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Albatros D.III

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Истребитель

Albatros - D.I/D.II - 1916 - Германия<– –>Albatros - G.I - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"АЛЬБАТРОС" D.III / ALBATROS D.III

  Превосходство "ньюпоров" в маневренности над ранними "альбатросами" побудило Роберта Телена скопировать схему несущих поверхностей французского истребителя. Нижнее крыло было уменьшено в размерах, а вместо параллельных межкрыльевых стоек, установили V-образные "ньюпоровские" стойки, крепящиеся только к переднему лонжерону нижнего крыла.
  Одновременно на самолет поставили новый двигатель "Мерседес" D.IIIa, форсированный до 175 л.с. за счет повышения степени сжатия. Так появилась модификация "Альбатрос" D.III, запущенная в серию осенью 1916 года.
  Изменение схемы машины с бипланной на полуторапланную не привело к существенному улучшению маневренности, и "Альбатрос" по-прежнему проигрывал по этому показателю более легкому "Ньюпору", обладавшему меньшей нагрузкой на площадь несущей поверхности. Зато уменьшение нижней плоскости позволило улучшить обзор вперед-вниз, а повышение энерговооруженности за счет более мощного мотора обеспечило рост максимальной скорости и скороподъемности.
  Самолет посчитали удачным и сходу запустили в серию. В начале 1917 года к выпуску машины подключился новый авиазавод "Остдойч Альбатрос Верк" (OAW) в Шнейдемюле. До мая 1917 г., когда сборку D.III прекратили в пользу очередной модификации D.V, успели построить 1340 экземпляров истребителя, из них 840 - на заводе OAW.
  В ходе серийного выпуска радиатор на верхнем крыле сдвинули на 40 см. вправо, чтобы в случае его прострела летчик не попадал под струю кипятка. На самолетах, предназначенных для эксплуатации в районах с жарким климатом, иногда ставили по два радиатора.
  Первые D.III прибыли на фронт в январе 1917-го, а к концу весны на них воевали уже 37 эскадрилий - более 2/3 истребительной авиации Германии. По оценкам немецких пилотов, это был лучший истребитель для своего времени. Однако появление на фронте новых французских и английских машин "Спад" S VII, SE.5 и Сопвич "Кэмел" лишило "Альбатрос" его преимуществ.
  Тем не менее, эта машина широко применялась на Западном фронте до конца года, а на второстепенных фронтах (в Македонии, Палестине и Месопотамии) - до конца Мировой войны. Некоторые экземпляры были переданы в состав турецких и болгарских ВВС.
  В 1919-1920 гг. несколько "альбатросов" D.III состояло на вооружении польской авиации. Немецкое гражданское послевоенное обозначение этой машины - L.20.


ДВИГАТЕЛЬ: "Мерседес" D.III, форсированный до 180 л.с.
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ: аналогично "Альбатросу" D.II (2 синхр. LMG 08/15 "Шпандау").
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
  Размах, м 9,05
  Длина, м 7,33
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 20,86
  Сухой вес, кг 673
  Взлетный вес, кг 908
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 175
  Время подъема на высоту
   2000 м, мин.сек 6,00
  Потолок, м 5500


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Albatros D III

  Almost before the Albatros D Is and lis were well into production, Robert Thelen had set about ensuring a successor which adopted some of the advantages of the French Nieuport Scout design. Several of these had been captured and thoroughly type-tested by Idflieg (Inspectorate of Army Air Corps) to assess which of their characteristics could best be adapted to German requirements.
  By increasing the compression ratio of the standard Mercedes D III it was possible to uprate the basic 160 h.p. to about 170 h.p., but this did not give much scope for an improvement in performance. Additional armament on such a marginal power increase would doubtless have affected performance adversely. The designers therefore decided to concentrate their efforts in improving visibility from the cockpit, which in combat would be an immediate advantage. Knowledge gained from the assessment of the Nieuport Scouts resulted in a drastic revision of the wing arrangement. A sesquiplane layout was adopted, similar to that of the Nieuports, with resultant increase in field of vision. The top wing was increased in span, and more attention paid to tip profile, a nicely proportioned curve being substituted for the angularity of the D II. The same aerofoil-shape radiator was retained in the centre-section and at first this was mounted centrally. However, operational experience soon highlighted the shortcomings of this position, as it only needed a single bullet or fragment of shrapnel to puncture it for the unfortunate pilot to have a stream of scalding water precipitated in his face by the slipstream. To obviate such chances (quickly fatal in combat), the radiator was re-located on the starboard side of the centre-section. The wing structure itself followed the usual Albatros all-wood formula, with two box-spars located well forward, but with the front spar connected to the leading edge with a ply capping strip. A wire trailing edge perpetuated the characteristic scalloped effect. The steel tube-framed ailerons were of greater inverse taper than on the earlier Albatros scouts, although their operation remained unchanged, with a mid-span crank lever connected to control wires running through the lower wing.
  In the lower wing the chord was drastically reduced and the whole structure built on a single spar, near-identical Nieuport practice in all but actual profile. This wing arrangement necessitated a revision of the interplane bracing, and streamlined steel-tube vees were used for this purpose.
  The remainder of the airframe: fuselage, empennage, undercarriage, etc., were all standard D II assemblies, with small detail modifications where necessary, i.e. lower-wing attachment points, centre-section strut attachment, to suit the D III requirements. At a later date many Albatros D IIIs were fitted with the much rounder D V-type rudder, and such aircraft are often wrongly identified. A certain means of D III identification, apart from the flattened fuselage sides, is by the vertical trailing edge of the underfill.
  As soon as the D III began to operate over the lines in the early months of 1917 it was quickly dubbed "vee strutter" by the opposing R.F.C. pilots, and as its numbers steadily increased, so it appeared with greater frequency upon Allied combat reports. Undoubtedly the spring of 1917 was the heyday of the German air service, at least as far as the single-seater units were concerned, and April of that year went down in the British annals as "Bloody April". The main victims of the Albatroses at this period were the poorly armed reconnaissance B.E. 2cs which the R.F.C. possessed in such relatively large quantity. Such machines were little more than sitting targets for the fleet, well-armed Jastas, and many German airmen were soon well on their way to becoming recognised as "aces". The legendary Baron Manfred von Richthofen, already with a double-figure victory score at the time he shot down Hawker in November 1916, rapidly added to his score when flying his scarlet Albatros D III (789/17) during this early part of 1917.
  By this time Jagdstaffeln Nos. I 37 had been formed and were operating and hunting in large numbers, but they began to meet stiller resistance with the introduction of the Sopwith Triplane and Spad S VII by the Allies. With the appearance of the S.E. 5 and Sopwith Camel a little later, the superiority of the Albatros D III was ended. Lt. Osterkamp. a pilot with the German Marine Wing, who was eventually victor in some thirty-two aerial combats, reported: "The Albatros D III is no longer sufficient, the Camel and Spad are its superiors."
  Records show that the number of Albatros D IIIs in Front Line service during 1917 were: January, 13; March, 137; May, 327; July, 303; September. 385; November, 446. These figures, of course, are not cumulative, as, even allowing for wastage, each month's total would still include a sizeable proportion of the previous month's. However, they do provide an idea of the numbers being produced. The Albatros D III was superseded in the summer of 1917 by the Albatros D V.

TECHNICAL DATA
  Purpose: Single-seat Fighting Scout.
  Manufacturers:
   Albatros Werke G.m.b.H. (Alb.).
   Ostdeutsche Albatros Werke, Schneidemuhl (O.A.W.).
   Oesterreichische Flugzeugfabrik A.G. (Oeffag). (For Austro-Hungarian forces, with Austro-Daimler engine.)
  Power Plant: 160 h.p. Mercedes D IIIa 6 cylinder in-line water cooled - up-rated to 170-175 h.p. by increased compression ratio.
  Dimensions: Span, 905 m. (29 ft. 8 1/4 in.). Length, 7.33 m. (24 ft. 0 5/8 in.). Height, 2.98 m. (9 ft. 9 1/4 in.). Wing area, 20.5 sq.m. (221 sq.ft.).
  Weights: Empty, 661 k.g. with cooling water (1,454 lb.). Loaded, 886 kg. (1,949 lb.).
  Performance: Maximum speed, 165 km.hr. (108 m.p.h.). Initial climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 4 min. Ceiling, 18,000 ft. Duration, 2 hr.
  Armament: Two fixed Spandau machine-guns synchronised to fire through airscrew.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


ALBATROS D III Germany

  Dipl-Ing Robert Thelen and Dipl-Ing Schubert, at the behest of the Idflieg, endeavoured to adapt the sesquiplane wing cellule utilised by Nieuport fighters to the semi-monocoque fuselage and tail surfaces of the DII to produce the D III. Featuring the single-spar lower wing and Vee-strutted cellule a la Nieuport, the D III was powered by the 180 hp Mercedes D IIIa six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine and had twin synchronised LMG 08/15 7,92-mm guns. The prototype flown in August 1916, was, in fact, one of a batch of 12 D IIIs ordered during the previous June, 400 more being ordered by Idflieg from Albatros during October. The D III was issued to the Jastas from December 1916, and began to suffer recurrent wing failures, these resulting from the torsional flexibility of the lower wing (although this was not appreciated at the time). Albatros' OAW (Ostdeutsche Albatros-Werke) at Schneidemuhl received orders for 840 D IIIs during April-August 1917, these featuring reinforced wings. The D III was also licence-built by Oeffag and fitted progressively with Austro-Daimler engines of 185, 200 and 225 hp, the first production examples with the highest-powered of these engines being accepted in May 1918, and some 220 being delivered to the Austro-Hungarian K.u.K. Luftfahrttruppen to the end of October 1918. After World War I, Poland procured 60 of the 200 hp Oeffag-built D IIIs, some being flown with 7.Eskadra Kosciuszkowska between August 1920 and May 1921 by US volunteer pilots. The following data relate to the standard D III with the D IIIa engine boosted to 180 hp by means of an increase in compression ratio.

Max speed, 103 mph (165 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1000m), 3.75 min.
Empty weight, 1,457 lb (661 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,953 lb (886 kg).
Span, 29 ft 8 in (9,04 m).
Length, 24 ft 0 5/8 in (7,33 m).
Height, 9 ft 9 1/4 in (2,98 m).
Wing area, 220.66 sqft (20,50 m2).


Журнал Flight


Flight, July 12, 1917.

SOME 1917 TYPE GERMAN AEROPLANES.

The Albatros D. III.

  This machine shows more noticeable alterations from the original design. The body, tail planes and chassis remain practically as before, but very considerable changes have been made in the wings. Thus it will be noticed that the upper plane has its tips raked to a much greater extent than was the case with the older models. The bottom plane has been reduced in area, mainly by decreasing the chord. While the upper plane is still without dihedral angle, this feature has been employed for the lower plane, and the inter-plane struts are of the Vee formation familiar from the French Nieuport chasers. The attachment to the body of the top plane is by means of two struts on each side, sloping backwards and outwards. Instead of the small radiators mounted on the sides of the body, the radiator is mounted in the centre section of the top plane, and the small water tank formerly mounted above the engine has therefore disappeared. In other respects the D. III does not differ greatly from previous models.

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Альбатрос" D.III, пилот Эрнст Удет, январь 1917г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Альбатрос D.III, пилот - лейтенант К.Альменродер, весна 1917г.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The Albatros D III, although having an entirely new wing, elsewhere embodied as much of the D II componentry as it could, revealing that Albatros's Chief Engineer, Robert Thelen's design philosophy lent towards doing things in an evolutionary, rather than a revolutionary manner. The D III can with hindsight be seen as the best of the Albatros single seaters, its successor, the D V incorporating too few real improvements over the D III at a time when the opposition was advancing apace. The D III, great aeroplane as it turned out, had one major inherent design flaw that led to wing flutter at high speed and consequent occasional structural failure and mid-air break up. The root of the problem lay in Thelen's decision to follow the Nieuport practice by adopting a sesquiplane, literally a one and a half wing layout. In doing this.Thelen fell into the same trap that the Nieuports had already experienced and had never really solved. In essence, the trouble lay with the combination of a torsionally weak, small lower wing being made to twist and oscillate through then little understood aerodynamic loads transmitted to it via the 'V' type interplane struts. This led to D III pilots being prohibited from diving the machine above a certain speed; quite a constraint for pilots who at some time or another were going to rely on the aircraft's ability to break away quickly from combat with a superior opponent. Shown here is an initial production model Albatros D III, delivered to Jasta 29 in early 1917. Although very kind in terms of pilot handling, these early D IIIs, besides being dive limited had another hazard in the form of the radiator that can just be seen positioned immediately ahead of the cockpit and filling the space between fuselage and upper wing centre section. If hit during combat, the radiator fluid could readily scald the pilot and frequently did. The solution was to move it to the underside of the upper starboard wing. In all, more than 1,300 D IIIs were built, the first being delivered to the front in January 1917. While the sea level top speed of the D III was the same as that for the D I and D II, its speed at height was improved through the use of a high compression Daimler D III. Armament comprised the by-now standard twin 7.92mm Spandaus. The D III's heyday in the spring of 1917 began to fade by the summer when encountering the new Allied fighters in the shape of Sopwith Camels, Royal Aircraft Factory SE 5s and Spads.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
This early production Albatros D III of Lt Dornheim, Jasta 29, having its radiator put under scrutiny. This image is also useful in showing the standard starboard side-only position of the Mercedes D III's exhaust manifold.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
An early ex-works Albatros D III with the original centrally-located radiator.
By November 1917 there were well over 400 Albatros DIIIs in front-line service, although by the summer the types had been technologically superseded by the DV.
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Albatros D.III
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Albatros D III, fitted with D Va type rudder.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
An extremely rare image, taken sometime after 15 April 1918, showing an Albatros D III fitted with additional small, load-spreading ancillary struts at the lower end of the normal 'V' interplane struts, clearly aimed at alleviating the high speed flutter problem. As these added struts have never appeared in any other picture of an Albatros D III seen by the author, he suspects that this fit was a locally devised modification.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Известный германский ас Эрнст Удет возле своего "Альбатроса" D.III.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Альбатрос" D.III немецкого аса Карла Альменродера.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Лейтенант Генрих Бюссинг со своей матерью возле "Альбатроса" D.III.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Kurt Student, like Boelcke and Immelmann, first came to the attention of his superiors thanks to his prowess flying a Fokker E III. Transferred with their E IIIs to the Russian Front in September 1915, Student and his companion soon found themselves unopposed whenever and wherever they flew. Later, Lt Student was to take command of Jasta 9 in 1917, staying as its leader until the Armistice, by which time he held the rank of Oberleutnant, or 1st lieutenant and had a confirmed score of 5 'kills'. Student went on to command the German aiborne forces in World War II, a responsibility vested in the German air force, unlike its American and British opponents, whose armies retained full control of both glider and paratroop assets. Student is depicted here sitting in his Albatros D III soon after taking over Jasta 9.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Lt Hans Adam of Bavarian Jasta 35, seen in the cockpit of his Albatros D III, 2101/16. Adam, with 21 confirmed 'kills', met his own end in the skies over Mortvilde on 15 November 1917, while flying with Bavarian Jasta 6.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
This image of Offstv Edmund Nathanael, standing with his Albatros D III of Jasta 5, helps point up the fact that non-commissioned ranks formed a significant part of the total flying personnel strength, although perhaps less so in fighter units than elsewhere. Nathanael had scored 14 confirmed before being killed near Bourlon on 17 May 1917.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Werner Voss, born 13 April 1897, was not yet eighteen when he enlisted in a Hussars Regiment just prior to the outbreak of World War I. In August 1915, he transferred into flying, initially as an observer, where he survived the Battle of the Somme, launched on 1 July 1916 and a period when the Allies held superiority in the air. Voss left the front in August 1916 to be trained as a pilot, joining Jasta 2 on 21 November 1916, flying Albatros D IIIs. Six days later Voss scored his first 'kill'. By the end of February 1917, Voss's score was 22 and on 8 April 1917 he was awarded the Pour Le Merite. Voss went on to join Jasta 5, where he added a further 12 "kills' flying against the French, before taking command of Jasta 10 on 31 July 1917. Here, facing the British, Voss added another 14 victories, taking his total tally to 48 before he elected to fly just one more sortie prior to going on leave with his two brothers. Voss had the misfortune to encounter the hand-picked SE 5a pilots of No 56 Squadron, RAF and succumbed to their guns. Voss was the 4th ranking German air ace of the war. He is seen standing beside his Albatros D III of Jasta 2, decorated with his personal emblem.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Albatros D III flown by Werner Voss in Jasta 5.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
This angle clearly shows the upper wing cut-out on this Albatros DIII to improve the pilot's forward and upward view and the smooth, semi-monocoque plywood fuselage.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Albatros D Va and D III fighters of Jasta 12.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
An unusual view of an Albatros D III, the fighter most commonly encountered by Allied pilots during 1917.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
A recent German machine brought down by Capt. Heurtaux, who has now 21 machines to his credit. This is one of the latest types of Albatros,
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Albatros DIII having been recovered by the Allies and In the process of being repaired. The type began its combat career over the Western Front in early 1917 and by the spring was taking an increasing toll of Allied aircraft. The term 'Albalros Nieuport' refers to its Nieuport-like sesquiplane wing layout.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
A Captured German "Albatros" Single-seater Fighter
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Front View of the D III Type Albatros Chaser
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Three-quarter rear view of the D III Type Albatros Chaser
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
An Albatros DIII in Palestine. The Germans provided air assets to support the Turks in various areas, but the level of air involvement was generally small.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Flugmaat Franz Wangemann of the Marinefeldjagdstaffel with his Albatros D III, D2288/16, at Aertrycke aerodrome in April 1917. This unit, under Leutnant zur See Sachsenberg, operated with success in the area of the Fourth German Army occupied by the Marine Corps. As aerial fighting activity increased, the Staffel was joined by other naval landplane fighter units until, towards the end of 1918, the five Marinefeldjagdstaffeln were formed into the Marinefeldjagdgeschwader under Sachsenberg. It had a strength of over 50 fighters.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
A Fighting Squadron, under the command of Von Richthoven ready for starting on its work.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Albatros D III, of No. 2 Marine-Feld-Jagdstaffel.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Photographed in the summer of 1917, this Albatros D III belonged to No 2 Marlne-Feld-Jagdstaffel.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
An Albatros D III of Jasta 26 which overturned on landing.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Пулеметы "Шпандау" являлись германской копией американского "Максима". Водяное охлаждение ствола было заменено на воздушное
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
The D III Albatros
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The D III with Vee-strutted wing cellule.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Albatros D.III
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Albatros D.III