Самолеты (сортировка по:)
Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Fokker D.I/D.IV

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Истребитель

Fokker - W 4 - 1915 - Германия<– –>Fokker - D.II - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"ФОККЕР" D.I/D.IV / FOKKER D.I/D.IV
  
  Первый истребитель Фоккера бипланной схемы - "Фоккер" D.I появился в июне 1916 г. Фактическим создателем машины был летчик и инженер Мартин Кройцер, погибший при испытании ее прототипа с фабричным обозначением M.18.
  Самолет представлял собой двухстоечный биплан смешанной конструкции с полотняной обшивкой. Конструкция фюзеляжа и оперения идентична "Фоккеру" E.IV, но на некоторых машинах, кроме руля поворота, монтировали еще и киль. Крылья деревянные, двухлонжеронные с мягкой задней кромкой из проволоки. Элероны отсутствовали, а управление по крену, как и у монопланов Фоккера, осуществлялось перекосом крыльев ("гошированием").
  Двигатель - рядный "Мерседес" D.II водяного охлаждения мощностью 120 л.с. Радиаторы укреплены по бортам фюзеляжа. Вооружение - один синхронный пулемет LMG 08.
  Летные данные машины оказались весьма посредственными, поэтому сделали всего 25 экземпляров, восемь из которых отправили в Турцию. Остальные поступили во 2-ю истребительную эскадрилью (Jasta 2), вызвав негативные оценки ее пилотов.
  Вскоре был разработан усовершенствованный вариант - "Фоккер" D.IV, оснащенный 160-сильным мотором "Мерседес" D.III (или 150-сильным "Бенцем" Bz-III) и вооруженный двумя пулеметами. Размах крыльев был увеличен, а на верхней плоскости появились элероны с роговой аэродинамической компенсацией.
  D.IV был создан практически одновременно с "Альбатросом" D.I, однако машина Фоккера во многом проигрывала своему конкуренту за счет худшей аэродинамики. В результате "Альбатрос" стал в Германии основным фронтовым истребителм, a D.IV построили в количестве всего 33 экземпляров. Несколько из них отправили в Австро-Венгрию, еще семь или восемь штук купила Швеция.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
   D.I D.IV
Размах, м 9,05 9,70
Длина, м 6,3 6,3
Площадь крыльев, м2 20,0 21,0
Сухой вес, кг 463 606
Взлетный вес, кг 671 840
Скорость макс, км/ч 145 160
Время набора высоты
   1000 м, мин. 3,5 3,0
Потолок, м 4300 5000


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Fokker M 16 E
  A single-bay two-seater of 1915 with fuselage completely filling gap. Only one aircraft built, powered with 120 h.p. Mercedes D II. The somewhat lengthy wingtip skids are unusual.

Fokker M 16 Z
  A larger and more powerful aircraft, the two-bay M 16 Z was almost a complete re-design from the M 16 E. The first version was fitted with 160 h.p. Mercedes engine, but a small production order of thirty aircraft for the Austro-Hungarians had the 200 h.p. Austro-Daimler motor installed. These machines also dispensed with the somewhat outdated warp system of lateral control and had overhung balanced ailerons. They were armed with one Schwarzlose for the observer and a similar gun firing forward for the pilot.

Fokker M 18 z
  Prototype of machine which, after modification of tail surfaces, became the D I. Engine, 120 h.p. Mercedes D II.


Fokker D I and IV

  With the eclipse of the E type monoplanes, the Fokker establishment brought forth its D I biplane in the summer of 1916. Evolved from a series of prototypes designed by Martin Kreutzer, it was an uninspired and singularly mediocre aeroplane and only passed into comparatively limited production, because little else was available to replace the outdated E III on the Western Front.
  Developed from the M 18 prototypes, the D I was the production version of the M 18z, the "z" indicating zweistielig (i.e. two-strutter, or two-bay). Being a two-bay biplane spanning some 30 ft., with only a 120 h.p. Mercedes D II engine, it was decidedly under-powered as a single-seat fighting machine. However, due largely to lack of any stiff opposition, it managed to give a reasonable account of itself, sufficient at least to impress the authorities (reinforced no doubt by Fokker's persuasive volubility) to place production orders for the type.
  On the Western Front the D I soon began to encounter doughtier opponents, and could not compete in manoeuvrability and climb with the lighter and more nimble rotary-engined Nieuports the Allies were bringing into use. Hence it soon fell into disrepute with the pilots who had to fly it, and it was relegated to the Eastern Front and to non-operational duties. Some machines were sold to the Austro-Hungarian authorities. In a final endeavour to extract the utmost use from the type, Fokker slightly modified and enlarged it and re-engined it with the 160 h.p. Mercedes D III, in which guise it was designated D IV (M 21). Performance increase, however, was only marginal, and the engines could be - and were - put to much better use by the Albatros firm in their D I type.
  There was nothing unconventional about the D I; it was an orthodox two-bay biplane. The fuselage followed the same style of welded steel-tube construction as in the E type monoplanes, braced in all planes with stranded cables to form a rigid-braced box-girder structure. The nose section had to be completely re-worked to accommodate the six-cylinder in-line motor, which was quite neatly enclosed within somewhat bulbous metal panels, with just the fore part of the cylinder block remaining exposed, which facilitated servicing. The cooling system consisted of two long, narrow, "honey-combed" radiator boxes on either side of the nose, adjacent to the leading edge of the wings. Aft of this point the fuselage was fabric covered and tapered to a horizontal knife-edge. Although slightly different in size and area, the complete empennage was identical to that of the E types in both profile and proportion: again there were no fixed fin surfaces.
  The wings were of straightforward parallel-chord layout, of equal span and with a slight angular rake to the tips. The upper wing was sited quite close to the fuselage on short steel-tube centre-section struts which were welded direct to the longerons. A peculiar feature on the centre-section was the raising of the line of the leading edge. A large angular cut-out in the trailing edge, together with the wing at approximately eye level, gave the pilot an excellent field of forward and upward vision. Interplane struts were of circular steel tube faired off with wooden fairings: the middle of the inboard rear struts was "notched out" to allow passage of the warp control wires, which passed over pulleys on the rear centre-section struts and so down to the control stick.
  The undercarriage was a conventional vee-type chassis of steel tube with wooden fairings, and sprung with elastic shock cord. The wooden tailskid was hinged to an inverted tubular pylon which also served as a pivot anchorage for the lower extremity of the rudder.
  With the installation of the 160 h.p. Mercedes D III power plant and a slight increase in overall dimensions, the D IV had an improved performance and the level speed increased slightly, but it still lacked the manoeuvrability expected of a fighter. As the Albatros D types became available in increasing numbers, the Fokker D Is and IVs lapsed into the obscurity of non-operational duties with the Fliegerschulen (Flying Schools). Total production of D I was twenty-live and of D IV thirty-three.
  With the formation of the Jagdstaffeln in the summer of 1916 the majority were inevitably equipped with a heterogeneous collection of single-seaters transferred from the escort duties with the various Fl. Abt. units. One such to have some Fokker biplanes on its establishment was Jasta 2 and Leut. Grafe from this unit was surprised in a D I by Capt. Albert Ball, V.C., on 21st September 1916, when he closed with it among clouds some 5,000 ft. over the Bapaume Cambrai road. He was able to approach, apparently completely unobserved, and put in an attack from below at exceedingly close range. He plainly saw his tracers entering the Fokker in the region underneath the engine and pilot's seat, and the machine disappeared into the clouds in a side-slipping dive. The subsequent crash was not observed, and Capt. Ball was not credited with this victory. However, it was eventually established that the Fokker did crash about a kilometre east of Bapaume and that the pilot was killed.

TECHNICAL DATA
  Description: Single-seat fighting scout.
  Manufacturer: Fokker Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. (Fok.).
  Power Plant:
   One 120 h.p. Mercedes D II 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engine (D I).
   One 160 h.p. Mercedes D III 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engine (D IV).
  Dimensions:
   Span, 9.05 m. (29 ft. 8 3/8 in.). Length, 5.7 m. (18 ft. 8 1/2 in.). Height, 2.25 m. (7 ft. 4 5/8 in.). Area, 22 sq.m. (238 sq.ft.). ( D.I.)
   Span, 9.7 m. (31 ft. 10 in.). Length, 6.3 m. (20 ft. 8 in.). Height. 2.45 m. (8 ft. 0 1/2 in.). Area, 21 sq.m. (227 sq.ft.). (D IV.)
  Weights:
   Empty, 463 kg. (1,019 lb.). Loaded, 671 kg. (1,476 lb.). D I.
   Empty, 606 kg. (1,333 lb.). Loaded, 841 kg. (1,850 lb.), D IV.
  Performance: Maximum speed, 150 km.hr. (93-75 m.p.h.), D I; 160 km.hr. (100 m.p.h.), D IV. Initial climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 5 min., D I; 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 3 min., D IV. Duration, 1 1/2 hr.
  Armament:
   D I one fixed Spandau machine-gun forward.
   D IV two fixed Spandau machine-guns forward. (Usually not more than one gun was fitted to obtain improved performance.)


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


FOKKER M 16 Germany

  A tandem two-seat fighter designed by Martin Kreutzer primarily for the Austro-Hungarian Luftfahrttruppen, the M 16 was an angular two-bay equi-span unstaggered biplane with a welded steel-tube fuselage, wooden wings and fabric skinning. It was initially powered by a 160 hp Mercedes D III six-cylinder water-cooled engine and utilised wing warping for lateral control. It was subsequently fitted with a 200 hp Austro-Daimler six-cylinder water-cooled engine, the means of lateral control being changed from wing warping to large ailerons with overhanging horn balances on the upper wing. The M 16 was shipped to the Luftfahrttruppen for evaluation in April 1916, and was fitted with a single synchronised Schwarzlose machine gun offset to port and another Schwarzlose machine gun on a flexible mount in the rear cockpit. Although an order for 26 aircraft was placed by the Austro-Hungarian service, no production of the M 16 was undertaken. The designations ‘‘M 16E", "M 16Z”
and ‘‘M 16ZK” were subsequently ascribed to this aircraft to signify Einstielig (single-strutted or singlebay), Zweistielig (two-bay) and Klappenverwindung (flap control - ailerons as opposed to wing warping) but were not assigned contemporaneously, being of post-World War I origin. No specification for the M 16 two- seat fighter has apparently survived.


FOKKER D I (M 18) Germany

  A development of the M17, the M18 single-seat fighter was, in initial prototype form, frequently referred to erroneously by works of reference as the "M 16E". It was a similar unstaggered single-bay equi-span biplane with the upper fuselage contour parallel with the upper wing, but differing essentially in having a 100 hp Mercedes D I six-cylinder water-cooled engine. Unofficially dubbed the Karausche (Crucian Carp), the M 18 prototype underwent modifications similar to those applied to the M 17 (ie, cut-down fuselage decking and wing stagger), and was also flown in twin-bay configuration. It was ordered into production in twin-bay form as the D I with a 120 hp Mercedes D II engine and an armament of a single synchronised LMG 08/15 machine gun. Like the D II, the D I began to arrive at the Front in July-August 1916, 90 being built for the German Fliegertruppen, six for the Marine-Landflieger and 16 for the Austro-Hungarian Luftfahrttruppen by which the fighter was designated B III. In addition, MAG (Magyar Altalanos Gepgyar) in Hungary built eight. One of those supplied to the Austro-Hungarians was experimentally fitted with a 160 hp Mercedes D III engine and had ailerons in place of wing warping for lateral control. Another experimental model had sweptback long-span wings.

Max speed, 93 mph (105 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1000 m), 5.0 min.
Endurance, 1.5 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,020 lb (463 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,477 lb (670 kg).
Span 29 ft 8 1/4 in (9,05 m).
Length, 20 ft 7 9/10 in (6,30 m).
Height, 8 ft 4 1/3 in (2,55 m).
Wing area, 215.28 sqft (20,00 m2).


FOKKER D IV (M 21) Germany

  A contemporary of the M 19 and the last of the Fokker fighters to be ascribed solely to Martin Kreutzer, the M 21 was, to all intents and purposes, the D I (M18) with twin-gun armament and the 160 hp Mercedes D III six-cylinder water-cooled engine. The M 21 was assigned the service designation D IV and two were at the Front on 31 August 1916, but saw no combat service. The performance of the D IV proved disappointing by comparison with contemporary types and the Idflieg considered that supplies of the 160 hp Mercedes should be assigned to other types. Production was, in consequence, restricted to 40 aircraft for the Fliegertruppen, one being experimentally fitted with a refined engine cowling and large propeller spinner. In addition, four D IVs were built for Sweden where they arrived in March 1918.

Max speed, 99 mph (160 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1 000 m), 3.0 min.
Range, 137 mis (220 km).
Empty weight, 1,336 lb (606 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,852 lb (840 kg).
Span, 31 ft 9 1/10 in (9,70 m).
Length, 20 ft 7 8/10 in (6,30 m).
Height, 9 ft 0 1/4 in (2,75 m).
Wing area, 226.05 sqft (21,00 m2).

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Фоккер D.I (малосерийная машина, несколько экземпляров состояло на вооружении австрийских ВВС), пилот - гауптман Р.Стоявлевич.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" D.I турецких ВВС, 1917г.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The M16 in its original form with wing warping and a 160 hp Mercedes D III engine.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker M 16 E
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The M16 in the definitive form in which it was evaluated by the Luftfahrttruppen of Austria-Hungary in the spring of 1916.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker M 16 Z
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker M 18 z
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker M16E of 1915. To be historically accurate it is the Fokker M16 Karausche. The E (= Einsteilig) is a spurious designation added after WW1. You know it, there was also a two-bay Fokker M16, which got the spurious designation M16Z.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Прототипом D I был опытный самолет М18. Его конструктивной "изюминкой" было установленное на фюзеляже верхнее крыло. На фотографии - Э. Фоккер, обычно выполнявший первый полет при испытаниях нового самолета.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The first prototype of the M18, known unofficially as the "Karausche" (Crucian Carp).
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.I
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Fokker D.I
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
An early production D I
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D I (serial 190/16).
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Один из серийных "фоккеров" D.I. В отличие от большинства ранних истребителей Фоккера, эта машина имеет развитый киль.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The M 21 prototype was the last Fokker fighter design ascribed solely to Martin Kreutzer.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D IV.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.IV
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" D.IV с двигателем "Мерседес" на фронтовом аэродроме, 1917 г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" D.IV c мотором "Бенц".
The picture shows one of the four Fokker D.IV machines acquired by Sweden in 1917 (less engines and armament). When they were delivered the machines were hidden in a hangar at Stockholm aerodrome and were never flown. The precious engines were never installed, but used for other purposes. Even the national colours of Sweden were not painted on. These aircraft were payed for by public subscription, and were intended for the air-defence of the Swedish capital. A contract was signed with Fokker on 24 January 1917, for the delivery of 4 DIV Doppeldecker neuesten Typs. The aircraft were not delivered until March 1918, and were then placed in a hangar and never flown. The aircraft were not assigned to the Swedish Flying Corps, due to unknown bureaucratic reasons. Permission to fly the aircraft were not given until 1920, but by then, more modern aircraft were available in abundance.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The M16 in the definitive form in which it was evaluated by the Luftfahrttruppen of Austria-Hungary in the spring of 1916.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A general arrangement drawing of the standard production two-bay DI issued to the Fliegertruppen.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The D IV in standard production form.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" D.IV