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Fokker D.III

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Single-seat fighting scout

Fokker - D.II - 1916 - Германия<– –>Fokker - D.V - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"ФОККЕР" D.III / FOKKER D.III

  Усиление конструкции планера, установка 160-сильного двухрядного мотора "Оберурсель" U.III и второго синхронного пулемета превратила D.II в модификацию D.III, серийное производство которой продолжалось с ноября 1916-го до февраля 1917 года. Этот самолет был выпущен в количестве 159 штук. Большинство их них управлялось по крену гошированием, но последние 50 экземпляров (заводское обозначение M.19K) получили элероны на верхнем крыле по типу "Фоккера" D.IV.
  "Фоккеры" D.III воевали на фронтах Первой мировой войны примерно до осени 1917г., но из-за отставания в летных данных от "Альбатроса" и невысокой надежности двигателей они не пользовались популярностью у летчиков и наземного персонала. В дальнейшем уцелевшие экземпляры D.II и D.III передали в тыловые и учебные части.
  10 штук M.19K с элеронами и 100-сильными моторами были построены в 1917 году по голландскому заказу.
  
  
МОДИФИКАЦИИ
  
  D.III: двигатель "Оберурсель" U III, 160 л.с., вооружение 2 синхр. LMG 08/15.
  
  M-19F: крылья без элеронов. Управление креном путем гоширования (перекашивания).
  
  M-19K: крылья с элеронами.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
   D.III
  Размах, м 9,05
  Длина, м 6,4
  Сухой вес, кг 452
  Взлетный вес, кг 610
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 160
  Потолок, м 4725


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Fokker D.III
  
  In an endeavor to improve performance, Martin Kreutzer strengthened the fuselage of the D.II to take the 160 h.p. Oberursel U III twin-row rotary engine and, in view of the additional weight this incurred, married it to a D.I wing cellule to take advantage of its greater area. This machine became the D.III (M 19). However, results were still not up to expectations, as the basic design of the whole D.I to D.IV series was little more than indifferent and the U III engine continued to be as unreliable as it had been in the E.IV monoplane.
  Visually the D.III differed little from the D.II. It could be identified by the deeper chord of the cowling, in the front of which extra cooling slots were fretted, and also a forward "spider" engine mounting incorporated. To allow for the additional nose weight, the undercarriage was modified and the forward struts assumed a more orthodox angle, now being secured at the base of the rear engine bearer plate.
  The D.III's operational life was brief, as its performance was quickly outclassed by the Albatros and Halberstadt scouts which equipped the first Jagdstaffeln. However, it was flown for a short time by such famous pilots as Richthofen, Boelcke and Udet.
  When flying a D.III (No. 364/16), Ernst Udet resorted to a little novel subterfuge by installing a dummy observer aft of the pilot's cockpit on the rear decking to mislead adversaries into thinking there might be a "sting in the tail", and thereby discourage attacks from the rear. Udet's D.III also had a stringer clipped along the middle of the fuselage sides (as did some others), which relieved the monotony of the slab-sides, although it is doubtful if it served any useful aerodynamic purpose. A D.III used by Oswald Boelcke, D.III 352/16, in which he recorded his twentieth victory, was preserved and exhibited in the Zeughaus Berlin, until it was unfortunately destroyed in a bombing raid in 1943. Boelcke also flew the D.III 356/16.
  Some D. IIIs later used for school work, and also some examples sold to the Dutch authorities, were fitted with balanced ailerons. The total production of all D.II and D.III types was some 291 machines; the findings of the Inter-Allied Commission set up after the war recorded the collective total of D.I to D.IV machines serving at the Front in the autumn of 1916 as being 100 aircraft. Modifications of most of these types were supplied to the Austro-Hungarian forces, with whom Anthony Fokker also conducted considerable business.
  
  
Description: Single-seat fighting scout
Manufacturer: Fokker Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. (Fok)
   D.III
Power Plant: 160 h.p. Oberursel U.III
   14 cylinder two-row rotary
Dimensions:
   Span 9.05 m. (29 ft. 8 3/8 in.)
   Length 6.3 m. (20 ft. 8 in.)
   Height 2.25 m. (7 ft. 4 5/8 in.)
   Area 20 sq.m. (216 sq. ft.)
Weights:
   Empty 452 kg. (994.4 lb.)
   Loaded 710 kg. (1,562 lb.)
Performance:
   Max speed 160 km.h. (100 m.p.h.)
   climb to
   1,000 m. 3 min.
   4,000 m. 20 min.
   Duration 1 1/2 hr.
Armament: One or two fixed Spandau machine-guns
   synchronized to fire through airscrew


Fokker M 20 z
  This experimental version of D III, with more streamlined fuselage and cowling arrangement, was built in July 1916. Engine fitted was 110 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh I. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


FOKKER D III (M 19) Germany

The capabilities of the D I and D II were by consensus indifferent, and, in an attempt to provide a single-seat fighter of higher performance and heavier firepower, Martin Kreutzer adapted the M18 to take the 160 hp 14-cylinder two-row rotary Oberursel U III engine and an armament of two synchronised LMG 08/15 machine guns. The new fighter was assigned the Fokker designation M 19 and when ordered by the Idflieg (Inspektion der Fliegertruppen) became the D III. A total of 210 was delivered to the German Fliegertruppen, late production examples supplanting wing warping with ailerons for lateral control, and 10 aileron-equipped D IIIs (including the prototype) were supplied to the Netherlands where they arrived in October 1917. The D III reached the Front in August 1916, but primarily as a result of the unreliability of its U III engine was rapidly relegated to home defence duties. One experimental example was fitted with a 110 hp Siemens-Halske Sh II engine enclosed by a full cowling, the propeller being fitted with a large spinner.

Max speed, 99 mph (160km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1000 m), 3.0 min.
Range, 137 mis (220 km) at 87 mph (140 km/h).
Empty weight, 948 lb (430 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,565 lb (710 kg).
Span, 29 ft 8 1/4 in (9,05 m).
Length, 20 ft 7 9/10 in (6,30 m).
Height, 8 ft 4 1/3 in (2,55 m).
Wing area, 215.28 sqft (20,00 m2).

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" D.III, 15-я истребительная эскадра, пилот - фельдфебель Эрнст Удет, осень 1916 года. За кабиной пилота укреплен фанерный силуэт стрелка
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D III.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Fokker D.III
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.III
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A standard production D III, seen here with warping control, reached the Front in August 1916.
Fokker D.III 352/16 in which Boelcke scored victories number 20 through 26, the first seven victories for Jasta 2 between 2 September and 17 September 1916. The Kaiser presented this aircraft to the armory museum in the Berlin Zeughaus for exhibition. It was destroyed by the bombings in World War II.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The D III in its definitive production form in which ailerons replaced wing warping for lateral control.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Hauptmann Oswald Boelcke, pictured here sitting in his Fokker D III, 352/16, in which he led his newly formed Jasta 2, pending the arrival of the Albatros D I. Boelcke commanded the unit between 1 September and his death, less than two months later, in an air-to-air collision on 28 October 1916. Born in Saxony on 9 May 1891, Oswald Boelcke, described as frail and bookish as a boy, joined a military academy in 1911, gaining a commission in August 1912. Already trained as a telegrapher, Boelcke transferred to the Imperial Army Air Service in mid-1914 to gain his wings days after the outbreak of war. Boelcke spent the rest of 1914 flying Albatros B IIs with Fl Abt 13. Early in 1915, Boelcke found himself tempoarily grounded with asthma, leading to his spending two weeks in the Air Service Headquarters, where he was to make some extremely useful senior level contacts. Boelcke, on his return to flying, joined Fl Abt 62 with Albatros C Is and LVG B IIs. After an uneventful spring, the unit moved to the front in the early summer. On 4 July 1915 Boelcke's observer downed their first victim, a Morane-Saulnier Type L. Two days later Boelcke switched to flying the newly arrived Fokker Eindecker single seater, with it interrupter-geared fixed, forward-firing gun. Between then and 21 May 1916, Boelcke scored a further 17 confirmed victories, most of which were obsolescent two seaters. Incidentally, operating alongside Boelcke during this period was Fl Abt 62's other single seat section pilot, Max Immelmann. Between them the pair had well and truly opened the era of the Fokker Scourge. In November 1915, Boelcke was posted to the Air Service's Operational Headquarters, at Charlesville, for a three month attachment. Here, Boelcke's academic skills came into play as he wrote what was to become the standard German Fighter Pilot's Rule Book for the rest of the war. Promoted Hauptmann, or captain, in May 1916, Boelcke was rapidly becoming too valuable to be allowed to continue combat flying and he was sent east to lecture tour on air fighting tactics. On 1 July 1916, the British opened their Somme Offensive, leading to the front line air service units coming under mounting pressure. Boelcke, currently in Bulgaria, was recalled to flying duties as commander of Jasta 2, for whose formation and personnel selection he was responsible. Among those Boelcke selected to fly with him was a young man named Manfred von Richthofen, along with, ironically, Erwin Bohme, the man who was, inadvertently, the cause of Boelcke's death. Between 1 September 1916 and his death, Boelcke added a further 22 victories to bring his ultimate confirmed score to 40.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Although favoured by Germany first great air ace, Oswald Boelcke, who flew Fokker D III 352/16 and scored six of his forty victories in this machine, the type was not generally liked by front line pilots, perhaps because of a lack-lustre performance, not helped by Fokker's retention of wing warping, rather than ailerons. The Bavarian procurement authorities were even more critical, refusing to purchase the these Fokker biplanes at all until pressured from high places in Berlin. The Fokker D III made its operational debut in the spring of 1916 and, using the unreliable 160hp Oberursal U III, had a top level speed of 99mph at sea level. The D III was armed with two 7.92mm Spandaus. As an operational fighter, the career of the D III was brief, the type soon being relegated to advanced flying schools with many of the 230 built being delivered directly to training units.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Gen. von Hoeppner visiting Schleissheim in mid 1917: three Fokker DVs and one Fokker DIII are in the line.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker M 20 z
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The D III in its definitive production form in which ailerons replaced wing warping for lateral control.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Fokker D.II/D.III