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Fokker D.III / M.19

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Single-seat fighting scout

Fokker - D.II / M.17 - 1916 - Германия<– –>Fokker - D.IV / M.20 / M.21 - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"ФОККЕР" D.III / FOKKER D.III

   Усиление конструкции планера, установка 160-сильного двухрядного мотора "Оберурсель" U.III и второго синхронного пулемета превратила D.II в модификацию D.III, серийное производство которой продолжалось с ноября 1916-го до февраля 1917 года. Этот самолет был выпущен в количестве 159 штук. Большинство их них управлялось по крену гошированием, но последние 50 экземпляров (заводское обозначение M.19K) получили элероны на верхнем крыле по типу "Фоккера" D.IV.
   "Фоккеры" D.III воевали на фронтах Первой мировой войны примерно до осени 1917г., но из-за отставания в летных данных от "Альбатроса" и невысокой надежности двигателей они не пользовались популярностью у летчиков и наземного персонала. В дальнейшем уцелевшие экземпляры D.II и D.III передали в тыловые и учебные части.
   10 штук M.19K с элеронами и 100-сильными моторами были построены в 1917 году по голландскому заказу.
  
  
МОДИФИКАЦИИ
  
   D.III: двигатель "Оберурсель" U III, 160 л.с., вооружение 2 синхр. LMG 08/15.
  
   M-19F: крылья без элеронов. Управление креном путем гоширования (перекашивания).
  
   M-19K: крылья с элеронами.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
   D.III
   Размах, м 9,05
   Длина, м 6,4
   Сухой вес, кг 452
   Взлетный вес, кг 610
   Скорость максимальная, км/ч 160
   Потолок, м 4725


A.Weyl Fokker: The Creative Years (Putnam)


AFTER KREUTZER

   At the time of Kreutzer’s death further prototypes of his design were under test; other experimental variants were building, supervised by Reinhold Platz; and various modifications were in hand.
   Closely following the M. 17 and M. 18 came the M. 19, virtually a modified Fok. D.II with a 160-h.p. Oberursel U.3 twin-row rotary and a wing area as large as that of the Fok. D.I. The M.19 had a much better performance than its two predecessors; it was more formidable as a fighter, having two guns. Its armament thus made it a counterpart of the Fok. E.IV. The M.19 had the same “spider” engine mounting and an identical cowling. There were other similarities of fuselage details in the M.15 and M.19, and the fuel system was the same.
   In its wing design and arrangement the M.19 differed little from the M.17 and M.18, having identical spar sections, bracings and bay lengths. Since this was so, the official structural tests also covered the airworthiness of the Fok. D.III, as the M.19 was officially designated (see Appendix III). The characteristic shape of centre section was retained. Although this improved the pilot’s forward view it was aerodynamically harmful, as it had an adverse effect upon the lift distribution over the span. Its detrimental effect on the climb was made worse by the large cut-out in the trailing edge. But the importance of lift grading and induced drag was little understood at that time by aircraft designers, least of all by Fokker.
   A D.III had been offered to Boelcke. On September 1, 1916, he took over Fok. D.III No. 352/16, which was the first operational, aircraft of the type. It was sent to him for evaluation before the D.III had passed its Type Test at Adlershof; this was permissible because the type had been cleared structurally. Although other and better single-seat biplanes had reached the front by the time Boelcke received D. 352/16, he achieved some immediate successes with it and at first liked the type. On the day after he received his D.III, September 2, 1916, Boelcke shot down his twentieth victim, a D.H.2 flown by Captain R. Wilson. During the following two weeks Boelcke added five more victories to his score while flying this Fok. D.III, this during a period of hard air fighting when German air power was beginning to re-assert itself after the eclipse of the Battle of the Somme.
   But Boelcke found that the D.III was no faster than the Sopwith 1 1/2-Strutter and considerably slower than the Nieuport scout. He therefore changed over to the Alb. D.I, which had arrived a few days before the Fok. D.III. This was much faster, especially when diving. The Alb. D.I was soon followed by the Alb. D.II, which was a further improvement and gave its pilot a better view from the cockpit.
   On Boelcke’s advice the Fok. D.III was withdrawn from the active sectors on the Western Front. During the next few months it was used in areas where air-combat activities were less intense. But while production of the D.III was proceeding at Schwerin, it was decided to relegate all Fok. D.IIIs to the equipment of Home Defence interceptor units. A contributory factor to this decision may have been the unreliability of the two-row U.3 engine with the front-line squadrons. The air defence of parts of Germany had by this time become so important that special single-seat fighter units, known as Kampf-Einsitzer-Staffeln (KEST), had been formed.
The Fok. D.III served as a home-defence fighter until late in 1917. It was not popular with pilots. The engine was mainly to blame; and apart from this the aircraft’s stability was not good.
   In common with the Fok. D.I and D.II, the D.III was first built with wing warping. Boelcke, like Fokker, preferred warping to ailerons: it provided a more powerful control and gave the best manoeuvrability. The late-production D.IIIs (e.g., D.379/16) had the aileron control preferred by the engineering experts. The two variants had the Fokker type numbers M.19F and M.19K, respectively.
   In November 1916 Fok. D.III D.369/16 was tested to destruction. Apparently it was then felt that the results of the tests carried out on the M.18 might no longer be valid for the production aircraft. There was reason to suspect the reliability of Fokker products, but surviving test documents give no specific reasons for the tests.
   Although the wing structure as a whole proved satisfactory, the tests of other vital components were less re-assuring. The fuselage proved to have only 90% of the required strength. The rudder and elevators failed to come up to their specified strength; the control circuits to both surfaces displayed excessive friction (43% against the maximum permitted 20%); and the control cables stretched far too much.
   Modifications to the wing included the addition of a plywood strip along the leading edge to give better handling strength; this strip ran back as far as the front spar. It was probably one of the first modifications of the wing introduced by Platz. Finally, three riblets were fitted between the full-chord ribs: the Fokker E.1II wing, with ribs at the same pitch of 350 mm., had only single riblets.
   During 1917, a Fok. D.III was used at Adlershof in a series of tests designed to determine the mass moment of inertia. The specimen aircraft had balanced ailerons, a gap of 1,300 mm. and a stagger of 300 mm.; its centre of gravity was found to be 540 mm. above and 200 mm. behind the leading edge of the lower wing. The weight of the detachable wing panels was 78 kg. (173 lb.), or 17-3% of the weight empty. This was heavier than the wings of the Spad S.VII, which according to German structural tests had more than satisfied all BLV requirements, and which in its wing design was considered exemplary by the engineers of the German Flying Corps.
   With full load the Fok. D.III had moments of inertia of 154 mkg./sec2 about the axis of yaw, and 76 mkg./sec2 about the axis of pitch. These values were substantially greater than those for the Spad S.VII, a fighter with a stationary engine of comparable horse-power. The tests disproved the assumption that rotary-powered aeroplanes must always be more manoeuvrable because of smaller inertia.
   Deliveries of Fok. D.IIIs to the Army Flying Corps between September 1916 and the spring of 1917 totalled 159. Seven were in operational use in September 1916, thirty-four on January 1, 1917; by February 1917, however, only seven remained operational. A few examples were supplied to Austria. It is uncertain whether the type was built there under licence, but one source states that “Fokker D.Is” powered by the 160-h.p. Oberursel were built by the M.A.G. concern at Budapest. This statement may be wrong in one or more respects, but it may indicate that M.A.G. produced a version of the D.III.
   Fokker had counted on a larger order for the D.III. He felt certain that it was superior to the Alb. D.I, and blamed the Albatros Works for robbing him of the fruit of his labours. The pilots at the front had let him down by choosing the Albatros, and the Adlershof engineers had in his view used shameful subterfuges to prevent his superior aircraft from reaching the front before the Albatros. The fact that aircraft had to be completely airworthy for operational purposes was not quite clear to him.
   In fact, the Alb. D.I and Alb. D.II were unquestionably better fighters than any of the Fokkers; their superiority was not attributable solely to their 160-h.p. Mercedes with its better performance at altitude. It had been the unbiased judgment of operational fighter pilots that had led to the large orders for the Albatros types. Robert Thelen and R. Schubert, both qualified engineers, had triumphed over Fokker with a well-designed aircraft.


J.Herris, J.Leckscheid Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 53)


Fokker M.19 & D.III
  
  The Fokker M.19 fighter prototype was the third incarnation of Fokker's new basic biplane formula fitted with yet another engine. In this case, the twin-row Oberursel U.III rotary producing 160 hp powered the design, making it the perfect successor to the Fokker E.IV.
  Because the engine was almost twice as heavy as the single-row 100 hp Oberursel U.I (186 kg versus 95 kg) of the D.II, the M.19 apparently used only a 2-bay wing for greater lift. Like the D.I and D.II production fighters, the M.19 used wing-warping for roll control. The lesson of the Walfisch style fuselage design had been learned, and right from the start of testing, the M.19 had a conventional, open cabane structure which provided a good field of vision for the pilot.
  The still-unarmed M.19 prototype was first photographed in late March/early April 1916 when leading ace Oberleutnant Oswald Boelcke visited the Fokker factory and tried the various new Fokker fighter prototypes. Boelcke had ample combat experience on the 80 hp, 100 hp, and 160 hp Fokker Eindecker, as he termed the E.I-E.IV. On 24 March 1916 he had written a detailed report comparing the merits and disadvantages of the various E-Types. He expressed that the horizontal speed of the E.IV was well up to frontline requirements, but the maneuverability, the rate of climb, and the speed in a turn were insufficient to keep up with the Nieuport biplane fighters. He was especially critical of the mounting of the machine guns at an upward angle, which was tried on a number of the initial Fokker E.IV machines.
  No doubt as a result of this report, he was ordered by the chief of field aviation to immediately proceed to the Fokker works in Schwerin, where the first new Fokker biplane prototypes had just entered the evaluation phase. The exact timespan of his stay there is not recorded, but it must have occurred in late March and early April 1916, since he paid a short visit to his family in Dessau afterwards and was back at his unit on 11 April.
  The M.19 prototype was placed into production under the designation Fokker D.III. The production prototype, likely w/n 700 and later designated D.III 350/16, was armed with two synchronized guns mounted along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. This arrangement of armament was going to be the standard for all subsequent Fokker production fighters for the rest of the war.
  In July 1916, Idflieg placed an initial order for 30 Fokker D.III fighters, serials D.350-379/16. This was followed by four more orders for an additional 380 D.III fighters, although the final order for 200 aircraft was cancelled.
  Boelcke had begun to form Jasta 2 on 27 August, and on that day his unit was still without a single aircraft. On 1 September he was informed that two new fighters had arrived for him from Fokker, and that these could be collected immediately. Boelcke personally picked up D.352/16 from the local Armee Plug Park on that day, and Fokker D.I 185/16, the other new arrival, was flown in by an unnamed pilot.
  Without a doubt, Boelcke picked the D.III due to its more powerful engine and his previous experience on the Fokker E.IV. He took it up for its first frontline flight on the very next day, and scored his first victory at the controls of the new D.III at around 7:15 p.m.
  He had brought down a DH 2 from 32. Squadron RFC as his 20th victory, and the pilot of the plane, Captain Wilson, was taken prisoner north of Thiepval. Boelcke reported that after landing his burning plane, the RFC pilot jumped out of the DH 2 and was waving around with his arms and legs to put out the fire on his flying clothes. On the morning of the following day, Boelcke picked him up from the prisoner collection point and brought him over to the casino of Jagdstaffel 2 for coffee and a little chat, from which the German ace was able to gather quite a bit of interesting information.
  Wilson was then shipped off to the POW camp in Osnabruck, and in a letter he wrote back home from the camp the events of that combat are given from his perspective. These also provide a very rare and interesting insight into the actual performance of the Fokker D.III in combat:
  "...As I had followed him about 15 miles behind his own lines, he turned and attacked me by climbing above me at an amazing speed - he flew a type of aircraft that I had never seen before and about the speed and rate of climb I had no idea. Under such circumstances I did the only thing left to do and turned to escape, in order to run from a much faster machine and a superior pilot."
  He went on to describe how Boelcke's bullets riddled his machine which resulted in a difficult emergency landing, and his escape from the burning aircraft, which miraculously left him unharmed. After hearing the news of Boelcke's death, Wilson arranged for a laurel wreath to be sent to the funeral of his victor.
  In the first half of September Boelcke scored another six victories, very likely all of these in D.352/16, before five Albatros D.I and one D.II fighters arrived on 16 September. From then on, the Albatros D-types became the standard fighter for Boelcke and the other Jasta 2 pilots. D.352/16 may have stayed with Jasta 2 for a few more days, but it disappears from the photographs soon after the new Albatros fighters had arrived.
  It must have been sent back to an Armee Plug Park soon after, but after Boelcke was killed following a mid-air collision on 28 October, it quickly made a very public re-appearance. On orders of the Kaiser himself, the aircraft was sent to the Zeughaus Museum in Berlin to be put on display in memory of Boelcke and his accomplishments. Before it arrived there, it was carefully re-covered in fresh linen and given an inaccurate paintjob that did not match its original frontline appearance.
  The Fokker D.III also served in relatively small numbers in several other Jastas, but little else is known about its service. Several Kests also received examples of the type, and single examples remained in service as training aircraft.
  During the course of its production, the D.III underwent two changes that were externally visible. Very early during the production of the first batch (350/16 - 379/16) a horizontal fuselage stringer was added. This was likely done simultaneously on the D.I, D.II ,and the D.III, apparently in August 1916.
  The second modification brought about the switch from warping wings, which were truly outdated by the summer of 1916, to aileron-controlled wings. Available documentation indicates that this update to the wing design occurred in October 1916, when the D.IV and D.V, which also featured the new wing design, entered production.
  After the Fokker D.IV failed its load test (see the D.IV) in October 1916, Idflieg decided to re-test a D.III airframe after it had seen some frontline use. D.369/16 was chosen at random; the wing cellule passed the load test, but the elevator and rudder both failed. The tests also revealed poor workmanship and materials.
  As the Fokker D.III was phased out of production, so was the Oberursel U.III that powered it. The twin-row rotary idea had proved to be overweight, prone to failure, and it wore out fairly quickly. Worst of all, the massive centrifugal forces of the heavy engine made control of the aircraft in the air fairly difficult. The basic design idea of the twin-row rotary was abandoned, and the engineers at Oberursel focused their efforts on adapting the French Le-Rhone 9-cylinder rotary engine to German production standards. But this engine would only debut in a Fokker production fighter in the late summer of 1917.
  In October 1916 Fokker derived a special version of the M.19 equipped with a Siemens-Halske Sh.I engine that was intended for Hptm. Oswald Boelcke. On the day when the plane was flight tested at Schwerin and was reported ready for use, Boelcke was killed at the front (28 October 1916). The further whereabouts of this aircraft are undocumented.


Fokker Early D-Type Specifications
Fokker D.I D.II D.III D.IV D.V
Fokker Type M.18 M.17 M.19 M.21 M.22
Engine 120 hp Mercedes D.II 100 hp Oberursel U.I 160 hp Oberursel U.III 160 hp Mercedes D.III 100 hp Oberursel U.I
Wing Span, m 9.05 8.75 9.05 9.7 8.75
Wing Chord, m 1.25 1.15 1.25 1.25 1.16
Wing Gap, m 1.34 - 1.35 1.32 1.20
Wing Area, m2 22 18 21.6 22.5 15.55
Length, m 5.7 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.05
Height, m 2.25 2.55 2.25 2.45 2.30
Empty Weight, kg 463 384 452 606 363
Loaded Weight, kg 671 576 710 841 566
Max Speed, km/h 150 150 160 160 160-170
Climb to: 1,000 m 4 4 3 3 3
   2,000 m 9 8 7 - 8
   3,000 m 15 15 12 12 16
   4,000 m 23 24 20 30 24
Roll Control Wing-warp Wing-warp Wing-warp, then ailerons Ailerons Ailerons
Armament 1xLMG 08/15 1xLMG 08/15 2xLMG 08/15 2xLMG 08/15 1xLMG 08/15
Note: Climb times in minutes.


Fokker Early D-Type Identification Attributes
Type Engine Notes Qty Built
D.I 120 hp Mercedes D.II Wing warping, 2-bay, 1-gun 90
D.II 100 hp Oberursel U.I (9 cyl) Wing warping, 2-bay, 1-gun 181
D.III 160 hp Oberursel U.III (14 cyl) Wing warping (ailerons on later), 2-bay, 1-2 guns 210
D.IV 160 hp Mercedes D.III Ailerons with horn balances, 2-bay, 2 guns 44
D.V 100 hp Oberursel U.I (9 cyl) Ailerons with horn balances, 1-bay, 1 gun 300


Fokker Early D-Type Production
Type Order Date Qty Serials
D.III July 1916 30 D.350-379/16
D.III July 1916 20 D.1004-1023/16
D.III Aug. 1916 60 D.1580-1639/16
D.III Nov. 1916 100 D.2930-3029/16
D.III July 1916 200 Cancelled


J.Herris Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 56)


Fokker D.I(MAG) Series 04.4

  The aircraft ordered from MAG on 26 August 1916 included 8 Fokker D.I(MAG) fighters, numbered 04.41 to 04.48, powered by a 160 hp Oberursel rotary engine. The MAG D.I was basically identical to the Fokker M19 (the D.III in Germany). Fokker shipped pattern airframe work number 972 to MAG on October 2, 1916. MAG completed two fighters in February and 04.41 was inspected at Aspern on March 24 by Flars engineers, who ordered minor modifications. Acceptance testing of the remaining seven airframes was delayed to October because MAG only had two engines for the type.
  One D.I(MAG) went to Flik 30 for evaluation; no other fighters of the type went to the front. The key problem was difficulty in servicing the two-row rotary engine, which kept flying to a minimum.
  Eventually all eight were stored at Flek 6 in Wiener-Neustadt.


Fokker D.I(MAG) Series 04.4 Specifications
Engine: 160 hp Oberursel U.III
Wing: Span (Upper St Lower) 9.60 m
Chord (Upper/Lower) 1.25 m
Gap 1.25 m
Wing Area 21.4 m2
General: Length 6.35 m
Height 2.40 m
Track 1.69 m
Empty Weight 480 kg
Loaded Weight 687 kg
Maximum Speed: 153 km/h
Climb: 1000m 2.7 min
2000m 7.3 min
3000m 16.5 min


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Fokker D.III
  
   In an endeavor to improve performance, Martin Kreutzer strengthened the fuselage of the D.II to take the 160 h.p. Oberursel U III twin-row rotary engine and, in view of the additional weight this incurred, married it to a D.I wing cellule to take advantage of its greater area. This machine became the D.III (M 19). However, results were still not up to expectations, as the basic design of the whole D.I to D.IV series was little more than indifferent and the U III engine continued to be as unreliable as it had been in the E.IV monoplane.
   Visually the D.III differed little from the D.II. It could be identified by the deeper chord of the cowling, in the front of which extra cooling slots were fretted, and also a forward "spider" engine mounting incorporated. To allow for the additional nose weight, the undercarriage was modified and the forward struts assumed a more orthodox angle, now being secured at the base of the rear engine bearer plate.
   The D.III's operational life was brief, as its performance was quickly outclassed by the Albatros and Halberstadt scouts which equipped the first Jagdstaffeln. However, it was flown for a short time by such famous pilots as Richthofen, Boelcke and Udet.
   When flying a D.III (No. 364/16), Ernst Udet resorted to a little novel subterfuge by installing a dummy observer aft of the pilot's cockpit on the rear decking to mislead adversaries into thinking there might be a "sting in the tail", and thereby discourage attacks from the rear. Udet's D.III also had a stringer clipped along the middle of the fuselage sides (as did some others), which relieved the monotony of the slab-sides, although it is doubtful if it served any useful aerodynamic purpose. A D.III used by Oswald Boelcke, D.III 352/16, in which he recorded his twentieth victory, was preserved and exhibited in the Zeughaus Berlin, until it was unfortunately destroyed in a bombing raid in 1943. Boelcke also flew the D.III 356/16.
   Some D. IIIs later used for school work, and also some examples sold to the Dutch authorities, were fitted with balanced ailerons. The total production of all D.II and D.III types was some 291 machines; the findings of the Inter-Allied Commission set up after the war recorded the collective total of D.I to D.IV machines serving at the Front in the autumn of 1916 as being 100 aircraft. Modifications of most of these types were supplied to the Austro-Hungarian forces, with whom Anthony Fokker also conducted considerable business.
  
  
Description: Single-seat fighting scout
Manufacturer: Fokker Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. (Fok)
   D.III
Power Plant: 160 h.p. Oberursel U.III
   14 cylinder two-row rotary
Dimensions:
   Span 9.05 m. (29 ft. 8 3/8 in.)
   Length 6.3 m. (20 ft. 8 in.)
   Height 2.25 m. (7 ft. 4 5/8 in.)
   Area 20 sq.m. (216 sq. ft.)
Weights:
   Empty 452 kg. (994.4 lb.)
   Loaded 710 kg. (1,562 lb.)
Performance:
   Max speed 160 km.h. (100 m.p.h.)
   climb to
   1,000 m. 3 min.
   4,000 m. 20 min.
   Duration 1 1/2 hr.
Armament: One or two fixed Spandau machine-guns
   synchronized to fire through airscrew


Fokker M 20 z
   This experimental version of D III, with more streamlined fuselage and cowling arrangement, was built in July 1916. Engine fitted was 110 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh I. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


FOKKER D III (M 19) Germany

The capabilities of the D I and D II were by consensus indifferent, and, in an attempt to provide a single-seat fighter of higher performance and heavier firepower, Martin Kreutzer adapted the M18 to take the 160 hp 14-cylinder two-row rotary Oberursel U III engine and an armament of two synchronised LMG 08/15 machine guns. The new fighter was assigned the Fokker designation M 19 and when ordered by the Idflieg (Inspektion der Fliegertruppen) became the D III. A total of 210 was delivered to the German Fliegertruppen, late production examples supplanting wing warping with ailerons for lateral control, and 10 aileron-equipped D IIIs (including the prototype) were supplied to the Netherlands where they arrived in October 1917. The D III reached the Front in August 1916, but primarily as a result of the unreliability of its U III engine was rapidly relegated to home defence duties. One experimental example was fitted with a 110 hp Siemens-Halske Sh II engine enclosed by a full cowling, the propeller being fitted with a large spinner.

Max speed, 99 mph (160km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1000 m), 3.0 min.
Range, 137 mis (220 km) at 87 mph (140 km/h).
Empty weight, 948 lb (430 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,565 lb (710 kg).
Span, 29 ft 8 1/4 in (9,05 m).
Length, 20 ft 7 9/10 in (6,30 m).
Height, 8 ft 4 1/3 in (2,55 m).
Wing area, 215.28 sqft (20,00 m2).


P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One


Fokker D.I(MAG) Series 04.4

  Included in the 50 aircraft order of 26 August 1916 were eight Fokker D.I(MAG) fighters, numbered 04.41 to 04.48 and powered by the 160 hp twin-row Oberursel U.III rotary engine purchased in Germany. The type was identical to the Fokker D.III(Type M 19), of which Fokker shipped a pattern airframe (w/n 972) to MAG on 2 October 1916. Two fighters were completed in February 1917, and on 24 March aircraft 04.41 was inspected at Aspern by Flars engineers who ordered some minor modifications. MAG had cause to complain bitterly because only two Oberursel engines were available to flight test the remaining seven aircraft, delaying acceptance completion until October 1917.
  With exception of one aircraft at Flik 30, no Fokker D.I(MAG) fighter is known to have been in frontline service. In fact, owing to the difficulty of servicing the twin-row Oberursel engine, flying was kept at a minimum. Eventually all eight Fokker D.I(MAG) fighters were stored at Flek 6 in Wiener-Neustadt, where they were to be found in October 1918.

Fokker D.I(MAG) Series 04.4 Specifications
Engine: 160 hp Oberursel
Wing: Span Upper 9.60 m (31.50 ft)
Span Lower 9.60 m (31.50 ft)
Chord Upper 1.25 m (4.10 ft)
Chord Lower 1.25 m (4.10 ft)
Dihedral Upper 0 deg
Dihedral Lower 0 deg
Sweepback Upper 0 deg
Sweepback Lower 0 deg
Gap 1.25 m (4.10 ft)
Stagger 0.30 m (0.98 ft)
Total Wing Area 21.4 sq m (230 sq ft)
General: Length 6.35 m (20.83 ft)
Height 2.40 m (7.87 ft)
Track 1.69 m (5.54 ft)
Empty Weight 480 kg (1058 lb)
Loaded Weight 687 kg (1515 lb)
Maximum Speed: 153 km/hr (95 mph)
Climb: 1000m (3,281 ft) in 2 min 40 sec
2000m (6,562 ft) in 7 min 15 sec
3000m (9,843 ft) in 16 mm 30 sec


E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918


01. — 010. Flugzeuge ausländischer Produktion (Самолеты иностранного производства)
04.41 — 04.48 Fokker D.I (Type M 19) Ob/Gn 160

J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 351/16, Unknown Unit, September 1916
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 352/16, Oblt. Oswald Boelcke Jasta 2, September 1916
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 366/16 Olga, Kest 4b, Freiburg, 1917
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 368/16 flown by Ernst Udet of Jasta 15, November 1916. Note the metal silhouette of a gunner placed behind the cockpit to deceive opponents that it was a two-seater
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Fokker D.III 368/16 flown by Ernst Udet of Jasta 15, October 1916. The aircraft appears in basic factory finish except for the 'observer' a figure made of tin and painted by Udet to look like a gunner to fool attacking aircraft into abandoning their attack. Udet may have achieved his second victory in this machine while intercepting the Oberndorf raid. With an eventual 62 victories, Udet went on to become the highest-scoring German ace to survive the war and second only to the Red Baron. He was awarded the Pour le Merite.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" D.III, 15-я истребительная эскадра, пилот - фельдфебель Эрнст Удет, осень 1916 года. За кабиной пилота укреплен фанерный силуэт стрелка
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 1583/16 MAX, Kest 4, 1917
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 1583/16, Kest 4b Freiburg, Summer 1917.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 1612/16 Grosspapa. Kest 4b, Freiburg, 1917
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III xxx/16 Moritz, Kest 4b, Freiburg 1917
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Фоккер D III
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Fokker D I 04.41
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Fokker D.I
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III F.203, Dutch Air Service, 1917
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 379/16, Dutch Air Service
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
The Fokker M.19 2-bay fighter prototype (w/n 700?) had triangular strut bracing from the center-section to the cowling that was unique to this aircraft. The engine was a 160 hp Oberursel U.III twin-row rotary and armament was two synchronized Spandau LMG 08 machine guns.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
The "V"-shaped strut connecting the leading edge of the upper wing center section to the fuselage was an identifying feature of this aircraft (w/n 700?). It would not re-appear on subsequent D.IIIs. As with the early-production aircraft of the previous Fokker D-types, the horizontal fuselage stringer is not yet fitted.
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M 19, Fokker D.III prototype
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 350/16 is seen here early in during its evaluation phase. In spite of this, castor oil stains are well visible along the forward fuselage fabric. The "Iron Cross" has so far only been marked on the rudder, and the military number is missing as well. These details indicate that the aircraft had not yet officially accepted by the "Bauaufsicht", the technical inspectorate.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
View of the forward fuselage and engine details of the M.19 prototype with the slanting "V" shaped front cabane struts. Production D.IIIs had a different arrangement without the slanted "V" struts. The angled pushrods controlling the valves of the rear row of cylinders show well in this view. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Detail view of the engine installation and machine gun synchronizing mechanism. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
View of the M.19 prototype cockpit. Note the carburetor protruding into the cockpit. Backfires could be exciting when flames came through into the cockpit. Also note the padded inserts for closing up the vacant twin gun mounts attached with wingnuts. (Peter M. Grosz collection/ STDB)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
The M.19 prototype now with installed machine guns, and the dual trigger buttons have been added to the control column. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Oswald Boelcke seated in the M.19 prototype (works number 700) which later received the military number 350/16. This is the aircraft with the triangular bracing in the front cabane, a hint of which can just be seen in the upper left corner of the upper picture. Contrary to the caption, which states that this was the last photo taken of him in his plane, this was more likely taken during his late March/early April 1916 visit to Schwerin. The heavily retouched version of the photo shown below was also circulated, and this shows the face of another pilot in the lower right corner which does not appear in the version shown above. (Above: Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
The Fokker D.III was powered, like the earlier E.IV, by the 160 hp two-row Oberursel U.III. It carried two machine guns but its performance could not compare to the Albatros fighters. This is the first prototype; a small production run followed but the early Fokker biplane fighters did not last long at the front.
Later views of 350/16, by now the "Iron Cross" national marking has been marked in the usual eight positions.The military number has also been applied in the meantime, and a "Germania Feldpropeller" was fitted to the aircraft when photographed, taking the place of the "Integral" seen in the previous pictures. (Peter M. Grosz/STDB)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
This and the two previous photos of the fully-marked Fokker D.III 350/16 (w/n 700) were most likely taken during Idflieg evaluation of the new type. The aircraft was officially accepted on 26 June 1916, and it was dispatched on 20. July, most likely headed towards Adlershof. Although the D.III had already been cleared for frontline service in terms of static load test, Idflieg must have been keen to evaluate the performance of the first Fokker biplane in the 160 hp class. While evaluation details are unavailable, the verdict must have been fairly positive. A total of 210 Fokker D.III fighters were eventually ordered and built, making it the most numerous type in the D.I to D.IV family. (Peter M. Grosz/STDB)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 351/16 was sequentially the first production aircraft of the M.19 series. Here the machine is pictured in front of the hangars at the airfield at Schwerin-Gorries, during a dry spell on a rainy day. The machine guns had not yet been installed when the photo was taken. Note the nose of a Fokker D.II the hangar in the background.
The Fokker D.III was removed from the front with other early Fokker biplane fighters in December 1916 due to structural fragility.This early example had wing warping for roll control; late production D.III fighters had conventional ailerons. The engine was the little-used Oberursel U.III twin-row rotary.
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Fokker D.III 351/16, the true production prototype
Here the aircraft is photographed later at an unknown location, complete with armament installed. Note that the fuselage cross is now also in place, and the wheel covers are finished in a light color, possibly white?
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Hauptmann Oswald Boelcke flew Fokker D.III 352/16 during the first weeks after the formation of Jasta 2 in early September 1916. In this view, it still displays an immaculate finish at the airfield at Velu, in early September 1916. By his own accounts, this was one of two aircraft "sent to him by Fokker", and he picked them up at the local Armee Plug Park on 1 September. Photographs indicate that the other aircraft he referred to was Fokker D.I 185/16. A "B" has been marked in the upper center of the engine cowling front. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
The nose of Fokker D.III 352/16 seen at the airfield at Velu in early September 1916. Parked next to it is Albatros D.I 385/16, which was the first aircraft of its type to reach Jasta 2.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
The fuselage sides of the early Fokker rotary-engined aircraft were covered in stains fairly quickly. The stains seen here were apparently due to a different cause: During a combat on 8 September, Boelcke shot down an F.E. 2b from 22. Squadron RFC (Lt. Bowen and Lt. Stalker were both KIA). He reported that his shots set fire to the aircraft to explode in midair, and and he flew so close to it that the oil spewing from the exploding aircraft stained the fabric of his Fokker. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Hauptmann Oswald Boelcke, pictured here sitting in his Fokker D III, 352/16, in which he led his newly formed Jasta 2, pending the arrival of the Albatros D I. Boelcke commanded the unit between 1 September and his death, less than two months later, in an air-to-air collision on 28 October 1916. Born in Saxony on 9 May 1891, Oswald Boelcke, described as frail and bookish as a boy, joined a military academy in 1911, gaining a commission in August 1912. Already trained as a telegrapher, Boelcke transferred to the Imperial Army Air Service in mid-1914 to gain his wings days after the outbreak of war. Boelcke spent the rest of 1914 flying Albatros B IIs with Fl Abt 13. Early in 1915, Boelcke found himself temporarily grounded with asthma, leading to his spending two weeks in the Air Service Headquarters, where he was to make some extremely useful senior level contacts. Boelcke, on his return to flying, joined Fl Abt 62 with Albatros C Is and LVG B IIs. After an uneventful spring, the unit moved to the front in the early summer. On 4 July 1915 Boelcke's observer downed their first victim, a Morane-Saulnier Type L. Two days later Boelcke switched to flying the newly arrived Fokker Eindecker single seater, with it interrupter-geared fixed, forward-firing gun. Between then and 21 May 1916, Boelcke scored a further 17 confirmed victories, most of which were obsolescent two seaters. Incidentally, operating alongside Boelcke during this period was Fl Abt 62's other single seat section pilot, Max Immelmann. Between them the pair had well and truly opened the era of the Fokker Scourge. In November 1915, Boelcke was posted to the Air Service's Operational Headquarters, at Charlesville, for a three month attachment. Here, Boelcke's academic skills came into play as he wrote what was to become the standard German Fighter Pilot's Rule Book for the rest of the war. Promoted Hauptmann, or captain, in May 1916, Boelcke was rapidly becoming too valuable to be allowed to continue combat flying and he was sent east to lecture tour on air fighting tactics. On 1 July 1916, the British opened their Somme Offensive, leading to the front line air service units coming under mounting pressure. Boelcke, currently in Bulgaria, was recalled to flying duties as commander of Jasta 2, for whose formation and personnel selection he was responsible. Among those Boelcke selected to fly with him was a young man named Manfred von Richthofen, along with, ironically, Erwin Bohme, the man who was, inadvertently, the cause of Boelcke's death. Between 1 September 1916 and his death, Boelcke added a further 22 victories to bring his ultimate confirmed score to 40.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Likely taken at the same time as the previous photo, Boelcke poses next to 352/16 at Velu. The date may have been 9 September 1916. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
Boelcke with a Fok. D.III.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Following the death of Boelcke, his surviving Fokker D.III 352/16 was removed from the front following an order issued by the Kaiser himself. It was destined to be displayed at the "Zeughaus" museum in Berlin, but before it arrived there, it was given a complete makeover at Schwerin. The Fokker Works Number "784" is still visible on the interplane struts, but it has not been applied to the lower fuselage, just above the root of the lower wing. The fuselage attachment points for the wings have also been removed during the refurbishment process, while the armament has been upgraded to twin LMG 08/15 machine guns. A three-color camouflage scheme has been applied to this aircraft. On the wings, the three colors are particularly easy to spot, the darkest of the colors was applied to the inner section of the wings, then the medium and light color have been applied. The engine cowling received the color of medium tonality, the fuselage metal parts were painted in the darker color while the rest of the fuselage was painted in the lightest of the three tones.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A standard production D III, seen here with warping control, reached the Front in August 1916.
Fokker D.III 352/16 in which Boelcke scored victories number 20 through 26, the first seven victories for Jasta 2 between 2 September and 17 September 1916. The Kaiser presented this aircraft to the armory museum in the Berlin Zeughaus for exhibition. It was destroyed by the bombings in World War II.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Side view of the overhauled museum exhibit in its refurbished guise. Note that the stencil gaps of the military number have not been filled in. The original LMG 08 machine guns were swapped for the LMG 08/15 as well. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
The aircraft received yet another inaccurate paintjob at some point during its exhibition at the "Zeughaus" in Berlin. The colors of the camouflage are unknown, and the fuselage numbers are now fully applied, while the machine guns were removed.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Thought to have been taken to commemorate the 20th anniversary of Boelcke's death, the NSDAP decided to take advantage of Boelcke's popularity by decorating his plane with two floral wreaths.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
A postcard view of the plane with the background retouched out. Close inspection of the photos shows oil stains along the wing leading edges and lower part of the engine cowling. Possibly the engine was test-run at some stage. Note that the lower wing crosses were now marked on white square backgrounds. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
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Richthofen’s 152/17 alongside Boelcke's Fokker D III 352/16 on display in the entrance hall of the Zeughaus Museum .
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Unarmed but with the propeller in place, Fokker D.III 353/16 is seen here at a collection point. Behind it the comet-marked fuselage of a Gotha bomber can be seen. This picture may have been taken after the early Fokker-fighters were banned from frontline service in early December 1916.
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
Fok. D III, No. 365/16.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Ernst Udet standing next to his D.III 368/16. He had a metal facsimile of an observer's head and shoulders attached to its rear upper fuselage "in order to deceive the enemy'' - that is, to fool them into thinking he was flying a two-seater. Besides his unusual modification, this was one of the earliest D.IIIs to feature the factory-applied horizontal fuselage stringer. A newly-arrived Albatros D.II can be seen in the left background.
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Vizefeldwebel Ernst Udet with his Fokker D.III 368/16
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 1021/16 "S" of Kest 1b was the personal plane of Feldwebel Schumann, who was nicknamed "Scharfer Onkel" (sharp or spicy uncle; the first word has more than meaning in German). In the picture, he and his dog cast a somewhat doubtful look at an “Eherenbecher" (victory cup)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 1021/16 "S" of Kest 1b was the personal plane of Feldwebel Schumann, who was nicknamed "Scharfer Onkel" (sharp or spicy uncle; the first word has more than meaning in German). In the picture a very youthful-looking visitor has taken a seat in the aircraft. The two-color fuselage camouflage also shows well on the fuselage sides here. Metal deflector plates have been fitted right behind the machine-gun belt exit.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 1583/16“Max" is thought to have served with Kest 4b until 1 September 1917, when the unit gave up their last Fokker-D-types. It is one of the aircraft featuring aileron wings, which may have been a reason why it was retained for so long. Note that the black horizontal tail surfaces are carrying white Iron Cross markings. Similar markings may have been applied to other D.IIs and D.IIIs of the unit at some earlier point, either in the same style or in reversed colors.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 1583/16“Max" is thought to have served with Kest 4b until 1 September 1917, when the unit gave up their last Fokker-D-types. It is one of the aircraft featuring aileron wings, which may have been a reason why it was retained for so long.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 1593/16 carried an "Iron Cross Ribbon'' fuselage band ahead of the cross. Since this marking obscured the military number, it has been re-painted on the rear of the fuselage.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Another view of D.III 1612/16 at Freiburg, equipped with a flare-holder below the cockpit. The pilot may be Hauptmann Max Fischinger, the unit commander, but this is speculative.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
D.III 1638/16, like 1593/16 and 1583/16 seen previously, was equipped with ailerons.This indicates that the D.IIIs coming from the third production batch (1580-1639/16) were also fitted with ailerons at the factory.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
An unidentified very early-production D.III, featuring the flat fuselage sides which still lack the factory-installed horizontal fuselage stringer. It is not known when exactly this modification was implemented, but only a few planes from the initial production batch (350/16 - 379/16) were delivered without it.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Front view of a D.III at Schwerin provides rigging details of the wing-warping D.III version. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Fokker D.III
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
An "O"-marked Fokker D.III operated by Kest 1b at Karlsruhe, the military number has been all but obliterated by the exhaust fumes. The upper wing of this aircraft features aileron control rather than wing warping.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
As has been seen previously, Jagdstaffel 9 operated the Fokker D.II, but at least one example of the D.III was on hand, too. The aircraft seen here features the mud-guards which were also fitted to their Albatros D.II fighters.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Jasta 15 ground crew members pose with a single Fokker D.III in front of the hangars at Habsheim. On this aircraft, the rudder cross retained a white border. This aircraft has sometimes been identified as being "Boelckes" D.III, but this was not the case. Note the use of ailerons.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
This late-production D.III served as a trainer with Flieger-Schule Bromberg in September 1917.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
An unarmed D.III surrounded by Navy personnel which was obviously operated as a trainer. The wheels have sunk fairly deep into the soft sandy terrain. A Zeppelin hangar can be seen in the background. Warping wings are fitted to this aircraft.
Although favoured by Germany first great air ace, Oswald Boelcke, who flew Fokker D III 352/16 and scored six of his forty victories in this machine, the type was not generally liked by front line pilots, perhaps because of a lack-lustre performance, not helped by Fokker's retention of wing warping, rather than ailerons. The Bavarian procurement authorities were even more critical, refusing to purchase the these Fokker biplanes at all until pressured from high places in Berlin. The Fokker D III made its operational debut in the spring of 1916 and, using the unreliable 160hp Oberursal U III, had a top level speed of 99mph at sea level. The D III was armed with two 7.92mm Spandaus. As an operational fighter, the career of the D III was brief, the type soon being relegated to advanced flying schools with many of the 230 built being delivered directly to training units.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Another Navy D.III, this time a late-production example. By comparison to the aircraft shown above, this one features aileron wings and it is armed with LMG 08/15 machine guns. Halberstadt D.817/16 can be seen in the background.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Lacking both armament and tires, this D.III may have served as an instructional airframe to train mechanics.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
The unit which operated this D.III is unidentified, but the fact that it was armed and the number "2" marked on the fuselage sides suggests service with one of the Kests, or a Naval defense unit.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Aircraft number "62" served with Jastaschule II at Nivelles in September 1918. Two Fokker Dr.Is, relegated to training duties, can be seen in the background.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Unidentified pilot poses in front of his D.III wearing his flying cap, while his crash helmet rests against the landing gear rigging. The metal corners fastened to the cowling sides over the front spider mount attachment points are more bulbous than usual.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Uffz. Walter Tolischuss of Kest 3 and his Fokker D.III at Karlsruhe. He was taken prisoner following a balloon attack on 23. May 1917.
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Flugmaat W.Richter, Marine pilot, with his Fokker D.III.
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View of the engine installation on an unarmed D.III minus wings. The aircraft seems to feature camouflaged fabric while the forward metal parts remain in natural finish. Parked next to it is a Fokker D.V fuselage with white cross background while the cross itself remains to be applied.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Experimental fully enclosed cowling installed on a D.III. This may have been done in order to evaluate the different aerodynamic properties of this design. It bears an interesting resemblance to the cowling used later on the Fokker D.V.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Marked with a white circle, the unit that operated this particular aircraft is yet again unknown. The fact that no traces of the military number can be seen at all on the fuselage sides indicates that this section of the airframe received some kind of overpainting before the white circle marking was applied. This was another late-production aircraft from one of the last two batches which were fitted with ailerons.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Jagdstaffel 15 received a number of Fokker D.III in the autumn of 1916 when operating from the airfield at Habsheim. Leutnant Hans Olaf Esser is seated in his personal aircraft here. He was killed during "Bloody April" on 16 April 1917 near Chavreux, but by then the Fokker had been replaced in Jasta 15 by a more modern type.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
In-flight view of an aileron-controlled D.III, the balanced aileron horns are just visible.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
In-flight views of late-production Fokker D.IIIs equipped with ailerons (Klappenverwindung).
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
A trio of Fokker D.III fighters from Jasta 15 are being prepared for their next sortie at Habsheim airfield in late 1916. The squadron "hack" two-seater at right is running up its engine, and supposedly Udet was at the controls at this moment.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
A rare lineup of eight Fokker D.III fighters operated by Kest 1b at Karlsruhe in the spring of 1917. The aircraft in the left half of the picture have their tails marked in three colors, most likely in red-white-black, in order to resemble the German flag. This may have been a "Halbstaffel" (half-unit) marking. Individual markings appeared in the form of letters marked behind the cockpit on the fuselage sides and decking. The "S"-marked Fokker D.III 1021/16 has leaders' streamers attached to its rear outboard strut. The "O"-marked plane appears to be the only one with ailerons, all others have wing-warping.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
This photo of Kest 4b at Freiburg shows a first-generation Fokker E.IV fighter at left. Second-generation Fokker D.IIs are at the far end of the second row and the two closest fighters in the third row. Two second-generation Fokker D.III fighters are nearest the camera in the middle row. By far the best aircraft in the photo is the Halberstadt fighter furthest from the camera in the third row. The early Fokker biplane fighters were inferior to the Halberstadt and Albatros biplane fighters and were obsolescent on the Western Front. 1917 was a tough year for Fokker, who in January 1917 was directed to build 200 AEG C.IV two-seat trainers instead of his own designs.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
When Kampfeinsitzerstaffel (Kest) 4b was formed by dividing Kest 4 into "a" and "b" designated half-units, they moved from Boblingen to Freiburg im Breisgau on 15 April 1917. This group photograph is thought to have been taken to commemorate their arrival at Freiburg, on or soon after this date. Their initial complement of fighters consisted of a somewhat motley collection of types: a Fokker E.IV named Hannah can be seen at far left, the only remaining Eindecker in the unit. The other aircraft seen in the picture are four Fokker D.III, three D.II, and a single Halberstadt, completing the rear trio of aircraft. Note the "Iron Cross" marked wheel hubs, which were possibly the new unit marking for Kest 4b.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Blowup of the photo showing the Fokker D.III fighters of Kest 4b at Freiburg in the spring of 1917. Closest to the camera is D.III 1612/16, baptized "Grosspapa" (Grandpa). Next to it is "Moritz" (military number illegible), then D.III 368/16 "Olga", with the long-serving "Max" (1583/16) completing the quartet.
  
















J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Half a dozen Fokker D.V fighters and a solitary D.III are parked on the rain-covered tarmac at a Naval airship base. The Fokker D.III has an upper wing with ailerons, but without upper wing crosses.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Having swung slightly to the left, the camera also captured the latest aircraft to be produced by Fokker. Several newly-completed Fokker D.III, perhaps the first to be fitted with ailerons, can be seen at left. The white/plain linen color of the ailerons indicates that these components may have been retro-fitted, possibly because the initial examples failed the mandatory load tests.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
The equipment of Kest 4b was progressively upgraded, and by 1 June 1917, the first Roland D.II arrived. Six of these aircraft replaced the oldest fighters and took center stage here, and when this photo was taken around July or August, only three Fokker D.III remained with the unit. Seen from right to left are: Fokker D.III 1583/16 Max, 1593/16, and 1638/16. The "Iron Cross" wheel cover marking was not carried over to the Roland and Albatros fighters. Three Albatros D.III complete the distant end of the lineup, which shows the opposite direction of the airfield at Freiburg. By 1 September, the last of the Fokker single-seaters had been given up by the unit.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Gen. von Hoeppner visiting Schleissheim in mid 1917: three Fokker DVs and one Fokker DIII are in the line.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Five Naval D.V and a D.III, all of them armed, with the pilot in the center of the picture pointing at the aircraft with the white spinner tip which may have been his personal D.V.
J.Herris - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service /Centennial Perspective/ (56)
A batch of ten "surplus" Fokker D.III fighters was delivered to Holland in October 1917. One of these was 379/16, which was actually the last example from the first D.III production batch that was ordered in July 1916. These were apparently used as unarmed trainers.
A late production Fok. D.III with ailerons. Apparently this aircraft was interned in Holland after a forced landing and was used by the Dutch Army.
J.Herris - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service /Centennial Perspective/ (56)
A batch of ten "surplus" Fokker D.III fighters was delivered to Holland in October 1917. This aircraft appears to be was 1619/16, which was from the third D.III production batch that was ordered in August 1916. Interestingly, the motivation for the Germans to provide Fokker fighters to Holland was so Holland would supply horses to Germany for the German Army.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Dutch air service Fokker D.III 1619/16, the D III in its definitive production form in which ailerons replaced wing warping for lateral control.
J.Herris - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service /Centennial Perspective/ (56)
A batch of ten "surplus" Fokker D.III fighters was delivered to Holland in October 1917. This aircraft appears to be was 1619/16, which was from the third D.III production batch that was ordered in August 1916. Interestingly, the motivation for the Germans to provide Fokker fighters to Holland was so Holland would supply horses to Germany for the German Army.
J.Herris - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service /Centennial Perspective/ (56)
Fokker D.III 1619/16, which was from the third D.III production batch ordered in August 1916.
J.Herris - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service /Centennial Perspective/ (56)
Fokker D.III in Netherlands service.
J.Herris - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service /Centennial Perspective/ (56)
The Dutch orange disc national markings were applied in the same position as the previous German Iron Crosses on identical white backgrounds. On black-and-white prints, these anticipate the national markings that would be employed the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force 27 years later in defense of the Japanese mainland.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III in Netherlands service now designated F.203. D.v.Rijn is in the cockpit.
A black (?) anti-glare panel has been applied to F.203, as this aircraft was now designated by its new owners. No armament is fitted to either of these planes, indicating training use.
J.Herris - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service /Centennial Perspective/ (56)
Fokker D.III with black stripe on the fuselage. The D.IIIs supplied had ailerons, not wing warping.
J.Herris - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service /Centennial Perspective/ (56)
A batch of ten "surplus" Fokker D.III fighters was delivered to Holland in October 1917. One of these was 379/16, which was actually the last example from the first D.III production batch that was ordered in July 1916. During the refurbishment at Schwerin, the original warping wings were replaced by a set with aileron control. The late "streaked" Fokker factory finish shows particularly well on the wing upper surfaces here.
Fokker D.III in Netherlands service now designated F.203.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
The Fokker D.I(MAG) 04.41 was identical to the German Fokker D.III (M 19) fighter. The 160 hp Oberursel twin-row rotary engine required a broad-bladed propeller that had not yet been installed.
Eight examples of the Fokker D.III were license-built by MAG in Austria, where they received the designation D I (MAG). Pictured here is the first of these aircraft, 04.41, lacking both armament and its propeller.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Lacking its prop, the Austro-Hungarian MAG-license-built Fokker D.III 04.41 is seen here while under evaluation.
J.Herris - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service /Centennial Perspective/ (56)
This Fokker D.I(MAG) with 160 hp Oberursel U.III was photographed at the Flik 30 airfield at Czernowitz. It was the only D.I(MAG) that served at the front. Unfortunately, the fighter carried no serial number. Engine servicing difficulties eventually resorted in withdrawal of all the aircraft of this type from service. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
J.Herris - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service /Centennial Perspective/ (56)
Fokker D.II(MAG) 04.69 is the first aircraft in a lineup of MAG fighters at Matyasfold in October 1917. The first five aircraft are D.II(MAG) fighters, with the MAG 90.02 triplane prototype and a D.I(MAG) in the background. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 1017/16 was overturned by Ernst Udet following and imperfect landing, most likely in December 1916. In the lower photo, he can be seen smiling through the wing struts. Some local children have also managed to sneak into the picture. The square white cross backgrounds were usually quickly painted over on Fokker D-type fighters, leaving the crosses surrounded by just a narrow white border. (photo above courtesy of Greg VanWyngarden)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Crash photos always provide interesting details. D.III 2953/16 was completely wrecked on 20 August 1917 by crashing into Rumpler C.I 6564/16. The late-production D.III features a thinly-applied streaked camouflage pattern, and the ailerons which were fitted to the final production batch are also in evidence.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Another crash of a late-production D.III, this time 2977/16 (w/n 1347) from an unidentified Naval unit was the culprit. D.III was armed with only the starboard LMG-08/15 machine-gun. Just visible in the photo is an outlined letter or number that had been applied above the fuselage military number. This is very similar in style of application to Fokker D.II 1576/16 "R" seen previously in the D.II chapter. Both planes may have served with the same Naval unit.
Fokker D.III 2977/18 (w/n 1347) was a late-production D.III finished in the streaked scheme. In this case, the streaks were applied thinly to the fuselage fabric, while the wings received a fairly dense application of the new camouflage pattern.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Severe crashes such as the one shown here were generally described as "restlos" in German photo captions and reports. This indicated that there were no remains worth salvaging for future use left in the wreckage.
J.Herris - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service /Centennial Perspective/ (56)
Fokker D.III destroyed in a taxi accident.
J.Herris - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service /Centennial Perspective/ (56)
Another view of the Fokker D.III destroyed in a taxi accident.
J.Herris - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.6: Foreign Service /Centennial Perspective/ (56)
Fokker D.III in Netherlands service after the landing accident.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 1583/16 MAX, Kest 4, 1917
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III 379/16, Dutch Air Service
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
Fokker D.III
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The D III in its definitive production form in which ailerons replaced wing warping for lateral control.
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker M.19 Production Prototype / D.III
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Fokker D.II/D.III
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
Fokker D.I(MAG) Series 04.4
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III
J.Herris, J.Leckscheid - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Early Biplane Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (53)
Fokker D.III