев с поставками двигателей, сырья и комплектующих до конца войны успели построить и сдать военной приемке всего девять машин. Еще 31 экземпляр был выпущен уже после окончания боевых действий - с ноября 1918-го по февраль 1919 г. 12 из них сделаны по лицензии на фирме "Фоккер".
  Первые три "юнкерса" D.I отправили на западный фронт в августе 1918-го, еще три - в октябре, но никаких данных об их боевом применении не сохранилось.
  В 1919 году металлические "юнкерсы" активно использовались немецким добровольческим корпусом в гражданской войне на территории Прибалтики. В ходе боев полностью подтвердилось мнение об их выносливости и высокой боевой живучести.
  
  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ: "Мерседес" D.III (180 л.с.) или BMW IIIa (185 л.с.).
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ: 2 синхр. LMG 08/ 15 "Шпандау".
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
  Размах, м 9,00
  Длина, м, 7,30 (6,70)
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 14,80
  Сухой вес, кг 654
  Взлетный вес, кг 834
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 186
  Время подъема на высоту
   1000 м, мин. сек 2,30
  Потолок, м 6000


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Junkers J 7
  Built during 1917, this machine was the prototype for the later D.I. Several modified variants existed, the original J 7 did not have orthodox ailerons; instead each complete wing-tip was arranged to swivel. However, these sections were prone to flutter and did not give the pilot sufficient feel in the controls, so ailerons were eventually incorporated. Power plant was the 160 h.p. Mercedes D III, with radiator over cylinder block as illustrated; the modified J 7 with ailerons had a car-type radiate at the nose. The J 7 participated in the second D types Competition in June 1918, when it climbed to 5,000 m. (16,400 ft.) in 23.7 min. at loaded weight of 836 kg. (1,839 lb.).


Junkers J 9 (D I)
  This single-seat fighter was ordered into production during 1918, but only a relative handful of machines got to the Front, for operational assessment, before the Armistice. The all-metal D I differed mainly from the J 7 prototype in having a fuselage some 1 ft. 10 in. greater in length and a 185 h.p. B.M.W. engine installed. It participated in the third D types Competition. Span, 9.0 m.(29 ft. 6 3/8 in.). Length,7.25m.(23ft. 9 3/8 in.). Height 2.25 m. (7 ft. 4 1/2 in.). Area, 14.8 sq.m. (159 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 654 kg. (1,439 lb.). Loaded, 834 kg. (1,835 lb.). Speed, 185 km.hr. (118.75 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 2.3 min. Armament, twin-fixed Spandau machine-guns.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


JUNKERS J 7 Germany

  During the summer of 1916, Junkers switched attention from all-steel to dural construction in an effort to reduce aircraft weight. The J 3 all-duralumin single-seat fighter was discarded when partially built, because of the disinterest of the Idflieg. Nevertheless, Junkers proceeded, as a private venture, with the J 7 single-seat fighter, using the corrugated sheet skinning and duralumin tube construction techniques developed for the J I armoured ground attack biplane. Designed by Dipl-Ing Otto Reuter and powered by a 160 hp Mercedes D III engine, the J 7 flew for the first time on 17 September 1917. Rotating wingtip ailerons were initially fitted, these being replaced by conventional ailerons at an early stage. During the test programme a frontal radiator was introduced, together with a new wing embodying longer-span ailerons. Although not formally permitted to compete in the first D-type contest held at Adlershof in February 1918 because of its monoplane configuration, the J 7 proved faster than all official contenders, and, in February 1918, was finally accepted for testing by the Idflieg. Discussions were held concerning procurement of a small operational evaluation series of J 7s, but this fighter had meanwhile been overtaken by the J 9.

Max speed, 127 mph (205 km/h).
Time to 16,405 ft (5000 m), 24 min.
Empty weight, 1,446 lb (656 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,775 lb (805 kg).
Span, 30 ft 2 1/4 in (9,20 m).
Length, 21 ft 11 3/4 in (6,70 m).
Height, 8 ft 6 1/3 in (2,60 m).
Wing area, 125.94 sq ft (11,70 m2).


JUNKERS D I (J 9) Germany

  Hard on the heels of the J 7, construction of the improved J 9 single-seat fighter was begun by Junkers. Powered by a similar 160 hp Mercedes D III engine, the J 9 flew for the first time in late April 1918. Concurrently, the Idflieg awarded Junkers und Compagnie and the Junkers-Fokker Werke AG each a contract for 10 pre-series J 9s as D Is. The first D I prototype was entered in the 2nd D-type contest held at Adlershof in May-June 1918, but combat pilots adjudged it totally unsuited for fighter tactics then current. It was suggested that, in view of the comparative invulnerability of its metal structure, it should be produced as a specialised ‘‘balloon attack" aircraft. Accordingly, further contracts were issued for the D I for this role between May and November 1918, bringing the total ordered to 60 machines. Of these, Junkers delivered about 27 and Junkers-Fokker delivered 13 through February 1919. There is no record of the D I having been used in combat during World War I, but a few were active with the Geschwader Sachsenberg in Kurland against Bolshevik insurgents. One D I was test flown with a 185 hp Benz Bz IIIb eight-cylinder Vee engine, and another, powered by a 185 hp BMW IIIa engine, participated in the 3rd D-type contest in October 1918.

Max speed, 140 mph (225 km/h).
Time to 16,405 ft (5 000 m), 24 min.
Endurance, 1.5 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,442 lb (654 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,839 lb (834 kg).
Span, 29 ft 6 1/3 in (9,00 m).
Length, 23 ft 9 3/8 in (7,25 m).
Height, 8 ft 6 1/3 in (2,60 m).
Wing area, 159.31 sq ft (14,80 m2).

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Юнкерс" D.I, захваченный англичанами во Фландрии в октябре 1918г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Юнкерс D.I, осень 1918г.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Original Junkers J 7
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
The Junkers J.7 experimental all-metal fighter of 1917, developed into the operational D.I of 1918.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
A rear view of the Junkers J.7 Monoplane.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
While Reuter and his team followed Hugo Junker's concept to the letter, their notions of construction engineering owed more to bridge building than aviation practice. They showed a marked reluctance to switch from steel to light alloy, despite the fact that Zeppelin had been using it since 1908, or thereabouts. Perhaps the finest example of this is the Junkers J.7 experimental single seat fighter first flown in early September 1917. In its initial form, as photographed in flight, the machine was an aerodynamic and fighter pilot's nightmare, with a radiator towering above the engine, not only creating a huge drag, but totally obscuring forward pilot visibility. At this time, the J.7 also had swivelling wingtips in place of the standard ailerons.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The ground-based image shows the same aircraft some 15 months later and looking almost indistinguishable from the prototype D I fighter, many of whose features had been evolved thanks to the J.7.
The J 7 with definitive wing proved faster than all other contenders in the first D-type contest.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The first of a small number of pre-production Junkers D I single seat fighters was completed at the end of April 1918. The short fuselage seen on this aircraft was replaced by a longer one on the 41 production D Is. Powered by a 185hp BMW IIIa, the production examples had a top level speed of 145mph, along with an operational ceiling of 19,700 feet. The interesting thing about the image of a D I after it had suffered a nose-over accident at speed, following a landing gear collapse, is the comparatively light damage sustained. This and other D Is used for service evaluation in the last weeks of the war flew with a non-standard natural metal finish.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Экспериментальный истребитель J9 - прототип "Юнкерса" D.I.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Прототип "Юнкерса" D.I в фиолетово-зеленом камуфляже
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Серийный "Юнкерс" D.I в военном камуфляже.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The short-fuselage version of the J 9 (D I) photographed fully armed on 8 July 1918.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Developed as a synthesis of both the Junkers J.7 single seater and J.8 two seater, the short-fuselaged prototype J.9 rolled out of the Junkers plant at the end of April 1918. Powered by a 185hp BMW IIIa, this unarmed, light alloy machine achieved a remarkable top level speed of 149mph at sea level. Surprisingly, the top level speed of the definitive, long-fuselaged, armed production J.9, was only 4mph slower, at 145mph. In a classic case of bi-focal thinking the military gave the J.9 the designation Junkers D I, where D stood for Doppledecker, or biplane, as they had with Fokker's D VIII. Depicted here is a recently ex-factory D I awaiting delivery on 8 July 1918. As already mentioned with reference to the Junkers J.4/J I, production engineering was the company's real weakness and only a handful of the 41 completed twin 7.92mm Spandau-armed single seaters were to reach the Western Front prior to the Armistice. Junkers D Is, however, did manage to find their way into Poland and the Baltic States, where they continued to fly and fight, along with their two seat Junkers CL I bretheren with the Geschwader Sachenberg. / "Юнкерс" D.I c мотором BMW-IIIa, принимавший участие в конкурсе перспективных моделей истребителей в Адлерсхофе.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Photographed in a Belgium field on 21 January 1919, this all-metal Junkers D I was still deemed to be basically airworthy after being abandoned in the open for more than three months. Four Fokker D VIIs on the same site had deteriorated beyond repair.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Kampfgeschwader Sachsenberg's first base was the airship station at Wainoden in Kurland. Equipped with the latest products of the German aviation industry and using Schlachtstaffel tactics, it provided valuable support for the ground forces. Here using the airship shed guidance rails as chocks is a Junkers D I all-metal cantilever single-seater, with an LVG C VI and two Junkers CL I two-seaters in the background.
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Junkers single-seater, fuselage framework made of open dural profile strip, before attachment of corrugated sheet metal skin.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Junkers J 7 in its definitive form.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The early-production short-fuselage J 9, found unsuited for contemporary fighter tactics.
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Junkers J 9 (J.I)
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Junkers D.I