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Fokker D.V

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Истребитель

Fokker - D.III - 1916 - Германия<– –>Fokker - V1 / V2 / V3 - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


Первой самостоятельной разработкой талантливого немецкого авиаконструктора Рейнольда Платца на фирме "Фоккер" стал истребитель под заводским обозначением М.22. Он продолжал линию развития бипланов с ротативными моторами D.II и D.III, отличаясь от них значительно улучшенной аэродинамикой.
Фюзеляж новой машины приобрел "граненое" сечение с более плавным переходом от круглого капота к бортам. Мотор полностью закапотирован, а на винт установлен полукруглый кок.
Самолет по размерам был аналогичен D II, но имел одностоечную коробку крыльев. Кроме того, с целью улучшения обзора передней полусферы верхнее крыло было вынесено вперед и имело ярко выраженную стреловидность. Двигатель Оберурсель U.1 был закрыт капотом и коком винта по типу французского истребителя Ньюпор 17. Вооружение включало один пулемет "Шпандау", хотя иногда устанавливались и два.
В сентябре 1916 года самолет успешно прошел испытания и был принят на вооружение под обозначением "Фоккер" D.V. Истребитель выпускался серийно и до конца следующего года успешно применялся в немецких фронтовых эскадрильях западного и восточного фронтов. Из-за недостаточно мощного двигателя самолет не получил широкого распространения, поскольку к моменту его поступления в авиачасти уже существовали машины, обладавшие более высокими летными характеристиками и более мощным двухпулеметным вооружением.
Всего в конце 1916-го и первой в половине 1917 года построено по разным данным от 216 до 300 экземпляров D.V.
В 1918 году уцелевшие "пятерки" перевели в летные школы и учебные подразделения, где они прослужили до полного физического износа. В качестве учебно-тренировочного истребителя самолет зарекомендовал себя весьма положительно.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
Размах, м 8,75
Длина, м 6,05
Площадь крыльев, м2 15,5
Сухой вес, кг 363
Взлетный вес, кг 566
Скорость максимальная, км/ч 170
Время набора высоты
   2000 м., мин. 6,9
Потолок, м 5000


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Fokker M 22
  This aircraft was a prototype machine which, with revised cowling, became the D V. This was the last design on which Kreutzer worked and the first in which Platz played some part in design.


Fokker D V

  Making its debut in September 1916, the Fokker D V was the production version of the M 22 prototype. It was the last of the M series of thin-wing Fokkers. Design work had been initiated by Martin Kreutzer, but with his untimely death the finalisation of the design is thought to have been the work of Reinhold Platz.
  Certainly a much improved appearance had been bestowed upon the D V. Although basically only a development of the D III and retaining many of the earlier characteristics, the improved lines paid dividends in increased performance. Although production figures exceeded those of any previous Fokker D types - 216 being built - few Fokker D Vs appear to have seen operational service on the Western Front, although Jasta 6 has been reported as having the type on its establishment, one aircraft with the unit being 2642/16. Undoubtedly, being contemporaneous with the Albatros D I and D II, those more powerful types were preferentially disposed to the fighting units at the Front and the Fokker D V relegated to the training of fighter pilots.
  The enclosing of the 100 h.p. Oberursel rotary engine in a completely circular cowling and the fitting of a large, blunt spinner over the airscrew-hub gave a much cleaner nose-entry than with the earlier horse-shoe cowled types. The remainder of the fabric-covered fuselage consisted of a basic box-girder welded from steel tube and wire braced, tapering to a horizontal knife-edge aft. About this were clipped light stringers on the side and top decking, rounding out the fuselage to the circular section of the cowl at the nose and gradually tapering in with a lessening number of stringers towards the tail. Finless tail surfaces followed the tradition of earlier Fokker designs, with slight dimensional adjustments to allow for the alteration of the surface area; the rounded comma rudder and trapezoidal elevators still being of welded steel tube framing with fabric covering.
  Departure from previous practice was made in the wing profile and layout, although the type of construction remained the same. The upper wing was mounted in two panels, with some 5° of sweep, to a centre-section supported on steel tube "N" struts. This mounting close to the fuselage and the staggering well forward of the upper wing, together with the large angular centre-section cut-out, gave the pilot an excellent field of view. The wings were built up on twin wooden spars which were cable braced to steel-tube compression members; thin-section ribs were of ply, with fretted lightening holes and softwood capping strips. Two false ribs were positioned between each of the main ribs. Large overhung, balanced ailerons were installed at the upper wingtips and actuated by cables running through the lower wing then vertically up to connect the operating crank. The lower wing was straight, with slightly raked tips, and was of the same construction as the upper component. Trailing edges were of wire which, with the doping and taughtening of the fabric, imparted the characteristic scalloped outline.
  The undercarriage chassis was of light-gauge steel tube, with a closely spaced pair of struts forming the front leg and a single tube the rear leg. On some aircraft the two front tubes were faired over to give the appearance of a single leg; on others they were left uncovered. The axle was mounted between these two struts and bound to the apex with elastic cord. The strong ash tailskid was mounted on a small inverted pylon of steel tube which also formed the anchorage of the bottom rudder hinge.

TECHNICAL DATA
  Description: Single-seat fighter.
  Manufacturer: Fokker Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. Schwerin am Mecklenburg (Fok.).
  Power Plant: One 100 h.p. Oberursel U I 9 cylinder rotary.
  Dimensions: Span, 875 m. (29 ft. 0 1/2 in.). Length, 605 m. (19 ft. 10 1/4 in.). Height, 2.3 m. (7 ft. 6 1/2 in.). Area, 15.5 sq.m. (167.4 sq.ft.).
  Weights: Empty, 363 kg. (797 lb.). Loaded, 566 kg. (1,245 lb.).
  Performance: Speed. 170 km.hr. (106.25 m.p.h.). Climb, 3,000 m. (9,840 ft.) in 19 min. Duration, ca. 1 1/2 hr.
  Armament: One Spandau machine-gun firing forward. Some aircraft may have had twin guns fitted.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


FOKKER D V (M 22) Germany

  The last single-seat fighter to be initiated by Martin Kreutzer before his death on 27 June 1916, but productionised by his successor, Reinhold Platz, the M 22 was, from several aspects, more refined than its predecessors. The most noteworthy departure from previous practice was the pronounced sweepback and increased forward stagger applied to the upper wing. Wing warping was finally discarded for lateral control, large, overhung, balanced ailerons being fitted to the upper wing, and a single-bay configuration was standardised. Illustrations purporting to depict two-bay versions with unswept upper wing as the "M 22ZF" - a designation of purely post-WWI origin - in fact show an M 17 with fully-cowled engine and spinner, and an M19 with an Sh II experimental installation. The 110 hp Oberursel UI nine-cylinder rotary engine of the M 22 was fully cowled, a large propeller spinner was fitted and standard armament comprised a single synchronised LMG 08/15 machine gun offset to starboard. The M 22 was assigned the official designation D V, the production model making its debut in September 1916. The D V was, in fact, ordered as a trainer, but was, fortuitously, to be issued to some home-based defence squadrons of both Fliegertruppen and the Marine-Landflieger as an interceptor. Although it appeared at the Front in February 1917, and offered good flying qualities, its performance was eclipsed by more powerful contemporaries, and most of the 300 D Vs built were utilised for their originally intended training role.

Max speed, 106 mph (170 km/h).
Time to 9,840 ft (3000 m), 19 min.
Range, 149 mis (240 km).
Empty weight, 800 lb (363 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,248 lb (566 kg).
Span, 28 ft 8 1/2 in (8,75 m).
Length, 19 ft 10 in (6,05 m).
Height, 7 ft 6 in (2,30 m).
Wing area, 166.85 sqft (15,50 m2).

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" D.V германских ВВС, 1917г.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker M 22
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
"Фоккер" D.V без вооружения на немецком полевом аэродроме. Эта машина использовалась в 1917-18 гг. для тренировки летного состава.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D V (serial 692/17). The D V was ordered as an advanced trainer, but was issued to some home-based defence units.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
"Фоккер" D.V без вооружения на немецком полевом аэродроме. Эта машина использовалась в 1917-18 гг. для тренировки летного состава.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Лейтенанты Баумер и фон Хиппель возле "Фоккера" D.V, принадлежавшего 5-й истребительной эскадрилье (Jasta 5) германских ВВС.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D V.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The last of this series of comparative failures from Fokker, prior to the appearance of the much promoted Dr I triplane was the DV, the D IV never emerging as such. While the DV, of which 216 were built, showed far better pilot handling than its predecessors, it was deemed to be inferior to the Albatros D IIs just coming into service and, like its immediate forebears, was re-directed to advanced training units. Delivery starting at the close of 1916, the DV was powered by a 100hp Oberursal U I and carried a single 7.92mm Spandau. Top level speed of the D V was 107mph, but climb rate was a fairly tardy 19 minutes to reach 9,800 feet.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Gen. von Hoeppner visiting Schleissheim in mid 1917: three Fokker DVs and one Fokker DIII are in the line.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The D V, which made its debut in autumn 1916.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Фоккер D.V