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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Siemens-Schuckert D.II/D.III/D.IV

Страна: Германия

Год: 1917

Истребитель

Siemens-Schuckert - D.I - 1916 - Германия<– –>Siemens-Schuckert - Dr.I - 1917 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"СИМЕНС-ШУККЕРТ" SSW D.III/D.IV / SIEMENS-SCHUCKERT SSW D.III/D.IV

  Потерпев неудачу с D.I, инженеры фирмы "Сименс-Шуккерт" под руководством Харальда Вольфа начали разработку истребителя собственной оригинальной конструкции под новый 160-сильный 11-цилиндровый биротативный мотор "Сименс-Хальске" Sh.III. Самолет имел короткий, но хорошо обтекаемый фюзеляж круглого сечения, выклеенный из шпона по "роландовской" технологии и двухлонжеронные деревянные крылья с полотняной обшивкой и U-образными стойками. Рули и элероны с роговой аэродинамической компенсацией также обшивались полотном. Вооружение стандартно для немецких истребителей того периода - два синхропулемета LMG 08/15.
  Самолет под индексом SSW D.III вышел на испытания в октябре 1917-го. Испытания завершились успешно и в декабре были заказаны 20 предсерийных экземпляров истребителя. В феврале последовал более крупный заказ на 80 машин, а уже 16 марта первые из них прибыли на фронт. D.III состоял на вооружении восьми германских истребительных эскадрилий и применялся до конца войны.
  Одновременно с D.III испытывался другой опытный экземпляр истребителя с более узкими крыльями. За счет снижения аэродинамического сопротивления он получился более быстрым, но обладал худшей горизонтальной маневренностью. Эту модификацию также приняли на вооружение под обозначением D.IV для оснащения эскадрилий ПВО. В апреле фирма получила заказ на 50 таких самолетов.
  К концу мая на западном фронте воевали 42 "Сименс-Шуккерта". Летчики отзывались о них очень позитивно. Новый истребитель обладал достаточно высокой скоростью, хорошей маневренностью и отличной скороподъемностью. Правда, оценки механиков были скромнее. Биротативный мотор по-прежнему оставался более "капризным" и сложным в эксплуатации, чем ротативный. Кроме того, летом двигатели перегревались, из-за чего на истребителях пришлось срезать нижнюю часть цилиндрического капота, чтобы улучшить обдув.
  D.IV хорошо проявил себя как перехватчик против скоростных бомбардировщиков союзников типа "Де Хэвилленд" DH.4, DH.9 и "Бреге-14". Летом фирма получила заказы на 110 таких истребителей, а осенью - еще на 200, однако до конца войны построили только 123 машины, причем лишь около половины из них успели принять участие в боевых действиях.
  44 самолета собрали уже после подписания перемирия, но практически все они были уничтожены по условиям Версальского договора, запрещавшим побежденной Германии иметь боевую авиацию.

  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ: "Сименс-Хальске" SH.III, 160 л.с.
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ: 2 LMG 08/15 "Шпандау".
  
  
МОДИФИКАЦИИ
  
  D.III: хорда верхнего крыла - 1460 мм.
  
  D.IV: хорда верхнего крыла сужена до 1000 мм, увеличено число нервюр и несколько изменена форма руля поворота.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   D.III D.IV
  Размах, м 8,40 8,35
  Длина 5,85 5,75
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 18,82 15,12
  Сухой вес, кг 534 523
  Взлетный вес, кг 740 725
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 180 195
  Время подъема на высоту
   2000м, мин.сек 4,15 3,40
  Потолок, м 8000 8100


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Siemens-Schuckert D III (Short)
  This short-span D III prototype (serial 7550/17) first flew on 22nd October 1917. It was one of a series of tubby, rounded-fuselage prototypes that eventually led to the D III and D IV production series. The airframe is seen here undergoing static load testing of the wing structure after the flight test programme had been completed. Engine, 160 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh III. Span, 8.5 m. (27 ft. 10 3/4 in.). Length, 6.0 m. (19 ft. 8 1/4 in.). Area, 19.4 sq.m. (209 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 500 kg. (1,100 lb.). Loaded, 750 kg. (1,650 lb.). Climb, 6,000 m. (19,680 ft.) in 26.2 min. Duration, 2 hr. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.


Siemens-Schuckert D III (Long)
  Another D III prototype (serial 7551/17), with wings of longer span but narrower chord, which resulted in the machine having less wing area than the short-span D III. This prototype was again modified and competed in first D types Competition. Engine. 160 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh III. Span, 9.0 m. (29 ft. 6 3/8 in.). Length, 6.0 m. (19 ft. 8 1/4 in.). Area, 18.02 sq.m. (195 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 500 kg. (1,100 lb.). Loaded, 750 kg. (1,650 lb.). Climb, 5,000 m. (16,400 ft.) in 17.5 min. Duration, 2 hr. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.


Siemens-Schuckert D III
  Although dealt with in the main text, this illustration is included here to show the continuous development of a single airframe (7551/17). Modified from the D III (long), the cowling arrangement may now be seen to be less austere and that ailerons have been additionally located at the lower wingtips. It first flew in this form on 20lh December 1917, and then crashed while at Adlershof for first D types Competition in January 1918. Data as for D III (long).


Siemens-Schuckert D III and D IV

  Ultimate successor of the S.S.W. D I was the D.III/ D.IV series, which appeared almost a year later, after development through a series of D.II prototypes, and represented a line of advanced and original thought from the drawing-board of Dipl. Ing. Harald Wolff (who was appointed chief designer after Steffen was killed) and his assistant, a young engineer named Hauck.
  With the relative success of the various D.II prototypes a pre-production order for 20 D.IIIs was placed by Idflieg during the last weeks of 1917; followed by an order for 30 more in February 1918. During April and May some 41 S.S.W. D.IIIs were channeled to the Western Front for operational trials. Most were received by Jagdstaffel 15 of the Jagdgeschwader 11 commanded by Haupt. Rudolph Berthold. A good deal of trouble was experienced with piston seizure, and it became obvious the Siemens-Halske Sh.III engine with which these D.IIIs were fitted was not yet ready for operational service. This shortcoming was seized upon by opponents of the D.III, one of whom had been Hermann Goring, in an endeavor to discredit it completely and have it condemned. Berthold none the less had achieved several victories on the D.III and saw its potentialities; it was largely through his intelligent and objective report on the type that development continued.
  The Siemens-Halske Sh.III engine was a more powerful, eleven-cylinder development of the earlier Sh.I engine, retaining the same characteristic of crankshaft rotating in one direction at 900 rpm. and the crankcase and cylinders rotating in the reverse direction also at 900 rpm., thereby achieving an actual engine speed of 1,800 rpm. Although advantageous in some respects, this system had its disadvantages. Being a more powerful and bigger engine than the Sh I, the Sh III tended to run a lot hotter, and this effect was magnified by the slow speed at which the cylinders rotated, compared with a normal rotary, resulting in a considerable reduction in the amount of air cooling. Coupled with the low-grade castor oil available to the Germans at this period of the war, recurrent piston seizure after some seven to ten hours running seemed inevitable. The redeeming feature of the engine was that its power did not drop off at high altitude and held good prospects. The D.IIIs were withdrawn from the Front during May 1918 for the fitting of improved engines and some airframe modifications.
  One such re-engined D.III, with a Rhemag built Sh IIIs, was piloted by the Siemens test pilot Rodschinka, to the extraordinary height of 8,100 m. (26,568 ft.) in exactly 36 min. These aircraft were then returned to operational service during July 1918, when, by virtue of their superb climbing powers, they were used mainly as interceptors by Kampfeinsitzer Staffeln 4a, 4b, 5, 6 and 8 for defense of the Fatherland.
  Fritz Beckhardt, a friend of the late A. R. Weyl, flew Siemens-Schuckert fighters to good account with Kest (the abbreviated Kampfeinsitzer Staffel) 5, his aircraft being characterized by the painting on the fuselage sides of a large Hakenkreuze (swastika). On a single sortie during September 1918 he managed to shoot down a pair of French Breguet B 14s operating at a height of more than 23,000 ft. The Breguets were by no means sitting ducks, as Ernst Udet was able to testify when he had been shot down by one earlier in the year and was only saved by his parachute.
  When in December 1917 Idflieg gave the first D.III order, it also requested development of the D.IV and placed an order for three prototypes. A D.V development was similarly requested, but as this was virtually a two-bay version of the D.IV, and offered no improvement, it proceeded no further. Although the S.S.W. D.III had excellent climbing abilities, its maximum level speed was not comparable, being only about 180 km.h. (112-5 m.p.h.). In an endeavor to achieve improved performance a redesigned top wing of new section and reduced chord was experimentally fitted, and in this guise the aircraft was re-designated D.IV. There was also some revision to the cowling arrangement, in which the lower half was almost completely cut away to give additional cooling to the cylinders. The spinner was also impressed with four cooling louvers in order to scoop cooling air on to the crankcase. Apart from these modifications, the two types differed little. In performance an immediate increase in level speed to 118 m.p.h. was obtained and the rate of climb substantially improved. By March 1918 a production order had been given for the D.IV, but it was not until August of that year that it became operational; first deliveries went to Jasta 14 and to the Marine Jagdgeschwader commanded by Osterkamp. Later Kest 2 and Jasta 22 received some D.IVs, but production rate was largely controlled by engine availability, and by the Armistice not all the 280 machines that had been ordered had been delivered. Not even the famous Richthofen Geschwader (after an initial antipathy) had been able to get its belated request for the type fulfilled.
  The D.III/ D.IV fighter series, the first-and last-S.S.W. original rotary engined design to see service with the German Air Force, differed radically in appearance from all previous production fighters. Its stocky, barrel-like fuselage was of considerable strength and continued the circular section dictated by the engine throughout its length. In the initial production machines the Sh.III engine was completely enclosed in a close-fitting circular cowl, and the four-bladed propeller-of fairly coarse pitch-was fitted with a large diameter spinner. This combination left an insufficient aperture for the entry of cooling air, and later the cowling was drastically cut away in the lower half, thereby exposing the front engine-bearer spider frame. The fuselage consisted of a basic structure of spruce longerons and circular plywood bulkheads additionally reinforced with diagonally mounted ply formers, which, when the three-ply skin was attached, resulted in an extremely strong structure. The panel between the front undercarriage legs was of sheet metal liberally endowed with louvers to allow the exhaust to escape; the top panel between the center-section struts was similarly covered. Handgrips adjacent to the cockpit and tail plane were fashioned by the simple expedient of cutting away a small rectangle of the plywood skin and exposing the longeron, which could be grasped. All fin surfaces were of wooden framing and constructed integrally with the fuselage, and were likewise plywood skinned. The vertical fin was of asymmetrical section, which helped to counteract a tendency to swing on take-off as a result of the considerable torque moment of the big engine. The balanced, angular rudder and the one-piece balanced elevator were of welded steel-tube construction and covered with fabric.
  In the D.III the upper wing was of considerably greater chord than the lower. Both were based on twin hollow box-spars, and the plywood ribs with pine capping strips were closely spaced and, with the plywood sheeting of the leading edge back to the front spar, dispensed with the necessity for false ribs to preserve the aerofoil section. In the D.IV an improved aerofoil section was introduced and the upper wing reduced in chord to 1 m.: the same as the lower wing. Overhung, horn-balanced ailerons, of parallel chord (those of the D.IV were slightly tapered towards the tips) were fitted at all four wingtips and imparted a brisk rate of roll to the machine. They were operated through torque tubes in all wing panels by a positive linkage which made it unnecessary for them to be linked externally by either struts or wires. As in the steering surfaces, they were of welded steel tube and covered with fabric.
  A conventional vee-type undercarriage was fitted, although the vee struts were fabricated from alloy tube instead of the more usual steel tube, and were wrapped with alloy sheet fairings. The wheels were sprung with spiral steel springs. A substantial ash tailskid was hinged to the under fin and bound at its upper end with elastic cord. Interplane struts were of wood and wrapped with fabric for additional strength, as were also the center section struts.
  Flight characteristics of the series were such as to demand constant vigilance from the pilot; there was no stall warning and a spin rapidly developed. Nevertheless, although with such a powerful engine the torque was considerable, it could be handled by any pilot of good average skill. The counter-rotation of the crankshaft and cylinders did nothing to lessen torque (as has been supposed), but did compensate the gyroscopic reaction. This was extremely beneficial, as it gave no fore-and-aft change of trim between right- and left-hand turns, as was normally the case with rotary-engined fighters.
  Without doubt these Schuckert machines were the best German fighters to reach operational status, yet they were probably the least known. For some odd reason, manufacture of the type did not cease until the summer of 1919, and one D.IV survived in Germany until as late as 1926.
  
  
Description: Single-seat fighter.
Manufacturer: Siemens-Schuckert Werke G.m.b.H. Siemensstadt, Berlin and Nurnberg (Ssw.).
   D.III D.IV
Power Plants: One 160 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh III and IIIa 11 cylinder geared rotary engine.
Dimensions:
   Span 8.43 m. (27 ft. 7 3/8 in.) 8.35 m. (27 ft. 4 3/4 in.)
   Length 5.7 m. (18 ft. 8 1/2 in.) 5.7 m. (18 ft. 8 1/2 in.)
   Height 2.8 m. (9 ft. 2 1/4 in.) 2.72 m. (8 ft. 11 in.)
   Area 18.82 sq.m. (203.5 sq.ft.) 15.12 sq.m. (163.25 sq.ft.)
Weights:
   Empty 534 kg. (1,175 lb.) 540 kg. (1,190 lb.)
   Loaded 725 kg. (1,595 lb.) 735 kg. (1,620 lb.)
Performance:
   Max speed 180 km.h. (112.5 m.p.h.) 190 km.h. (118.75 m.p.h.)
   Climb to:
   1,000 m. 1.75 min. 1.9 min.
   2,000 m. 3.75 min. 3.7 min.
   3,000 m. 6.0 min. 6.4 min.
   4,000 m. 9.0 min. 9.1 min.
   5,000 m. 13.0 min. 12.1 min.
   6,000 m. 20.0 min. 15.5 min.
   Ceiling 8,000 m. 8,000 m.
   Duration 2 hr. 2 hr.
Armament: Two fixed Spandau machine guns firing forward.
  

Siemens-Schuckert D IV
  This photograph continues the evolution of the 7551/17 airframe. After the crash at Adlershof in January 1918 the machine was rebuilt with a new serial (7554/17) and the type redesignated D IV. Again the aircraft crashed, as may be seen above, and was yet again rebuilt, this time with reduced span, and designated D IVa. Engine, 160 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh III. Span, 9.0 m. (29 ft. 6 3/8 in.). Length, 6.0 m. (19 ft. 8 1/4 in.). Weight: Loaded, 695 kg. (1,529 lb.). Climb, 6,000 m. (19,680 ft.) in 18 min. Duration, 2 hr. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns. When rebuilt as D IVa, span was reduced to 7.5 m. (24 ft. 3 3/8 in.), and climb to 6,000 m. took 30 min.


Siemens-Schuckert D IIe
  Yet another airframe with a long and complicated history. The D IIe (serial 7553/17) was originally built with dural-girder wing spars and unbraced wings. The I-type interplane struts may be noted, which help to distinguish from the other S.S.W. prototypes. On test flight the wings were found to flex considerably and bracing cables were then added. Eventually the machine was rebuilt to D IV standards and sent to Geschwader II in spring of 1918 for operational assessment; it was again returned to factory, modified and reengined and ferried back to Geschwader II again in July 1918. Engine, 160 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh III. Span, 8.2 m. (26 ft. 10 7/8 in.). Length, 60 m. (19 ft. 8 1/4 in.). Area, 154 sq.m. (166 sq.ft.). Weight: Empty, 500 kg. (1,100 lb.). Duration, 2 hr. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.


Siemens-Schuckert D V
  Although no photograph has been traced, details are included for completeness. The S.S.W. D V was a development of the D II/D IV series with two-bay wing bracing. Three prototypes were scheduled (7556-7558/18) and completed by August 1918: 7557/18 competed in the second D types Competition, was flown by Muller with climb figures quoted below: Engine, 160 h.p. Siemens-Schuckert Sh III. Span, 8.86 m. (29 ft. 0 7/8 in.), length, 57 m. (18 ft. 8 3/8 in.). Area, 15.1 sq.m. (163 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 514 kg. (1,131 lb.). Loaded, 734 kg. (1,615 lb.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 1.8 min., 3,000 m. (9,840 ft.) in 7.3 min. 6.000 m. (19,680 ft.) in 28.8 min. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


SIEMENS-SCHUCKERT (SSW) D II Germany

  Late in 1916, at the suggestion of the Idflieg, SSW began work on a new single-seat fighter designed by Dipl Ing Harald Wolff around the new 11-cylinder Siemens-Halske Sh III geared rotary engine rated at 160 hp. The result, the D II, was a rotund single-bay biplane primarily of wooden construction, the wings featuring two hollow box spars and the fuselage being a circular-section semi-monocoque of three-ply, intended armament being two 7,9-mm LMG 08/15 machine guns. Three prototypes were initially built, the D II, the D IIa and the D IIb. Although completed early 1917, delays in availability of the Sh III engine prevented flight test of the prototypes, the first of these flying in June. Erratic engine behaviour notwithstanding, the D IIs demonstrated excellent climb performance - the D IIb attaining 16,405 ft (5 000 m) in 15.5 min during August - and three more development aircraft were ordered. Two of these, designated D IIc kurz (short) and D IIc lang (long), differed in wing span and area. The D IIc kurz had a span of 27 ft 10 2/3 in (8,50 m) and a wing area of 208.8 sq ft (19,40 m2) whereas the D IIc lang had a span and area of 29 ft 6 1/3 in (9,00 m) and 193.97 sqft (18,02 m2) respectively, and reduced chord on the upper wing. The third aircraft, the D IIe, had dural wing spars, broad-chord I-type interplane struts and unbraced wings. The D IIc kurz entered flight test on 22 October 1917, the D IIc lang following on 15 November, and an initial order for 20 series aircraft, designated D III and based on the D IIc kurz was placed in December. The D IIc wing cellule was found to lack rigidity in flight, dictating introduction of interplane bracing cables which negated the original purpose of the dural spars, this aircraft later being rebuilt to D IV standards.


SIEMENS-SCHUCKERT (SSW) D III Germany
  
  With the choice of the D IIc kurz (short) as the basis for the initial production Sh III-powered SSW fighter biplane to which the designation D III was assigned, an order for 20 aircraft was placed in December 1917, this being augmented by an order for a further 30 in February 1918. The first two series D IIIs initially had a two-bladed propeller similar to that of the D II, but this was replaced by a smaller-diameter four-bladed propeller which permitted a reduction in the height of the undercarriage chassis. The Siemens-Halske Sh III 11-cylinder rotary engine had a nominal rating of 160 hp, but its maximum output was 210 hp at sea level. The standard armament of twin 7,9-mm LMG 08/15 syn¬chronised machine guns was fitted. The first D IIIs came off the line in January 1918, and, between March and May, a total of 41 was sent to the Front where they demonstrated good handling qualities and outstanding climb capabilities. The Sh III engine proved troublesome, however, having been placed in service prematurely, and all D IIIs were returned to SSW for modification. This involved introduction of the improved Sh IIIa engine and the cutting away of the lower portion of the engine cowling to improve cooling. In addition, some revision was made to the rudder contours. These modifications were also incorporated in a further 30 D IIIs ordered in the interim, to bring total production to 80 aircraft. A modified version, the D IIIa with ailerons on the upper wing only, participated in the second D-type contest (17 May - 28 June 1918), but was not found to offer worthwhile advantages over the standard model.

Max speed, 110 mph (177 km/h) at sea level.
Time to 3,280 ft (1000 m), 1.75 min.
Range, 224 mis (360 km).
Empty weight, 1,153 lb (523 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,598 lb (725 kg).
Span, 27 ft 7 7/8 in (8,43 m).
Length, 18 ft 8 1/2 in (5,70 m).
Height, 9 ft 2 1/4 in (2,80 m).
Wing area, 202.8 sq ft (18,84 m2).


SIEMENS-SCHUCKERT (SSW) D IV Germany
  
  By the end of 1917, the Idflieg regarded the D III as an interim development and was pressing for acceleration of work on the D IV. Retaining the Sh IIIa engine and twin LMG 08/15 gun armament, the D IV differed from its predecessor fundamentally in having a revised wing configuration developed by Heinrich Kann, the basic structure remaining unchanged. The D IV utilised an improved wing profile, the chord of the upper wing being reduced to that of the lower wing, resulting in a reduction of 40 sqft (3,72 m2) in gross area. Rate of climb remained virtually unchanged from that of the D III, but most other aspects of the performance were improved. No fewer than 280 D IVs were ordered in March 1918, although the type did not attain operational use until August, and no more than 50-60 were to achieve active service. Production did not cease with the Armistice, continuing through January 1919, a total of 119 having been completed prior to the end of World War I. A number of D IVs (and D IIIs) continued to be operated by the Reichswehr and by the Grenzschutz Ost (Border Protection East) force, flown by volunteers to protect the German population against the Red Army in the Baltic states and Germany's eastern borders.

Max speed, 114 mph (184 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1000 m), 1.9 min.
Range, 239 mis (385 km).
Empty weight, 1,190 lb (540 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,627 lb (738 kg).
Span, 27 ft 4 3/4 in (8,35 m).
Length, 18 ft 8 1/2 in (5,70 m).
Wing area, 162.75 sg ft (15,12 m2).


SIEMENS-SCHUCKERT (SSW) D V Germany

  Developed in parallel with the D IV, the D V was an essentially similar Sh IIIa-powered fighter differing only in having a two-bay wing cellule. Three prototypes of the D V were ordered, the first of these participating in the second D-type contest at Adlershof in May-June 1918, and the third being completed in August. By consensus the D V held less promise than the D IV, two of the prototypes being rebuilt to D IV configuration and one being lost during flight test.

Time to 3,280 ft (1000 m), 1.8 min.
Empty weight, 1,133 lb (514 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,618 lb (734 kg).
Span, 29 ft 0 3/4 in (8,86 m).
Length, 18 ft 8 1/2 in (5,70 m).


Журнал Flight


Flight, March 13, 1919.

THE SIEMENS TYPE D IV SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER

  DURING the latter part of the War, a good deal was heard of the Siemens Single-Seater, but little reliable information concerning this machine was available. It was said that it had an extraordinarily good (for a German) climb, manoeuvred exceptionally well, and was strong enough to be "spun" with the engine running. The engine was thought to be a Siemens rotary, said to give exceptional power for its weight, and to be particularly good for altitude work. The reports, as is so often the case in such circumstances, differed greatly, and varied from the statement that this machine was no good at all, to the opinion that it was better than anything we had at the time. As frequently happens, the truth judging from the following description, which is translated from the German aviation journal Flugsport, is somewhere in between the two extremes. The machine is undoubtedly one of the best German machines of which detailed particulars are available, but at the same time does not come up to our best. Thus Flugsport :-
  In January, 1918, the Siemens-Schuckert Works brought out, in a competition for this class at Adlexshof, a single-seater fighter known as the D III. This machine, which had a Siemens-Halske rotary motor with 11 cylinders, had a climb that greatly exceeded the specifications of that time, and had at the same time a sufficient horizontal speed and good manoeuvrability. In order to improve upon this type, the speed was increased at the cost of climb, and the shape and section of the main planes were altered accordingly. The new machine, type D IV, is shown in the accompanying illustrations.
  The total span of the D IV is 8m.35, with a chord of 1 m. There is neither dihedral nor sweepback. The weight of the machine empty is 525 kg.
  Concerning the Siemens rotary engine, only a brief reference will be made to this, a more detailed description being reserved for a future occasion. The 200 h.p. 11-cylinder motor is a development of the previous 9-cylinder engine of 110 h.p. It differs from that engine in that, whereas in the smaller motor the crankshaft was stationary and the cylinders revolved, in the new engine the crankshaft revolves in one direction and the cylinders in the opposite direction. The cylinders revolve at the rate of 900 r.p.m. in one direction, and the crankshaft makes 900 r.p.m. in the opposite direction. This is equivalent to an engine speed of 1,800 r.p.m., while the speed of the airscrew is only 900 r.p.m.
  The arrangement of having the two masses rotating in opposite directions is attended by the following special advantages: The low speed of the airscrew results in a better propeller efficiency, which means a greater useful thrust. On account of the low speed of the cylinders the centrifugal force is smaller, which makes for reliability. The high virtual speed of the engine (by having cylinders and shaft revolving in opposite directions - Editor FLIGHT) results in greater power and lighter engine weight. On account of the low speed of the cylinders, air resistance is decreased, resulting in a better efficiency. By having the masses revolving in opposite directions gyroscopic force is approximately eliminated, which is an advantage for manoeuvring. The petrol consumption is far lower than that of any other rotary, and is about the same as that of stationary engines.
  The Siemens rotary can be throttled down from 900 r.p.m. to 350 r.p.m. The cylinders can be easily removed, and by fitting dual magnetos the reliability is increased. The engine can be started by means of a hand-operated magneto. Both inlet and exhaust valves are mechanically operated, and the motor is over-dimensioned, and consequently suitable for work at great altitudes. The normal brake horse-power is 200 h.p. and the maximum power 240 h.p., for a total engine weight, ready for running, of 194 kg. This gives a weight per horse-power of 0.81 kg. If one at the same time bears in mind the low speed of the airscrew, resulting in a good efficiency, of 68 per cent, or so, the value of the engine will be apparent. (A propeller efficiency of 68 per cent, does not impress one particularly. - Editor FLIGHT.) The value of the ratio (lbs. thrust / lbs. weight of engine + weight of screw), should be very good.
  The engine is hung on its three supports in a wrought-iron frame, which is attached by suitable fittings to the four longerons of the fuselage. Later types are improved by making the engine quickly removable with its cowling arrangement. The aluminium cowl round the motor ensures proper cooling and prevents the used oil from being thrown out. The oil tank is mounted behind the engine in order to protect it from the cold, and a short distance behind it is mounted the petrol tank which is arranged for gravity feed. The two tanks are bolted together, and may be put into and taken out of the machine as a unit. In later types the oil tank is built with double walls, the space between which is packed with heat-insulating material so that the oil, even at the greatest altitudes, retains its proper consistency.
  The air screw is a four-bladed tractor, with the four blades glued together in one plane. Its diameter is 2m.80 and the pitch 3m.90. The four-bladed screw, as shown by experiments, has certain advantages over the two-bladed, without, in the present case, having a lower efficiency than the latter. Thus the under-carriage is lower, which facilitates landing at the high speed of this machine.
  The fuselage is built of three-ply wood, and is designed for the lowest possible head resistance. The framework is formed by a series of transverse formers or bulkheads and four pine longerons, and to this the three-ply planking is tacked. Of particular interest are the diagonal formers running from bulkhead to bulkhead. These give great rigidity to the structure. Growing out of the main body and built integral with it are the vertical fin and horizontal tail plane, as well as the lower fin, which forms a support for the tail skid. The tail plane, which is of the symmetrical type, is set at an angle of incidence of 0 deg. while the vertical fin is cambered on one side only, in order to counteract the turning moment caused by the propeller torque. To the tail plane is hinged in the usual manner the one-piece, balanced elevator. The rudder is placed wholly above the elevator. Both rudder and elevator are built up of steel tubes with ribs of sheet steel, and the control cables, which are in duplicate, are so arranged as to nowhere pass over pulleys. The pilot's seat is mounted on duralumin tubes and is adjustable in two directions. The safety belt is attached to the upper longerons via coil springs. One of the accompanying illustrations shows the interior of the pilot's cockpit, which is equipped with the usual instruments: Revolutions-counter, compass, altimeter, throttle levers, switches, magneto switches, and petrol tap, etc. The control lever carries at its upper end a handle of the type that has been standardised by the German authorities (Heeresverwaltung), and the left side of which is arranged as a throttle lever. By a special locking arrangement, the control lever may be locked in any position. The longitudinal rocking shaft, which is forked round the control lever, carries at its front end a double crank for the aileron control. The latter is in the form of steel tubing throughout in order to minimise danger of damage by bullets.
  To the front part of the fuselage is attached the undercarriage, which is built of steel tube throughout. It is held together by a cross tube behind the axle and by diagonal bracing in the rear bay only. The wheel axle, which is a nickel chrome steel tube of 55 mm. diameter, is slung from the struts by coil springs wrapped around the axle. As circular section tubes are employed for the undercarriage struts, these have been streamlined with sheet aluminium. The upper plane is in one piece, and has spars of the box type, the spars being made by spindling out two halves to the desired section. Where struts, etc., occur, the spars are left solid. The ribs are built up of webs of 1.5 mm. three-ply wood, with flanges of pine. The ribs, which are placed 160 mm. apart, are carefully secured to the spars by small blocks of wood, glued on. The internal wing bracing is in the form of steel tube compression struts and steel wires. The wing fabric is stitched to the ribs. All the wing spar fittings are so designed as to surround the spars, thus avoiding piercing. There are four ailerons of the balanced type, which are hinged to the rear spar. The ailerons are operated by steel tubes lying inside the plane, an arrangement which in addition to the advantage already referred to of safety against bullets, gives less head resistance than cables placed on the outside of the wing. (This is evidently a "crib" of the Nieuport type of control. - Editor FLIGHT.) The inter-plane struts are in the form of Vees, which have their pointed end secured to a bridge piece of wood between the lower plane spars. Both front and rear struts of the Vee are of streamline section, and are hollowed out for lightness. The canopy (Baldachin) or centre section struts are braced by cables in such a manner that, by utilising the machine-gun bridge in the construction, they do not interfere with the sighting and use of the guns. The main wing bracing consists of two cables with a very high factor of safety, while an external drift wire to the nose of the body is provided to afford extra safety during a long steep dive.
  The armament consists of two machine-guns, rigidly mounted, and synchronised to fire through the propeller. Adjustment of the guns is made at the rear support.
  Sand tests carried out on the machine have given results far above the official specifications. During the most severe tests in the air, including dives and upside-down flights, no defects were found, and not a single part had taken a permanent set or stretch after the very severe test flights.
  One of the accompanying illustrations shows a barograph record taken under official tests and with the machine carrying its service load of 105 kg. The climbs are only to be described as exceptionally good, and have not, so far as is known, been equalled by our enemies. (This is not correct. - Editor FLIGHT.) The speed and manoeuvrability has drawn favourable comment from all quarters, and the machine has become a leading weapon in the hands of our skilful pilots. The Armistice has prevented the machine from appearing in quantities on the front. The enemy Press had already learned of the appearance of this machine, and we find in tne Matin, during August, an article dealing with it, and English technical journals conclude a description of the Siemens by challenging the English industry to overtake, by intensive work, the lead which the German industry has gained with this machine and motor.

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Сименс-Шуккерт" D.III, второй серийный экземпляр в заводской окраске, весна 1918г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Сименс Шуккерт D.III, пилот - лейтенант Й.Вельтенс, август 1918г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Сименс-Шуккерт" D.IV, пилот Герман Беккер, июль 1918г.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Siemens-Schuckert D III (Short)
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Yet another airframe with a long and complicated history. The D IIe (serial 7553/17) was originally built with dural-girder wing spars and unbraced wings. The I-type interplane struts may be noted, which help to distinguish from the other S.S.W. prototypes. On test flight the wings were found to flex considerably and bracing cables were then added. Eventually the machine was rebuilt to D IV standards and sent to Geschwader II in spring of 1918 for operational assessment; it was again returned to factory, modified and reengined and ferried back to Geschwader II again in July 1918. Engine, 160 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh III. Span, 8.2 m. (26 ft. 10 7/8 in.). Length, 60 m. (19 ft. 8 1/4 in.). Area, 154 sq.m. (166 sq.ft.). Weight: Empty, 500 kg. (1,100 lb.). Duration, 2 hr. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
The D IIc lang (long) prototype which featured increased wing span and reduced upper wing chord.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Although dealt with in the main text, this illustration is included here to show the continuous development of a single airframe (7551/17). Modified from the D III (long), the cowling arrangement may now be seen to be less austere and that ailerons have been additionally located at the lower wingtips. It first flew in this form on 20lh December 1917, and then crashed while at Adlershof for first D types Competition in January 1918. Data as for D III (long).
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В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Сименс Шуккерт" D.III, лето 1918 года
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Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
SSW D.III из эскадрильи Kest 5, август 1918 г.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The Siemens Schuckert D III was another impressive machine that found its way into limited service during 1918. Initially delivered to JG 2 in April, the 53 D IIIs built were also used to equip five home defence units, known as Kests. While slow near the ground, with a top level speed of only 113mph at sea level, the D III's speciality lay in its phenomenal climb, capable of taking the machine to its 26,240 feet ceiling at a rate far outstripping that of both the Fokker D VII and D VIII. This meant that the D III was ideal for rapid reaction responses to high flying threats, which in World War II would be called local or point air defence missions. At the heart of the fighter was its 160hp Siemens Halske Sh III, a throttleable, high compression rotary, whose twin banks of cylinders counter-rotated to minimise the gyroscopic-effect handling problems of the conventional rotaries. The D III gave way in production to the improved D IV. Shown here is non-commissioned officer pilot Leim and his mechanic of Kest 4b posing proudly before their Siemens Schuckert D III.
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Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Второй серийный экземпляр SSW D.III на заводском аэродроме.
The D III, the photo depicting a first series aircraft in February 1918.
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Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
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Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Siemens-Schuckert D III of Kest 4b.
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Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
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W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A D III of the first production series, flown in service by Lt V Ziegesar.
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Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
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Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
This photograph continues the evolution of the 7551/17 airframe. After the crash at Adlershof in January 1918 the machine was rebuilt with a new serial (7554/17) and the type redesignated D IV. Again the aircraft crashed, as may be seen above, and was yet again rebuilt, this time with reduced span, and designated D IVa. Engine, 160 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh III. Span, 9.0 m. (29 ft. 6 3/8 in.). Length, 6.0 m. (19 ft. 8 1/4 in.). Weight: Loaded, 695 kg. (1,529 lb.). Climb, 6,000 m. (19,680 ft.) in 18 min. Duration, 2 hr. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns. When rebuilt as D IVa, span was reduced to 7.5 m. (24 ft. 3 3/8 in.), and climb to 6,000 m. took 30 min.
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THE SIEMENS SINGLE-SEATER. - Side view.
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THE SIEMENS SINGLE-SEATER. - Front view.
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THE SIEMENS SINGLE-SEATER. - Rear view.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
A brand new Siemens Schuckert D IV seen prior to leaving the factory. While using the same 160hp Siemens Halske Sh III as its immediate forebear, the D IV had its wing area cropped to increase top level speed to 119mph at sea level. However, the reduction in wing area brought an increase in wing loading, making the D IV trickier to handle than the D III, particularly in the lower speed regime, where any tendency to spin would be reinforced. The D IV still retained an ability to outclimb any of its contemporaries, making it an admirable 'top cover' aggressor at the front, or rapid-response, high altitude defender of the homeland. To give a glimpse of the D.IV's ability to climb, its time of 1.9 minutes to reach 3,280 feet was superior to that of both the SE 5a and the newly deployed Sopwith Snipe, an advantage the D IV retained on up to a 26,240 feet ceiling. Initially delivered to the service in late August 1918, only 50 or so D VIs were thought to have been delivered by the Armistice.
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The D IV attained operational service in small quantities from August 1918.
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O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Siemens-Schuckert D IV (serial D 7555/18).
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Rear View of the Siemens-Schuckert.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Пулеметы устанавливались на фюзеляже, внутри находились патронные ящики и емкости для сбора стреляных гильз и звеньев металлической ленты.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
View of the body construction of the Siemens Single-Seater.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE SIEMENS SINGLE-SEATER. - Engine mounting.
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Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THREE VIEWS OF THE SIEMENS-HALSKE ROTARY ENGINE. - In this engine the cylinders and crankshaft rotate in opposite directions.
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Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE SIEMENS SINGLE-SEATER. - View of the PUot's cockpit.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE SIEMENS-HALSKE ROTARY ENGINE. - Part-sectional view.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE SIEMENS-HALSKE ROTARY ENGINE. - Sectional side elevation.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE SIEMENS SINGLE-SEATER. - Side and front elevations and plans from above and beneath.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The D III
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Siemens-Schuckert D.III
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Siemens Shuckert D.III