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Fokker D.II / M.17

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Истребитель

Fokker - D.I / M.16 / M.18 - 1916 - Германия<– –>Fokker - D.III / M.19 - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"ФОККЕР" D.II / FOKKER D.II

   Параллельно с созданием истребителя-биплана с двигателем водяного охлаждения на фирме "Фоккер Флюгцойгверк" велись работы по истребителю аналогичной схемы, оснащенному ротативным мотором. Проект под индексом M.19 вел Мартин Кройцер, а после его гибели - новый главный конструктор фирмы Рейнольд Платц.
   Прототип M.19 со 100-сильным двигателем "Оберурсель" U.I впервые поднялся в воздух в августе 1916 г. За исключением силовой установки, он был идентичен "Фоккеру" D.I, но летные данные этой более легкой машины оказались выше. В сентябре самолет запустили в серию под индексом D.II, построив 120 экземпляров.
   В конце 1916-начале 1917 года машина активно применялась на западном фронте, на ней летали многие известные немецкие асы. Истребитель также выпускался по лицензии венгерской фирмой MAG и поступал на вооружение австро-венгерских ВВС.
  
  
МОДИФИКАЦИИ
  
   D.II: двигатель "Оберурсель" UI, 110 л.с., вооружение 1 синхр. LMG 08/15.
  

  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
   D.II
   Размах, м 8,75
   Длина, м 6,29
   Сухой вес, кг 425
   Взлетный вес, кг 575
   Скорость максимальная, км/ч 150
   Время подъема на высоту
   2000 м, мин.сек 7,00
   Потолок, м 4000


A.Weyl Fokker: The Creative Years (Putnam)


The rotary-powered counterpart of the M.16 was the M.17; the development of the two types ran parallel. The first version of the M. 17E had the 80-h.p. Oberursel engine and was generally similar to the M.16E. The M.17E was smaller and had a crash pylon above the fuselage. A triangular aperture in each side of the fuselage improved the pilot’s field of view.This was particularly necessary because the broad engine cowling obstructed the pilot’s view when landing. Lateral control was by wing warping, and a rudder of the M.4 type was fitted. The armament consisted of a single LMG.08/15, mounted centrally.
   The M. 17E is believed to have been tested at Adlershof but did not meet with approval. Its climbing performance was mediocre, and the limited view from the cockpit was criticized by both the Germans and the Austrians. The poor climb could be attributed to the low power of the engine, the narrow gap, and the unsatisfactory airflow over the top of the upper wing.
   Fokker liked the M.17E, however. He used it for a time as his personal aircraft, and it seems that he contrived to have it sent to Holland before the war ended. In 1919 it was overhauled for him by the Spijker Works in Amsterdam.
   The original form of fuselage was fitted with two-bay warping wings of greater span and narrower chord. This modification made no significant improvement in the performance.
   Fokker and Kreutzer now believed that greater success might be achieved with a fuselage of more conventional form. A much-modified M.17E was therefore built. This' aircraft had a fuselage similar in proportions to that of the monoplanes; the upper wings were attached to a centre section that was supported on short vertical struts. The upper wing was level with the pilot’s head, and the wings were staggered. The stagger made a welcome improvement in the downward field of view. Wing warping was retained.
   A cut-out in the trailing edge of the centre section gave access to the cockpit. To improve the forward view the LMG.08/15 was now installed to starboard. The fuselage had a pointed stern, and the rudder, somewhat similar to that of the M.4, looked small and insecurely mounted. A short top-decking was fitted behind the cockpit.
   This modified M.17E bore the Fokker Factory No. 499. So quickly was its development undertaken that it was tested before the end of the winter of 1915-16. The type was accepted by the Austrians, who were then in urgent need of a manoeuvrable fighter. Factory No. 499 was sent from Schwerin to Wiener Neustadt on April 13, 1916.
   The production aircraft used by the Austrians resembled No. 499, but their fuselages terminated in horizontal knife-edges, and they had standard comma-shaped rudders. The limited endurance of the M.17E obliged the Austrians to use it as a defence aircraft only; a few were later used in fighter training units.
   An M.17E of the modified type was tested with two machine-guns in an arrangement basically similar to that of the British S.E.5. A fixed, synchronized Schwarzlose gun was mounted in the fuselage, and a movable Mannlicher was carried on a somewhat elaborate mounting above the centre section; the latter gun could be pulled down for upward firing. One source implies that this aircraft, or one identically armed, was used by the Austrians, but absolute confirmation is lacking.
   The two-gun M.17E had a strengthened undercarriage, of which each forward leg consisted of two steel tubes. In an attempt to improve performance and find more favour in the IdFlieg's eyes, the type was also tested with the 100-h.p. Oberursel U.l. The climb was still not good enough, however, and Fokker was told to come back with something better.
   The German Army experts looked more favourably on the M.17Z. In this variant, improved climb was sought by fitting longer wings of higher aspect ratio and greater area.
   The first M.17Z was powered by a captured 80-h.p. Le Rhone engine. This gave the aircraft a better altitude performance and helped to convince the IdFlieg experts that Oberursel should copy the Le Rhone type instead of struggling on with their obsolete Gnome developments.
   As originally built, the M.17Z prototype had the same fuselage as the M.17E, with pointed stern and small, forward-mounted rudder. The strengthened undercarriage with double forward legs was used, and was retained for all subsequent biplanes in the M series.
   Test flights showed that the fuselage was too short. It was therefore lengthened by about two feet; at the same time the Morane-Saulnier stern arrangement was re-introduced, giving the familiar horizontal knife-edge to the fuselage and the inverted tripod that carried the tailskid and provided a second hinge point for the comma-shaped rudder.
   At the same time, the wing span was reduced by about a foot. Wing warping control was retained. The cut-out in the upper-wing trailing edge was enlarged; the wing itself was at eye level. In an endeavour to improve the pilot’s forward view the centre section did not have the aerofoil section of the wings proper: in front of the forward spar the under surface of the centre section was taken forward instead of following the dipping contour of the wing section. This gave the centre-section leading edge an arched appearance; contrary to popular belief, the centresection itself was not arched.
   After the 80-h.p. Le Rhone had been replaced by a 100-h.p. Oberursel, a prototype was subjected to a type test at Adlershof on April 17, 1916 (i.e., three days after the Austrian acceptance of the M.17E). The Type-Test Committee stated in its report that the aircraft was distinctly better than the Fok. E.III and could well replace that type. Before the Committee would recommend more than the placing of a small experimental order, it required the M.17Z to be cleared for structural strength. A minor criticism of the type was that the ground clearance of the airscrew was only 11 cm. (41 in.). The BLV requirements stipulated a minimum of 30 cm. (12 in.), but it seems that neither Fokker nor Kreutzer was aware of this.
   Proof-loading tests at Adlershof revealed the need for certain structural modifications, but the M.17Z was ultimately recommended for adoption as an operational type. The structural tests covered the three types Fok. D.I, D.II and D.III; this was possible because all stressed components and field lengths were practically identical. The tests are described in Appendix III.
   In point of time the acceptance of the M.17Z occurred shortly after the acceptance of the M.18Z; consequently the M.17Z, although the senior of the two designs, was officially designated Fok. D.II. Austria bought a few M.17Z biplanes but seemed to prefer the M.17E as being faster and more manoeuvrable.
   The German order was for 132 aircraft, all with the 100-h.p. Oberursel. The standard armament was one LMG.08, later LMG.08/15. The earliest production machines (M.17ZF) still had wing warping, but Fokker had to undertake to fit ailerons to the remainder (M.17ZK).
   The first Fok. D.IIs did not reach the front until better aeroplanes were already available. Part of the delay was caused by structural modifications necessitated by the strength tests, but some production hold-up must have occurred, possibly because Fokker’s ramshackle workshop facilities were clogged up with other orders. A number of the Fok. Es were still building at the time; Fokker was beginning to pay for his parsimonious attitude to his factory and its production facilities.
   Not until July 27, 1916, did the first production Fok. D.II (Factory No. 687) go into service; it was followed by a few more early in August. One of these first few D.IIs landed intact in Swiss territory, the pilot having lost his way in poor visibility. Allied experts studied this new Fokker with great interest, and the Swiss police had a hard job preventing the aircraft from being spirited away piece-meal by Allied agents. This Fok. D.II seems to have survived in the Swiss Flying Corps.
   The later production D.IIs had the required aileron controls. They also had a small refinement in the form of a light stringer along each side of the fuselage; this improved the support for the fabric covering, which was apt to flutter unpleasantly after losing its original tautness. This modification was introduced after September 1916.
   On the whole, the Fok. D.II was a disappointment in operational service. It was obsolete when it reached the front, and its performance at altitude was inadequate compared with the contemporary fighters flown by the Allies. Fokker admits in his autobiography that it was inferior to the Albatros D.I and D.II. The type was therefore quickly withdrawn from the Western Front. Small numbers were used in quiet sectors in the east, in Macedonia, and in Turkey. They were useful where either cold weather or high ground temperatures gave an advantage to rotary engines. But most of the Fok. D.lls were used at home establishments.
   Sixteen of the type had been supplied by September 1, 1916; forty-nine were in operational use on November 1, 1916, sixty-eight on January 1, 1917. By September 1, 1917, only ten remained in service.


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Fokker M 17 E/1
   This single example of the M 17 E/1 was built at the end of 1915. The configuration is similar to that of the M 16 E, although this aircraft was a single-seater. The "crash pylon" structure to prevent the pilot being decapitated in a nose-over landing may be noted, also the cutting away of the cockpit sides to improve visibility. Power unit was 100 h.p. Oberursel U I. Armament, one Spandau machine-gun.

Fokker M 17 E/2
   With the fuselage modified to incorporate a normal centre-section strut system, the M 17 E/2 was a more orthodox-looking aeroplane. Tail surfaces were later revised to the characteristic comma-rudder profile, and in this guise a few machines were used by Austro-Hungarians in an unarmed scouting capacity, designated B III. The M 17 Z became the D II. Engine, 80 h.p. Oberursel U O. Armament, one Spandau machine-gun.


Fokker D.II

   Although apparently later than the D.I (M 18z) in order of factory numerical sequence, the Fokker D.II would in fact appear to have preceded it, having been evolved from the M 17z prototype, from which it differed mainly in the rudder shape.
   Appearance of the D.II during 1916 was before the establishment of the Jagdstaffeln, and it was issued to the Fl. Aht. units as a replacement for the E.II and E.III monoplanes used in escort and protection duties, and as such did not form the exclusive equipment of any unit. Even later in the summer of that year, when the Jastas came into being, Fokker D.IIs, and the subsequent D.III, together with Halberstadt D.II and D.III, only formed partial equipment of the first units to be formed.
   The airframe of the D.II was very similar to that of the D.I, being slightly smaller in span but greater in length. With the 100 h.p. Oberursel U I rotary engine, the D.II was a considerably lighter machine and in consequence more maneuverable, although its speed and climb performance showed no great improvement.
   The fuselage was closely akin to that of the E type monoplanes; of welded steel-tube frame braced in all bays with stranded cables to form a rigid box girder, the slab-sides tapering to a horizontal knife-edge. The decking forward of the cockpit was rounded to the same radius as the horseshoe shaped cowl, which component had short extension cowlings fitted to its trailing edge blending into the fuselage sides. The same style of comma rudder and trapezoidal tailplane, with no fixed fin surfaces, as used on the E types, was preserved.
   Again of two-bay layout, the wing structure was nearly identical to that of the D.I, being only slightly reduced in span. Wing warping was still retained as the method of lateral control. Built of two box-spars, the wings were necessarily a flexible structure, although a determined effort to preserve a reasonable wing section was made by the introduction of no less than three false nose ribs between each main rib.
   The undercarriage raked forward considerably from the lower wing leading-edge point and gave the aircraft a peculiar attitude when on the ground; it was made up of three steel tubes in each vee, two forward and one aft. The usual straight-through axle was mounted between the two forward tubes which allowed it upward movement on the elastic-cord shock absorbers when they were under tension. The usual pylon-type combined tailskid and rudder anchorage was welded at the extreme rear.


Description: Single-seat fighting scout
Manufacturer: Fokker Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. (Fok)
   D.II
Power Plant: 100 h.p. Oberursel U.I
   9 cylinder rotary engine
Dimensions:
   Span 8.75 m. (28 ft. 8 1/2 in.)
   Length 6.4 m. (21 ft. )
   Height 2.55 m. (8 ft. 4 3/8 in.)
   Area 18 sq.m. (194 sq.ft.)
Weights:
   Empty 384 kg. (844.8 lb.)
   Loaded 576 kg. (1,267.2 lb.)
Performance:
   Max speed 150 km.h. (93.75 m.p.h.)
   climb to
   1,000 m. 4 min.
   4,000 m. 24 min.
   Duration 1 1/2 hr.
Armament: One fixed Spandau machine-gun
   synchronized to fire
   through airscrew


Fokker M 17 z (versuchs)
   An experimental version of the D II with additional stringers rounding out fuselage lines and large spinner fitted. Engine, 100 h.p. Oberursel U I.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


FOKKER D II (M 17) Germany

   Evolved in parallel with the M16 by Kreutzer, the M17 single-seat fighter was, in its original form, an unstaggered single-bay equi-span biplane with an inordinately deep fuselage affording extremely limited view from the cockpit. The fuselage decking was subsequently cut down to improve all-round vision from the cockpit and stagger was applied to the wings. The M17 was flown with both the 80 hp seven-cylinder Oberursel U O and 100 hp nine-cylinder Oberursel I rotaries, and in both Einstielig (single-bay) and Zweistielig (two-bay) configurations. Twenty of the 80 hp single-bay M 17s were supplied to the Austro-Hungarian Luftfahrttruppen and assigned the designation B II, a further 42 being built by the MAG (Magyar Altalanos Gepgyar). Some of these were fitted with a single unsynchronised Schwarzlose machine gun above the upper wing, but most were unarmed and assigned to the training role. Austro-Hungarian acceptances commenced in April 1916. The two-bay M 17 with the higher-powered U I engine was adopted by Germany's Fliegertruppen as the D II, this type having a single synchronised Maxim LMG 08/15 machine gun. It began arriving at the Front in July-August 1916, 181 being delivered. One example was supplied for evaluation to the Marine-Landflieger. The designations "M 17Z" and "M 17E" were purely post-World War I attributions. The following data relate to the D II.

Max speed, 93 mph (150km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1 000m), 4.0 min.
Range, 124 mis (200 km).
Empty weight, 846 lb (384 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,268 lb (575 kg).
Span, 28 ft 8 1/2 in (8,75 m).
Length, 20 ft 11 7/8 in (6,40 m).
Height, 8 ft 4 1/3 in (2,55 m).
Wing area, 193.76 sq ft (18,00 m2).


E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918


01. - 010. Flugzeuge ausländischer Produktion (Самолеты иностранного производства)
03.55 - 03.60 Fokker B.II (Type M 17 E /2) Ob/Gn 100
03.61 - 03.83 Fokker B.II (Type M 17) Ob/Gn 80


Журнал Flight


Flight, July 12, 1917.

SOME 1917 TYPE GERMAN AEROPLANES.

The Fokker Chaser Biplane.

   Two types of this machine have been turned out by the Fokker firm, one with a 100 h.p. rotary engine (Oberursel) and the other with a 175 h.p. Mercedes. No specimens of these machines have been captured - at least, not in a condition to provide much information - but photographs of one which landed in Switzerland give a good idea of the general arrangement. Both wings, upper and lower, are of equal dimensions as regards span and chord (29 ft. 6 ins. and 4 ft. 10 ins. respectively). There is neither dihedral angle nor sweepback, but a fairly large stagger. The gap is small, bringing the top plane down almost to the upper longerons of the body. A low cabane of the Nieuport type connects the upper plane and the body. The centre section of the upper wing is raised above the rest of the plane so as to give the pilot a better view and facilitate - getting into or out of the cockpit.
   As in the Halberstadt, there are two pairs of inter-plane struts on each side, these consisting of circular section steel tubes streamlined with wood fairings. Lateral balance is maintained, not by means of ailerons as in practically all modern biplanes, but by the now obsolete method of warping the wings, the bracing being arranged accordingly.
   The body is of the Morane type, of hexagonal section, with a slight turtle back, flattening out towards the rear. The rotary engine is overhung and partly covered in by an aluminium cowl. Above this and slightly to the right is mounted the synchronised machine gun. Occasionally two machine guns are carried, each slightly outward from the centre of the body.

J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Fokker D.II 540/16 flown by Lt.dR. Otto Kissenberth at KEK (Kampfeinsitzer-Kommando - single-seat fighter detachment) Ensisheim, 12 October 1916. On that day Kissenberth intercepted the famous Oberndorf raid, a combined British and French bombing raid on the German city of Oberndorf, and scored his first three victories in this machine. It has a three-color camouflage scheme that was applied, or at least modified, at KEK Ensisheim. Kissenberth went on to score 20 victories and was awarded the Pour le Merite.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Фоккер D.II, пилот - лейтенант О.Киссенберг, сентябрь 1916г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" D.II германских ВВС, 1916г.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Fokker B.II (M 17Z)
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Fokker B.II
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The single-bay first prototype of the Kreutzer-designed M17 progenitor of the D II
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D.II prototype the M.17E powered by a 80-hp Oberursel U.0 rotary engine
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
Fokker in the cockpit of the M.17E. In this photograph the aircraft has a modified undercarriage with double forward legs.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
The revised single-bay M 17 prototype, Factory No. 499, that was supplied to the Austro-Hungarians as the B II. February-March 1916
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
Modified Fokker M.17E with experimental armament, apparently for Austria.
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
The same, or a similar, Fokker M.17E, believed to be in Austrian service.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Опытный экземпляр "Фоккера" с уменьшенным размахом крыльев и одностоечной бипланной коробкой.
The only single-bay Fokker D.II (M 17) to see service in Germany was operated by the German navy under the designation LF 238, with a seven-cylinder 80-hp Oberursel.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Above is a rare flying shot of the Austro-Hungarian B III unarmed version.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The 80 hp single-bay production D II.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Fokker B.II, "Baby-Fokker", Flugzeugnummer 03.77, Wiener Neustadt, Fliegerersatzkompanie 8, Flugzeugführer Zgsf Adolf Kind
Fokker B.II, "Baby-Fokker", самолет № 03.77, Винер-Нойштадт, рота замены пилотов 8, пилот Zgsf Адольф Кинд
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
Fokker M.17E wearing Austrian serial number 03.80.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Fokker B.II, Flugzeugnummer 03.82
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
Although this M.17E is here represented as the 500th Fokker aeroplane, this is doubtful. Some records indicate that the Factory No. 500 belonged to a Fok. E.II accepted on March 20, 1916. In the group of men, Kreutzer is to the left of the engine, Platz to the right. Next to Platz is de Waal. This M.17E had a 100-h.p. Oberursel.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This M17 was fitted with twin-bay wings and wing-warping control.
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
The Fokker M.17Z.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Опытный экземпляр "Фоккера" D.II без вооружения.
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
An early production Fok. D.II with warping wings (Fokker M.17ZF).
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Post-September 1916 built Fokker D.II 231/16.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D II 231/16.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.II 533/16 of the second production batch.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.II 533/16's cockpit.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Dessloch's Fokker D.II 536/16 shortly after landing.
J.Herris - Otto, AGO and BFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Ago C.I is in the right background with a Fokker D.II in the foreground. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.II 540/16
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.II 540/16
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.II 543/16
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Max Holtzem with Fokker D.II 547/16
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.II 559/16 secured for transport at the Fokker factory.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.II with Vizefeldwebel R Scholz - numbers on the wing strut read Fok. 1140.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.II 1505/16
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.II 1512/16 attached to Flieger Ersatz Abteilung 10 in Boblingen.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.II 1533/16 and a Roland C.II 3652/16 share a hangar.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Серийный "Фоккер" D.II с синхронным пулеметом LMG 08/15.
Fokker D.II 1535/16 armed with a Spandau LMG 08/15 gun.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Nose section of the Fokker D.II 1537/16 stripped away to expose the fuel tank, the 100-hp Oberursel U.I engine and the cabane structure,
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pilot with Fokker D.II 1561/16
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pilot with Fokker D.II 1561/16
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Close-up of the tail skid support on Fokker D.II 1572/16
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Oil from the 100hp Oberursel rotary has effectively removed a large area of camouflage dope from Fokker D.II 2386/16.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.II 2387/16 with 'Dedi' Pluschow aboard.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Another aspect of 'Dedi' Pluschow's D.II 2387/16.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The two-bay D II of the Fliegertruppen that arrived at the Front during the late summer of 1916.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Leutnant Otto Kissenberth of Feld-Flieger Abteilung 9b in his Fokker D.II.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Leutnant Otto Kissenberth of Feld-Flieger Abteilung 9b in his Fokker D.II.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Leutnant Otto Kissenberth in his Fokker D.II.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Leutnant Otto Kissenberth in his Fokker D.II.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Leutnant Otto Kissenberth in his Fokker D.II.
A rare air-to-air photograph of a Fokker D II biplane scout of 1916.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The period between the end of 1915 and the summer of 1917 can be seen as one of the low points in the fortunes of Fokker, the man and his company. This largely fallow time saw Fokker and his designers turn to biplane fighter designs, carrying the military designations D I to D V. As sometimes happens, the second of these, the rotary-powered Fokker D II was to emerge ahead of the in-line engined D I, of which only 25 were produced. Initially appearing at the front in the early spring of 1916, the D II was powered by a 100hp Oberursal U I. Armed with a single 7.92mm Spandau, the D II was woefully lacking in verve and agility, production being switched to the more powerful D III after only 61 examples of the D II had been built.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.II with a ‘shark mouth’ painted cowling. The ‘Manx Legs’ on the wheel discs must have looked comical when in motion during take off and landing.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Idflieg test pilot Emil Wendler posing with an unarmed Fokker D.II at Adlershof.
J.Herris, J.Scott - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2: Eindeckers /Centennial Perspective/
The Fokker factory flightline with original annotations by Peter M. Grosz.
J.Herris, J.Scott - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2: Eindeckers /Centennial Perspective/
Fokker E.IV 176/16 is seen on the field at Schwerin-Gorries, in between the cellon-covered Fok. E.III 369/16 and a Fok. D.II. This E.IV was delivered from the factory on 31 May 1916 and was on-strength with Abwehrkommando Nord. Max Mulzer was known to have used this aircraft on 2 July during his brief assignment to that unit. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.II and a Fokker D.II share an airfield.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.II of Kest 4b shares an airfield with a Fokker D.II in the background.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This photo of Kest 4b at Freiburg shows a first-generation Fokker E.IV fighter at left. Second-generation Fokker D.IIs are at the far end of the second row and the two closest fighters in the third row. Two second-generation Fokker D.III fighters are nearest the camera in the middle row. By far the best aircraft in the photo is the Halberstadt fighter furthest from the camera in the third row. The early Fokker biplane fighters were inferior to the Halberstadt and Albatros biplane fighters and were obsolescent on the Western Front. 1917 was a tough year for Fokker, who in January 1917 was directed to build 200 AEG C.IV two-seat trainers instead of his own designs.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Fokker B.II, Type M 17 E/2. Flugzeugnummer 03.58
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
Typical German wing ribs. From top to bottom: A.E.G., Ago, L.T.G., L.F.G., Fok. D.II, and L.V.G.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
Fokker M.17E
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
Fokker M.17E
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The standard two-bay production D II.
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
Fokker D.II
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Fokker D.II
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Fokker D.II/D.III