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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Fokker E.V/D.VIII

Страна: Германия

Год: 1918

Истребитель

Fokker - D.VII - 1918 - Германия<– –>Fokker - V27/V29/V37 - 1918 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"ФОККЕР" E.V/D.VIII / FOKKER E.V/D.VIII

  Последний принятый на вооружение в годы Первой мировой войны истребитель фирмы "Фоккер" был спроектирован по довольно редкой аэродинамической схеме моноплана-парасоля. Возможно, тут отразилось влияние появившегося на западном фронте в начале 1918 г. французского истребителя-парасоля "Моран-Солнье" AI.
  "Фоккер" E.V имел свободнонесущее деревянное крыло трапециевидной формы и довольно толстого профиля с фанерной работающей обшивкой, что было также не типично для тогдашних аэропланов. Крыло крепилось к фюзеляжу при помощи стоек, сделанных из стальных труб. Силовая установка, фюзеляж и горизонтальное оперение аналогичны "Фоккеру" D.VI, а вертикальное - такое же, как у D.VII. Вооружение - два синхронных LMG 08/15.
  Прототип истребителя под заводским обозначением V.26 в конце мая - начале июня 1918 г. принимал участие во втором истребительном конкурсе в Адлерсхофе, где показал неплохие результаты, однако самолет конкурирующей фирмы - "Сименс-Шуккерт" D.IV значительно превзошел его в высотности и скороподъемности.
  Зато новый "Фоккер" оказался гораздо проще и дешевле в производстве. Для истощенной долгой войной и испытывавшей острый дефицит ресурсов Германии это было немаловажно. Поэтому Антони Фоккеру удалось заключить контракт на поставку 200 экземпляров своего истребителя за которым последовали заказы еще на 135 самолетов.
  В июле началось серийное производство, а в начале августа первые "фоккеры" E.V поступили на фронт. Сперва они были хорошо приняты пилотами, но уже 24 августа, после нескольких катастроф, вызванных разрушением крыла в полете, E.V вывели из эксплуатации и вернули на завод для доработок. В сентябре на все машины установили усиленные крылья и в октябре возобновили серийный выпуск под новым обозначением "Фоккер" D.VIII (к тому времени немцы стали присваивать всем своим истребителям буквенный индекс "D").
  Всего было построено 289 экземпляров E.V и D.VIII, причем 53 из них уже после окончания боевых действий.
  По окончании войны 20 машин Фоккер вывез в Голландию, где они состояли на вооружении до середины 20-х годов. Восемь истребителей досталось полякам на захваченных ими немецких военных складах. Эти самолеты применялись в польско-украинской и советско-польской войнах, а один из них летом
1920 г. стал трофеем Красной армии. Между тем, большинство переживших войну "фоккеров" D.VIII было уничтожено в соответствии с условиями Версальского мирного договора.
  
  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ: "Оберурсель"Ur II, 110 л.с.
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ: 2 синхр. LMG08/15.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
  Размах, м 8,30
  Длина, м, 5,90
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 10,70
  Сухой вес, кг 405
  Взлетный вес, кг 606
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 199
  Время подъема на высоту
   2000 м, мин 5,1
   4000 м, мин.сек 10,45
  Потолок, м 6300


А.Александров, Г.Петров Крылатые пленники России


Идею о самолете со свободнонесущим крылом удалось полностью реализовать в моноплане "Фоккер Д. VIII", также известным под обозначением "Фоккер Е. V". Его сконструировали под мотор "Оберурсель" (Oberursel) 110 л. с. ко второму конкурсу истребителей, проходившему в период с мая по июнь 1918 г. По результатам, показанным в этих состязаниях, фронтовые пилоты признали модель лучшей среди машин с ротативными двигателями и рекомендовали заказать опытную партию из 10 штук. Однако создатели настолько верили в успех, что начали серийное производство еще до того. В августе "Е-пятые" стали поступать в боевые отряды, спровоцировав своими характеристиками настоящую эйфорию у летчиков и получив прозвище "летающая бритва". Увы, 16 и 19 августа (н. ст.), два авиатора погибли из-за разрушения крыльев их самолетов в воздухе. Расследование установило, что аварии явились следствием проникновения влаги внутрь обшитых фанерой несущих поверхностей, недостаточной прочности лонжеронов и небрежности сборки. Примерно через полтора месяца дефекты устранили и приемка аппаратов, называемых теперь "Фоккерами Д. VIII", возобновилась. Однако замена всех крыльев требовала много времени, репутация модели была подмочена (даже в буквальном смысле!), и после третьего конкурса, состоявшегося в октябре - ноябре, не последовало ни одного заказа на "восьмерки". Вероятно, они почти не принимали участия в боевых действиях, но война для фоккеровских монопланов не закончилась в 1918 г., так как малая часть из примерно 300 построенных продолжала летать в разных странах, в том числе в Польше. Последняя использовала 8 "Фоккеров Е. V", один из которых с летчиком Юлианом Ясинским (Julian Jasinski) во время советско-польского конфликта совершил вынужденную посадку на аэродроме красных или же сделал это добровольно (81, о). Как бы там ни было, Ясинский пилотировал самолет с польским номером 004, поступивший после ремонта во 2-й отдельный истребительный авиаотряд в Харькове и летавший там до 1925 г. в качестве тренировочного истребителя (81, б). Не исключено, что в советской авиации имелся и еще один моноплан Фоккера.


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Fokker V 26
  Also taking part in the second D types Competition, the V 26 was a continuation of the V 17-V 25 monoplane lineage, and with the wing now in the parasol position it was the most successful. It eventually went into production as the E V, later redesignated D VIII. Engine, 110 h.p. Oberursel U II. Span, 8.34 m. (27 ft. 4 3/8 in.). Length, 5.86 m . (19 ft. 2 3/4 in.). Area, 10.7 sq.m. (115.56 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 405 kg. (891 lb.). Loaded, 605 kg. (1,241 lb.). Speed, 204 km.hr. (127.5 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 2 min. Duration, 1 1/2 hr. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.


Fokker V 28
  Yet another E V - D VIII prototype, the V 28, was flown at the second D types Competition with 145 h.p. Oberursel U III and 160 h.p. Goebel Goe III installations. Both engines were eleven-cylinder rotaries and of larger than standard diameter, which necessitated the bulging of the cowling. The above machine is fitted with the Oberursel motor. For the third D types Competition, held only a few weeks before the Armistice, the V 28 was again re-engined, with the Siemens-Halske Sh III. The 145 h.p. Oberursel airframe flew at 605.8 kg. (1,333 lb.) and climbed 6,000 m. (19,680 ft.) in 18.5 min. with the 140 Goebel installation flying weight was 635 kg. (1,397 lb.) and climb to 6,000 m. (19,680 ft.) took 23.5 min. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.


Fokker D VIII

  After the success of the competition for single-seat fighters held at Johannisthal early in 1918 (in which the types were restricted to the use of the 160 h.p. Mercedes D III engine) the German High Command decided to hold another, and manufacturers were duly circularised to the effect that another competition would be held in April in which there would be no restriction on the size of either aeroplane or engine.
  Fokker had on hand Reinhold Platz' prototype parasol monoplane, the V 26 powered by a 110 h.p. Oberursel engine which, after modification, was thought to stand a good chance. Main alterations were the introduction of taper into the trailing edge of the wing with the ailerons inset; the original comma rudder was enlarged and a triangular fin added. Most manufacturers entered prototypes for the competition: Albatros, Kondor, L.V.G., Pfalz, Roland, Siemens-Schuckert, etc., which were flown and assessed by both official test pilots and by pilots from the Front Line Jastas. On their appraisal the final choice rested. Eventually the Fokker cantilever parasol was selected, as it combined a rapid take-off and climb with speedy diving ability, as well as considerable agility in combat manoeuvres.
  The aircraft was put into production immediately, and the first half dozen or so were rushed to the Front for operational assessment in August 1918. Jasta 6 was fully equipped with the type by 5th August, but an acute shortage of castor oil led to lubrication difficulties and many forced landings. The new aircraft were withdrawn from operations on 21st August. Three of these E Vs (as the aircraft was first designated) also crashed due to wing failure, and the type was grounded pending investigation. Two theories for the wing failure have been recorded. The first maintained that the rear spar had been strengthened on official instructions and that in this form the wing did not flex sufficiently to allow an even distribution of load, and consequently fractured. The second theory was that after the spars had been assembled and glued the top and bottom surfaces were planed down to clean them up, resulting in a weakened structure. Whichever theory is true, the fact remains that the fault was rectified and production resumed. Completed aircraft were brought up to specification and the designation was altered to D VIII, but by this time the war was in its final stages and there was no chance for this neat parasol monoplane to prove itself in combat. Jasta 6 of the Richthofen Geschwader had a few D VIIIs on its strength, and these were decorated with a black-and-white "petal" device on the cowling and black-and-white striped tailplanes. The Marine Jagdgeschwader also received some D VIIIs, and Lt. Theo Osterkamp secured his 25th and 26th victories while flying a machine of this type.
  In construction the D VIII still adhered to the Fokker composite formula of wooden wings and steel-tube fuselage, the latter being closely akin to that of the Triplane. It was a welded steel-tube box-girder in which the gauge of the tubes was progressively reduced from 22 mm. diameter at the nose to 18 mm. at the tail. The bays were braced as formerly, with stranded cables looped through quadrants welded into the corners and tightened with a single turnbuckle. The welded steel-tube tail surfaces also closely resembled those of the Triplane, except for the addition of the triangular fin. The tailplane was braced from the underside to the bottom longerons by two steel-tube struts. Fabric covered the complete fuselage and empennage. The neat circular cowling - which again bore a striking degree of resemblance to the Triplane - enclosed the 110 h.p. Oberursel, copied from the French Le Rhone engine.
  The cantilever wing, of pleasing proportions, had a parallel centre-section with angular cut-out, then tapered gradually to the rounded tips, which were strongly made from six fine laminations of ash. Ailerons were inset and unbalanced. The two hollow box-spars, which tapered towards the tips in both plan and elevation, were glued together and bound with fabric. Ribs were of three-ply with spruce flanges, and the whole of the internal structure was given a coat of varnish before being completely covered with three-ply sheet 1 1/2 mm. in thickness, fastened with 1/2-in. wire nails. This was again covered with fabric, resulting in a near stressed-skin surface: it also resulted in the disappearance of the scalloped trailing-edge profile which had characterised all Fokker aircraft up to this date.
  A tripod arrangement of streamlined steel-tube struts supported the parasol wing; the same material was utilised for the undercarriage chassis. The now familiar aerofoil lifting surface again enclosed the axle, spreader bars and shock-absorbing cords, and an internally sprung, steel-shod tailskid of ash completed the landing gear.
  Further development of the D VIII resulted in the basic airframe being fitted with 140 h.p. Oberursel (11 cylinders), 160 h.p. Goebel and 160 h.p. Siemens-Halske engines, but these remained no more than prototypes.
  Handling qualities of the D VIII were reported to be pleasant except for a tendency to turn to starboard when taxi-ing. In flight it was slightly tail heavy but so light on the sensitive controls that it was not tiresome to fly.
  From the cockpit visibility was first class, both upward and downward directions being almost completely unrestricted. Some criticism was leveled at the throttle (petrol) control being on the port side of the cockpit and the air adjustment control on the left side of the control column when it would have been much more convenient for them to have been located together.

TECHNICAL DATA
  Description: Single-seat fighting scout.
  Manufacturers: Fokker Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. (Fok.).
  Power Plant: One 110 h.p. Oberursel U II 9 cylinder rotary.
  Dimensions: Span, 8.34 m. (27 ft. 4 3/8 in.). Length, 5.86 m. (19 ft. 2 3/4 in.). Height, 2.6 m. (8 ft. 6 3/8 in.). Area, 10.7 sq.m. (115.5 sq.ft.).
  Weights: Empty, 405 kg. (893 lb.). Loaded, 605 kg. (1,334 lb.).
  Performance: Maximum speed ground level, 204 km.hr. (127.5 m.p.h.) Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 2 min.; 4,000 m. (13,120 ft.) in 10.75 min. Ceiling, ca. 6,000 m. (19,680 ft.). Duration, ca. l 1/2 hr.
  Armament: Twin fixed Spandau machine-guns synchronised to fire forward through airscrew.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


FOKKER D VIII (E V) Germany

  Apart from his extraordinary prolificity, Reinhold Platz also demonstrated outstanding versatility: virtually simultaneously with his series of mid- and low-wing fighter monoplane prototypes, he was engaged in developing a parasol monoplane fighter. Contrary to popular belief, this fighter was ordered into production by the Idflieg prior to the second D-type competition, the first production examples being accepted some two weeks before the contest ended! This fighter, initially officially designated E V by the Idflieg in the Eindecker (monoplane) series, was the production development of the V 28. This, initially flown with a 110 hp Oberursel Ur II, was also tested with the 145 hp Ur III and 160 hp Goebel Goe in 11-cylinder rotaries. Similar airframes with different engines were the 110 hp Le Rhone-powered V 26, the V 27 and V 30 with the 195 hp Benz Bz IIIb and IIIa six-cylinder water-cooled engines respectively, and the V 29 with the 160 hp Mercedes D III. The E V was manufactured with the Ur II rotary pending availability of the more powerful Ur III and Goe III, and armament consisted of the standard pair of synchronised LMG 08/15 guns. Initial contracts called for 210 aircraft, with deliveries to the Fliegertruppe commencing in July 1918, in which month 59 were accepted (including one for evaluation by the Austro-Hungarian Luftfahrttruppe). Eighty E Vs were accepted during the following month, the last of these on 23 August when further acceptances terminated owing to wing failures. When acceptances were resumed on 8 October, a new wing was fitted, and, for some inexplicable reason, the designation was changed to D VIII (although externally it was impossible to distinguish between the E V and the D VIII). Eighty E Vs were listed at the Front on 31 August 1918 and 85 D VIIIs on 31 October. Of contracts for 335 E V/D VIII fighters placed with Fokker, a total of 289 was delivered (139 E Vs and 150 D VIIIs), 53 of the D VIIIs being delivered after 28 November 1918 without engines. All were powered by the Ur II engine, apart from 26 that received the Ur III. Operational usage of the E V/D VIII was strictly limited because of poor engine serviceability and the need to replace the wings of the E V.

Max speed, 115 mph (185 km/h) at sea level, 107 mph (173 km/h) at 14,765 ft (4 500m).
Time to 6,560 ft (2 000m), 5.08 min.
Range, 186 mis (300 km).
Empty weight, 847 lb (384 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,265 lb (574 kg).
Span, 27 ft 4 1/3 in (8,34 m).
Length, 19 ft 5 in (5,92 m).
Height, 8 ft 6 1/3 in (2,60 m).
Wing area, 115.18 sqft (10,70 m2).


Журнал Flight


Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

THE FOKKER STAND

  Herr Fokker, having relinquished his German naturalisation, obtained, one presumes, for business purposes during the War, and become a Dutchman once more, was handicapped by not yet having had time to build works of his own in Holland since the armistice while German built machines, of any design, were not permitted. The three machines exhibited on his stand, while not built by Herr Fokker, although to his designs, were not, we learn, made in Germany, as has been hinted in certain quarters, but were, we are informed by the gentleman in charge of the Spyker stand, made for Herr Fokker by the Spyker works at Trompenburg. Three machines are exhibited, none of which show any striking departures from their prototypes built in Germany during the War, and which have been fully dealt with in FLIGHT. One of the machines is a little parasol monoplane, with 110 h.p. Clerget (Dutch) engine. It has the usual type Fokker cantilever wings, supported by four struts on each side. It is a single seater, and judging it by a similar machine flown with great skill by Lieut. Versteegh, has a very good performance.
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В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" E.V из 6-й истребительной эскадрильи (Jasta 6) германских ВВС, август 1918г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Фоккер E.V, пилот - лейтенант Р.Венцль, август 1918г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" D.VIII, 24-я истребительная эскадра, пилот - вицефельдфебель Ф.Альтмейер, осень 1916 года
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
D VIII of Jasta 6 at Busigny-Escaufort, August 1918
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
An E V of the Polish Kosciuszko (7th Aviation) Sqn, spring 1919.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A Warner-powered full-scale D VIII replica built in the USA and first flown in September 1968.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker V 26
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Although seemingly out of place in this section, the experimental Fokker V.26, precursor to the E V/D VIII, is included to show how Anthony Fokker was to benefit aerodynamically from the Junkers company's faltering production engineering practices. During the summer of 1917, it was becoming clear that the much-needed, armoured Junkers J I was suffering a production engineering bottleneck. Under pressure from on high, Hugo Junkers was forced to amalgamate his aircraft company with that of Fokker's on 20 October 1917. As far as can be determined, Fokker's periodic presence did nothing to unblock the bottleneck, but gave him unrestricted access to Junkers' developmental results, including the thick-sectioned, high lift wing that Fokker incorporated into the V.26 and a number of his other prototypes. Incidentally, this image shows the V.26 with its tail up on a trestle which has not been retouched out of the picture, making the landing gear struts look overly complicated.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker V 28
The Fokker "Wireless" D.VIII Parasol Monoplane, with 110 h.p. Oberursel UII rotary engine. The ailerons, contrary to usual practice, do not extend to the wing-tips. First examples reached the Western Front in August 1918.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Fokker D.VIII
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" D. VIII РККВФ, захваченный на польском фронте в 1920 году.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Хорошо отреставрированный "Фоккер" D.VIII в авиамузее.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D VIII (serial 132/18).
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D VIII of Marine-Feld Jasta 3.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The parasol-wing Fokker EV, later D VIII, was to be the last of the famed line of Fokker fighters to see action in World War I. Winner of the second 1918 fighter competition, held in April, the EV was considered slightly tail-heavy, but otherwise pilots were well disposed towards its agility, excellent climb and well harmonized controls. Deliveries of this 110hp Oberursal rotary powered single seater, 115mph at sea level, commenced in mid-1918, the first six examples being rushed to the army's 1st Fighter Wing, JG I. Next to receive the EV was the crack Naval Field Wing, with examples going to wing leader Gotthard Sachsenberg along with his deputy, Theodore Osterkamp. These early machines proved to have structural wing flaws and other problems that necessitated their temporary withdrawal from service. Returned to the front in October 1918, the opportunity for this new fighter to make its mark evaporated with the Armistice. Seen here is one of JG I's E Vs, serial 149/18, belonging to Lt Liebig, while that of Lt Osterkamp's was 156/18.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
While some of Anthony Fokker's business practices may have been questionable, the one thing he could never have been criticised about was his attitude towards aircraft development. This manifested itself in a prolific string of prototypes that left most other manufacturers gasping. Although largely overlooked today, these prototypes occasionally bore impressive fruit, as in the case of Fokker's last production fighter of the war, his monoplane D VIII. The story of the D VIII begins early in 1918 with one of those Fokker and Reinhold Platz 'What if?' exercises involving removing the lower wing from the one of the two Fokker D VII biplane prototypes. This proved a less than ideal solution, so Platz tried it again with the V 26, a lighter, rotary-powered one-off that used the Junkers-devised thick sectioned wing. This one worked, in fact so successfully, that Fokker set all hands to producing the fully militarised E V to be ready for the second of the 1918 Adlershof fighter trials. Here, in the rotary-powered class fly-offs the lightweight Fokker E V swept the competition aside, very much as its forebear, the D VII had done a few months previously. However, from this date on, the story of the E V, later D VIII, takes on the more sobering tones of the Fokker Dr I saga, for hardly had the first E Vs started to flow to the front in July 1918, than the type had to be withdrawn in August, following a series of fatalities. The problem, it transpired, was a readily remedied one concerning wing glueing practices. Nonetheless, the E V was out of service from the end of July 1918 until cleared in October, robbing the front-line Jastas of a potentially admirable fighter when most needed. Powered by a 110hp Oberursal U II, the newly returned DVIIIs, as they were now known, were only two-thirds the weight of the Fokker D VII, which, coupled to the DVIII's high lift efficent wing, gave the fighter both agility and an admirable rate of climb. Armed with twin 7.92mm Spandaus, the Fokker D VIII's top level speed was 115mph at sea level, rising to 127mph at optimum altitude. The time cited to climb to 3,280 feet was 2 minutes. This is one of the initial batch of E Vs, 149/18, delivered to JG I in July 1918. Around 60 of these machines are reported to have been produced prior to the type's temporary withdrawal, perhaps another 40 may have been completed but not yet delivered at the time of the Armistice. Certainly a number of D VIIIs were among the 143 aircraft that Fokker ensured were removed, along with most of his plant's machine tools, when he fled back to his native Holland.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Theodore Osterkamp and Gotthard Sachsenberg were to share the honour of being the Imperial Naval Air Service's highest scoring fighter ace and Osterkamp is pictured here sitting on the portside wheel of his Fokker EV, 156/18. It was in this machine that Osterkamp was to score his 25th to 31st 'kills' during the last few months before the Armistice. This, however, was far from the end of Osterkamp's remarkable fighting achievements for he was to continue to fly and fight, alongside his friend Gotthard Sachsenberg in the Baltic campaign until October 1919. This 'unofficial' war in the east was a mobile, messy, disorganised affair and the number of Osterkamp's victories remains unknown. In 1940 and aged 48, Osterkamp, now commanding the Luftwaffe's 51st Fighter Wing, once again flew into combat, adding a further six 'kills' and taking his total confirmed score to 37 victories. Unfortunately, for 'Uncle Theo' as his men called him, this was all too much for his superiors who insisted that his future activities be of the 'chairborne' variety. Interestingly, as in the case of a surprisingly large number of other future fighter aces, Theodore Osterkamp's career almost never got started. Born on 15 April 1892, he was rejected by the Prussian Army as unfit for military service at the outbreak of World War I, but, happily, found the Imperial Navy more medically tolerant and was accepted for their volunteer naval flying service. After training and flying as an observer for half of the war, Osterkamp gained his pilot's wings at the end of March 1917. In mid-April he joined the 2nd Naval Field Service Section at the front. Here, he promptly crashed his Albatros C I, but retrieved his reputation by defying orders and going back aloft in a single seat scout to score his first confirmed victory by downing an SE 5a. The start of 1918 saw Osterkamp commanding the 2nd Jasta of the newly formed Naval Field Wing. Incidentally, it speaks volumes of that earlier medical decision to classify Osterkamp as unfit to know that during September and October of 1918 he survived a bout of the particularly virulent form of influenza that was to become pandemic and kill millions. Theodore Osterkamp ended his military career as a Generalleutnant, the equivalant of a two-star General, or Air Vice Marshal, commanding the Luftwaffe's fighter forces in Italy.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D VIIls of Jasta 6, photographed in the autumn of 1918.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
"Фоккер" E.V оберлейтенанта Эриха Ловенхардта, август 1918г.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D VIII in the markings of Jasta 6.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Men who had served under Sachsenberg in Flanders answered the call for volunteers to defend Germany's eastern borders against advances being made by the Red Army in the Baltic States, and served in the flying section of the Marinefreikrops. Seen here at Peterfelde near Mitau, Latvia, in April 1919 in front of a Fokker D.VIII are (left to right) Vizeflugmeisters Sawatsky, Antonious, Mayer, Zenzes, Sharon, Goerth and Engelhardt.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
SOME DUTCH MACHINES AT THE E.L.T.A. AERODROME: 4. The Fokker monoplane on which Lieut. Versteegh does some very clever flying
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
The Fokker Stand: On the left may be seen the port wing of a parasol monoplane, while in the centre is a sporting two-seater, shown with the port wings folded for transport. In the background, on the right, is a Fokker two-seater biplane, similar to the German Fokker type D.VII.
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 81а)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 81б)
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Instrument Board of Fokker Monoplane.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A general arrangement drawing of the definitive production D VIII parasol monoplane.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Fokker D.VIII
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Fokker E.V/D.VII