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Fokker D.II

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Истребитель

Fokker - D.I/D.IV - 1916 - Германия<– –>Fokker - D.III - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"ФОККЕР" D.II / FOKKER D.II

  Параллельно с созданием истребителя-биплана с двигателем водяного охлаждения на фирме "Фоккер Флюгцойгверк" велись работы по истребителю аналогичной схемы, оснащенному ротативным мотором. Проект под индексом M.19 вел Мартин Кройцер, а после его гибели - новый главный конструктор фирмы Рейнольд Платц.
  Прототип M.19 со 100-сильным двигателем "Оберурсель" U.I впервые поднялся в воздух в августе 1916 г. За исключением силовой установки, он был идентичен "Фоккеру" D.I, но летные данные этой более легкой машины оказались выше. В сентябре самолет запустили в серию под индексом D.II, построив 120 экземпляров.
  В конце 1916-начале 1917 года машина активно применялась на западном фронте, на ней летали многие известные немецкие асы. Истребитель также выпускался по лицензии венгерской фирмой MAG и поступал на вооружение австро-венгерских ВВС.
  
  
МОДИФИКАЦИИ
  
  D.II: двигатель "Оберурсель" UI, 110 л.с., вооружение 1 синхр. LMG 08/15.
  

  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
   D.II
  Размах, м 8,75
  Длина, м 6,29
  Сухой вес, кг 425
  Взлетный вес, кг 575
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 150
  Время подъема на высоту
   2000 м, мин.сек 7,00
  Потолок, м 4000


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Fokker M 17 E/1
  This single example of the M 17 E/1 was built at the end of 1915. The configuration is similar to that of the M 16 E, although this aircraft was a single-seater. The "crash pylon" structure to prevent the pilot being decapitated in a nose-over landing may be noted, also the cutting away of the cockpit sides to improve visibility. Power unit was 100 h.p. Oberursel U I. Armament, one Spandau machine-gun.

Fokker M 17 E/2
  With the fuselage modified to incorporate a normal centre-section strut system, the M 17 E/2 was a more orthodox-looking aeroplane. Tail surfaces were later revised to the characteristic comma-rudder profile, and in this guise a few machines were used by Austro-Hungarians in an unarmed scouting capacity, designated B III. The M 17 Z became the D II. Engine, 80 h.p. Oberursel U O. Armament, one Spandau machine-gun.


Fokker D.II

  Although apparently later than the D.I (M 18z) in order of factory numerical sequence, the Fokker D.II would in fact appear to have preceded it, having been evolved from the M 17z prototype, from which it differed mainly in the rudder shape.
  Appearance of the D.II during 1916 was before the establishment of the Jagdstaffeln, and it was issued to the Fl. Aht. units as a replacement for the E.II and E.III monoplanes used in escort and protection duties, and as such did not form the exclusive equipment of any unit. Even later in the summer of that year, when the Jastas came into being, Fokker D.IIs, and the subsequent D.III, together with Halberstadt D.II and D.III, only formed partial equipment of the first units to be formed.
  The airframe of the D.II was very similar to that of the D.I, being slightly smaller in span but greater in length. With the 100 h.p. Oberursel U I rotary engine, the D.II was a considerably lighter machine and in consequence more maneuverable, although its speed and climb performance showed no great improvement.
  The fuselage was closely akin to that of the E type monoplanes; of welded steel-tube frame braced in all bays with stranded cables to form a rigid box girder, the slab-sides tapering to a horizontal knife-edge. The decking forward of the cockpit was rounded to the same radius as the horseshoe shaped cowl, which component had short extension cowlings fitted to its trailing edge blending into the fuselage sides. The same style of comma rudder and trapezoidal tailplane, with no fixed fin surfaces, as used on the E types, was preserved.
  Again of two-bay layout, the wing structure was nearly identical to that of the D.I, being only slightly reduced in span. Wing warping was still retained as the method of lateral control. Built of two box-spars, the wings were necessarily a flexible structure, although a determined effort to preserve a reasonable wing section was made by the introduction of no less than three false nose ribs between each main rib.
  The undercarriage raked forward considerably from the lower wing leading-edge point and gave the aircraft a peculiar attitude when on the ground; it was made up of three steel tubes in each vee, two forward and one aft. The usual straight-through axle was mounted between the two forward tubes which allowed it upward movement on the elastic-cord shock absorbers when they were under tension. The usual pylon-type combined tailskid and rudder anchorage was welded at the extreme rear.


Description: Single-seat fighting scout
Manufacturer: Fokker Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. (Fok)
   D.II
Power Plant: 100 h.p. Oberursel U.I
   9 cylinder rotary engine
Dimensions:
   Span 8.75 m. (28 ft. 8 1/2 in.)
   Length 6.4 m. (21 ft. )
   Height 2.55 m. (8 ft. 4 3/8 in.)
   Area 18 sq.m. (194 sq.ft.)
Weights:
   Empty 384 kg. (844.8 lb.)
   Loaded 576 kg. (1,267.2 lb.)
Performance:
   Max speed 150 km.h. (93.75 m.p.h.)
   climb to
   1,000 m. 4 min.
   4,000 m. 24 min.
   Duration 1 1/2 hr.
Armament: One fixed Spandau machine-gun
   synchronized to fire
   through airscrew


Fokker M 17 z (versuchs)
  An experimental version of the D II with additional stringers rounding out fuselage lines and large spinner fitted. Engine, 100 h.p. Oberursel U I.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


FOKKER D II (M 17) Germany

  Evolved in parallel with the M16 by Kreutzer, the M17 single-seat fighter was, in its original form, an unstaggered single-bay equi-span biplane with an inordinately deep fuselage affording extremely limited view from the cockpit. The fuselage decking was subsequently cut down to improve all-round vision from the cockpit and stagger was applied to the wings. The M17 was flown with both the 80 hp seven-cylinder Oberursel U O and 100 hp nine-cylinder Oberursel I rotaries, and in both Einstielig (single-bay) and Zweistielig (two-bay) configurations. Twenty of the 80 hp single-bay M 17s were supplied to the Austro-Hungarian Luftfahrttruppen and assigned the designation B II, a further 42 being built by the MAG (Magyar Altalanos Gepgyar). Some of these were fitted with a single unsynchronised Schwarzlose machine gun above the upper wing, but most were unarmed and assigned to the training role. Austro-Hungarian acceptances commenced in April 1916. The two-bay M 17 with the higher-powered U I engine was adopted by Germany's Fliegertruppen as the D II, this type having a single synchronised Maxim LMG 08/15 machine gun. It began arriving at the Front in July-August 1916, 181 being delivered. One example was supplied for evaluation to the Marine-Landflieger. The designations "M 17Z" and "M 17E" were purely post-World War I attributions. The following data relate to the D II.

Max speed, 93 mph (150km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1 000m), 4.0 min.
Range, 124 mis (200 km).
Empty weight, 846 lb (384 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,268 lb (575 kg).
Span, 28 ft 8 1/2 in (8,75 m).
Length, 20 ft 11 7/8 in (6,40 m).
Height, 8 ft 4 1/3 in (2,55 m).
Wing area, 193.76 sq ft (18,00 m2).


Журнал Flight


Flight, July 12, 1917.

SOME 1917 TYPE GERMAN AEROPLANES.

The Fokker Chaser Biplane.

  Two types of this machine have been turned out by the Fokker firm, one with a 100 h.p. rotary engine (Oberursel) and the other with a 175 h.p. Mercedes. No specimens of these machines have been captured - at least, not in a condition to provide much information - but photographs of one which landed in Switzerland give a good idea of the general arrangement. Both wings, upper and lower, are of equal dimensions as regards span and chord (29 ft. 6 ins. and 4 ft. 10 ins. respectively). There is neither dihedral angle nor sweepback, but a fairly large stagger. The gap is small, bringing the top plane down almost to the upper longerons of the body. A low cabane of the Nieuport type connects the upper plane and the body. The centre section of the upper wing is raised above the rest of the plane so as to give the pilot a better view and facilitate - getting into or out of the cockpit.
  As in the Halberstadt, there are two pairs of inter-plane struts on each side, these consisting of circular section steel tubes streamlined with wood fairings. Lateral balance is maintained, not by means of ailerons as in practically all modern biplanes, but by the now obsolete method of warping the wings, the bracing being arranged accordingly.
  The body is of the Morane type, of hexagonal section, with a slight turtle back, flattening out towards the rear. The rotary engine is overhung and partly covered in by an aluminium cowl. Above this and slightly to the right is mounted the synchronised machine gun. Occasionally two machine guns are carried, each slightly outward from the centre of the body.

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Фоккер D.II, пилот - лейтенант О.Киссенберг, сентябрь 1916г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" D.II германских ВВС, 1916г.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The single-bay first prototype of the Kreutzer-designed M17 progenitor of the D II
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker M 17 E/1
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
The revised single-bay M 17 prototype that was supplied to the Austro-Hungarians as the B II
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Above is a rare flying shot of the Austro-Hungarian B III unarmed version.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The 80 hp single-bay production D II.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.II
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D II.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Опытный экземпляр "Фоккера" D.II без вооружения.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Серийный "Фоккер" D.II с синхронным пулеметом LMG 08/15.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The two-bay D II of the Fliegertruppen that arrived at the Front during the late summer of 1916.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
A rare air-to-air photograph of a Fokker D II biplane scout of 1916.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The period between the end of 1915 and the summer of 1917 can be seen as one of the low points in the fortunes of Fokker, the man and his company. This largely fallow time saw Fokker and his designers turn to biplane fighter designs, carrying the military designations D I to D V. As sometimes happens, the second of these, the rotary-powered Fokker D II was to emerge ahead of the in-line engined D I, of which only 25 were produced. Initially appearing at the front in the early spring of 1916, the D II was powered by a 100hp Oberursal U I. Armed with a single 7.92mm Spandau, the D II was woefully lacking in verve and agility, production being switched to the more powerful D III after only 61 examples of the D II had been built.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Опытный экземпляр "Фоккера" с уменьшенным размахом крыльев и одностоечной бипланной коробкой.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker M 17 z (versuchs) An experimental version of the D II with additional stringers rounding out fuselage lines and large spinner fitted. Engine, 100 h.p. Oberursel U I.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The standard two-bay production D II.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Fokker D.II
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Fokker D.II/D.III