Самолеты (сортировка по:)
Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Rumpler C.I/C.Ia

Страна: Германия

Год: 1914

Two-seat general duties

Rumpler - B.I/4A - 1914 - Германия<– –>Rumpler - G.I/G.II/G.III - 1915 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


Румплер C-I/C-Ia / RUMPLER C-I/C-Ia

  В начале 1915-го появился вооруженный вариант с пулеметом в задней кабине и 160-сильным мотором, обозначенный C-I. Тот же самолет с двигателем в 180 л.с. назывался C-Ia. Обе модификации выпускались серийно до октября 1916-го на фирмах Румплер, MFW (Маркиш Флюгцойгверк), ARF (Альберт Ринн Флюгцойгверк), Германия и Пфальц, а также на баварском филиале фирмы Румплер (сокращенно - Байру).
  В общем итоге на фронты поступило свыше 1000 аппаратов. Благодаря выдающимся летным и эксплуатационным данным, C-I продержался в частях первой линии до весны 1918 года, когда большинство его ровесников уже давно было сбито или отправлено на свалку.
  В 1919 году, после отступления немцев из Польши, 21 "Румплер" C-I или C-Ia достался полякам, которые воевали на них против украинских вооруженных формирований, а с начала 1920-го использовали для учебных целей. Кроме того, отдельные экземпляры этих машин остались и в других новосозданных восточноевропейских странах.

  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ
  
  "Мерседес", 160 л.с. (C-I) или "Майбах", 180 л.с. (C-Ia).
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  Турельный пулемет (C-I), а также - до 100 кг бомб.


А.Александров, Г.Петров Крылатые пленники России


Пулемет в задней кабине рассматривался, в основном, как средство обороны, и со временем вооружение машин класса Ц усилилось за счет второго, неподвижного и синхронизированного, пулемета, стрелявшего через диск винта. Аппарат "Румплер Ц. I" (41) экипирован именно таким образом: один "Парабеллум" на шкворневом лафете и другой - на правом борту фюзеляжа (вероятно, это один из первых аппаратов подобного рода, так как обычно на "Румплерах" неподвижный пулемет "Шпандау" (Spandau) ставился слева). Очевидно, что теперь авиаторам было сподручнее как обороняться, так и атаковать, но если удача не сопутствовала им в боевом вылете, то дело могло закончиться посадкой на чужой территории, как это случилось с аэропланом номер Ц. 429/15 (42). Отсутствующая обшивка на левых крыльях и на борту свидетельствует о перенесенном пожаре, и немалом. Несмотря на повреждения, самолет отремонтировали, а с приходом зимы заменили колесное шасси лыжным (43). "Румплер Ц. I" оказался удачной моделью. С двигателем "Мерседес Д. III" 160 л. с, "Аргус Ас. III" 180 л. с. или "Бенц Бц. III" 150 л. с. он развивал скорость до 152 км/ч и мог выполнять разнообразные задачи. Его фронтовая служба началась в 1915г.,ав октябре 1916г. около 250 аппаратов типа Ц. I и Ц. Iа (с "Аргусом") летали в германских авиаотрядах. Затем модель постепенно превратилась в учебную (с "Бенцем"), получив двойное управление и лишившись вооружения. Характерной особенностью являлся полукруглый коробчатый радиатор, помещенный под верхней плоскостью перед ее передними центральными стойками.


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Rumpler C I and Ia
  
  One of the most successful and best liked of the newly introduced C type armed two-seaters which appeared during 1915 was the C.I of the Rumpler Flugzeug-Werke. Previously, unarmed B types had been manufactured on a small scale, but the efficiency of the 160 h.p. Mercedes engined C.I on its debut assured production in considerable quantity. At first equipped only with a Parabellum machine-gun for the observer, the armament was later reinforced by the addition of a Spandau machine-gun for the pilot, mounted on the port side firing forward. The Rumpler C.I and la, (the latter machine being no more than a C.I fitted with a 180 h.p. Argus engine) entered widespread service on all Fronts. By October 1916 there were some 250 C.Is and C.Ias in service. They were used as general-purpose types, and when they became outclassed on the Western Front they served in the Salonika, Palestine and Macedonian theatres during the 1917 period. They were also used on training duties in Germany right up to the end of the war. In fact, during 1918 a special trainer version with dual control was developed by the Bayerische Rumpler-Werke. This version was powered with a 150 h.p. Benz engine and did not have a gun-ring installation in the rear cockpit.
  In construction the Rumpler C.I was endowed with some novel features, the main one being the compound structural mediums used in the fuselage framework. Installation of the 160 h.p. Mercedes D III engine in the nose was in orthodox fashion: cylinder block protruding; curved metal panels arcing in from the upper longerons to enclose the crankcase; rounded metal nose fairing through which the propeller shaft extended. A largish, streamlined collector manifold was fitted on the starboard side, from which climbed a raked-back "chimney" exhaust pipe which ejected over the top wing. The fuselage was a normal slab-sided, braced box-girder structure with a rounded top decking, tapering to a vertical knife-edge aft. In the structural material used it differed from usual practice. The four longerons were of pine towards the rear and of ash forward, being spliced in the region of the cockpits. Aft of the rear cockpit the vertical and lateral spacers were of ash, but forward of that point steel tube was employed. There was a three-ply sheet panel each side of the nose, extending as far aft as the front center-section strut; the remainder of the fuselage was covered with fabric.
  Tail surfaces were of welded steel tube throughout and fabric covered. All fin surfaces, which were braced with light streamlined steel struts, were of triangular profile and of flat plate section. The unbalanced, divided elevators were of inverse taper and rounded off the contour of the tailplane. The rudder, likewise unbalanced, was pleasingly curved and set a pattern which was to remain little altered in the subsequent operational Rumpler two-seaters.
  Of two-bay format, the wings were slightly tapered and based on the conventional two-spar system, with cable-braced steel-tube compression members. They incorporated some 5' of sweep on the leading edge and a minute amount (16 mm.) of negative stagger. Both wings were of parallel chord, which differed by something less than 2 in.; tips were angularly raked, with fairly well-rounded corners. Ribs were of ply, with softwood capping strips, and interspaced with false ribs extending back only to the front spar. A solid trailing-edge member was used, hence the Rumpler C.I did not feature a scalloped outline. Unbalanced ailerons of inverse taper and characteristic wash-out were hinged to false spars at the upper wingtips only. They were operated by a mid-span crank lever which was actuated by cables fed through, and then vertically up from, the lower wing. A generous, curved, cut-out in the center-section improved the observer's field of view; likewise cut-outs of identical profile in the lower wing roots. Both wings were rigged with dihedral, and the upper wing, in two panels, was joined to a trestle-type center-section cabane of streamlined steel tube. Rumpler C.Is were one of the first C types to feature the frontal (Stirnkuhler) radiator mounted at the leading edge of the center-section. The Rumpler's installation was exceedingly neat, being recessed into the wing panel so as to lie flush with the leading edge. The semicircular section also made for neatness in appearance and reduced the "blind spot" area, which was a considerable shortcoming with rectangular radiators.
  As in the center-section struts, interplane struts were also of streamlined steel tube with cable bracing. A single drag wire ran from the top of the front undercarriage strut to the top of the rear inboard interplane strut. The same medium was used for the undercarriage, which had the normal vee-type chassis. The rear legs were cable braced, and a claw brake was usually fitted to the center of the axle. Wheels were sprung with either spiral springs or elastic cord, according to availability. A cleanly installed ash tailskid, internally sprung and hinged just forward of the sternpost, completed the assembly.
  As evidence of the continued usefulness of Rumplers it is on record that eight new C.Is were transported to Damascus in the spring of 1917 and were to play a big part in the battles which took place that year for Gaza. All enemy troop movements were observed by the Rumplers and the General Staff kept constantly informed. C.Is acted almost exclusively as couriers for the Commanding General, von Kress. When the General wished to re-deploy his troops a large white cloth, which he carried in his car, was laid out upon the ground and a Rumpler promptly landed near by and then conveyed the necessary intelligence to the subordinate commanders. In this way the Staff were able to keep the troops well under control. Bombing raids were carried out on Allied cavalry, and captured prisoners testified to the havoc wrought. Special emphasis had to be placed on visual observation in this theatre, and observers became highly skilled. Much photographic reconnaissance was almost impossible due to the deterioration of the photographic plates; the excessive heat affecting the gelatin emulsion.
  
  
Description: Two-seat general duties.
Manufacturers: Rumpler Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. Johannisthal, Berlin (Ru.).
Sub-contractors: Germania Flugzeug-Werke (Germ.); Markische Flugzeug-Werke (Mark.); Hannoversche Waggonfabrik (Han.), C.Ia; Bayerische Rumpler-Werke (Bayru.) with BzIII; Albert Rinne Flugzeug-Werke (Rin.).
Power Plant: 160 h.p. Mercedes D.III 6- cylinder in-line water-cooled engine.
   150 h.p. Benz Bz.III 6- cylinder in-line water-cooled engine in Bayru. C.I.
   180 h.p. Argus As.III 6- cylinder in-line water-cooled engine in C.Ia.
Dimensions:
   Span 12.15 m. (39 ft. 10 3/8 in.)
   Length 7.85 m. (25 ft. 9 in.)
   Height 3.06 m. (10 ft. 1/2 in.)
   Area 35.7 sq.m. (385.6 sq.ft.)
Weights:
   Empty 793 kg. (1,744.6 lb.)
   Loaded 1,333 kg. (2,866.6 lb.)
Performance:
   Max speed 152 km.h. (95 m.p.h.)
   Ceiling 16,600 ft.
   Endurance 4 hr. on 240 liters fuel (200 main, 40 gravity)
Armament: One fixed Spandau machine-gun on port side forward,
   and one manually operated Parabellum machine-gun in the rear cockpit.
   Small bomb load as tactically required, not exceeding approximately 100 kg.

K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
French soldiers inspect this captured Rumpler CI. By 1916 the type was an important general-purpose aircraft and was well liked by its crews. When eventually outclassed on the Western Front it went on to serve in other theatres.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Side view of a Rumpler C.I type two-seat general-purpose biplane captured by the French. The C.I was an improved armed version of the B.I and was operational from 1915-17, then as a trainer. 160 hp Mercedes engine usually allowing 95 m.p.h.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
An admirable air-to-air image of a Rumpler 5A, military designation C I, an armed and more powerful derivative of the company's B I. First flown towards the end of 1914, the Rumpler C I was powered by a 160hp Mercedes D III, giving it a top level speed of 94mph at sea level. The C I's handling docility was matched by what was, for its time, an impressive high altitude ability, the operational ceiling being quoted as 16,600 feet. This translates into the machine being able to overfly enemy territory largely immune from interception unless caught by an enemy standing patrol already at or above its own altitude. For defence at lower altitudes, the C I's rear seated observer was equipped with a flexibly-mounted 7.92mm Parabellum gun, later added to by providing the pilot with a fixed, forward firing 7.92mm Spandau, useful for trench strafing, on the C la. Although the actual production figures have not survived, the C I was known to have been built in sustantial numbers by Rumpler and four sub-contractors, with around 250 serving in operational units in October 1916. Allowing for attrition and other factors, it would be safe to assume total C I build to be well in excess of 500 machines. The C I pictured here belonged to the Schleissheim-based advanced flight training unit tasked with bringing trainee crews up to full operational standard.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Rumpler C I, 53/16, powered by a 160hp Mercedes D III. Armed with a fixed, pilot-aimed 7.9mm Spandau, along with the observer's 7.92mm Parabellum, the Rumpler C I was considered by many to be the best and most reliable of all C types produced. Top level speed of the machine was 94mph at sea level, while the service ceiling was around 16,600 feet. Normal range was given as 336 miles.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Rumpler C I (serial C4652/15).
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Rumpler C I with jury ski rig, (serial 6081/16).
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
Such was the faith in the Kampfgeschwader concept that a further five units were formed in 1916 (Kagohl III to VII), thus creating another 30 Kampfstaffeln. These pilots and observers in front of the seven Rumpler C I machines of Kasta 14, Kagohl III. are seen shortly after that unit's formation. Completely mobile, and capable of being moved rapidly to specially prepared aerodromes on any front, their duties were two-fold: they could be operated in strength on bombing attacks or used in a pure air-fighting capacity. The Kagohl were the kernel of German air might and were seen as the key that would ensure aerial supremacy.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
On 20, 21 and 22 May 1916 Kagohl I and III mounted concentrated attacks against Dunkirk. Shown are Kampfstaffeln of Kagohl I, equipped in the main with LVG C II two-seaters (Rumpler C I machines of Kasta II in the foreground) and assembled in take-off order on Ghistelles aerodrome, near Ostend, on 21 May. A strict count-down procedure was maintained; all engines of a Kampfstaffel were started at the same time and machines were broght into line at the edge of the manoeuvring area before the previous unit had taken off. As soon as the last aircraft was airborne, the leader of the following Kasta started his take-off run, the other six machines following within a few seconds of each other. It was thus possible to get the whole Kagohl away in landing was achieved with similar despatch, and surprisingly few accidents accompanied these high-density movements.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
This aerial view of the same scene shows the specially prepared take-off area, to combat the Flanders mud, that allowed the heavily laden machines of each Kasta to depart in rapid succession. Once airborne, individual aircraft formed up easily on their leader's machine, which flew at reduced speed in a specified direction. Units then adopted their prearranged position in the 40-aircraft-strong formation, and climbed to operating height (generally above 10,000ft) before setting course for the target.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
The big AEG joins the Rumpler two-seaters ready for take-off. Twenty-five aircraft can be seen, and due to the varied nature of the evening's targets, seventeen machines have probably already departed, since Kagohl bombing operations invariably utilized the 6 Kampfstaffeln at full strength of 42 aeroplanes. Unserviceability of aircraft did not normally reduce this force as reserve machines were always available so that the planned weight of high-explosive could be delivered as planned.
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 41)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 42)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 43)
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/