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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

LFG Roland D.III

Страна: Германия

Год: 1917

Fighter

LFG Roland - C.V/C.VIII - 1917 - Германия<– –>LFG Roland - D.IV / Dr.I - 1917 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"РОЛАНД " D.II/D.III / ROLAND D.II/D.III

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  Последняя серийная модификация в "линейке", ведущей свое начало от "Роланда" D.I, - "Роланд" D.III. Его отличала бипланная коробка "обычного" типа (верхнее крыло крепилось к фюзеляжу на стойках) и измененная форма вертикального оперения с увеличенным рулем поворота. Двигатель и вооружение аналогичны "Роланду" D.IIa. В конце 1916-го - начале 1917 года построено 100 экземпляров D.III, в том числе 50 - на фирме "Пфальц", но большинство из них поступило в учебные подразделения.
  Самолеты "Роланд" отличались высокой прочностью конструкции и хорошими скоростными данными, но по остальным показателям они уступали "Альбатросу". Кроме того, двигатель "Аргус" оказался недостаточно надежным и постоянно недодавал мощности. Из-за этого "роланды" не получили широкого распространения на западе, но часть машин использовалась на восточном фронте, где некоторые из них были сбиты в воздушных боях русскими летчиками. Две трофейные машины применялись в российской авиации.
  Шесть экземпляров D.II и столько же D.III были переданы Болгарии и воевали в составе болгарских ВВС на македонском фронте.
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ:
  
  2 синхр. LMG 08/15 "Шпандау".


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


L.F.G. Roland D III
  Produced and type tested in October 1916, the D III was intended to succeed the D IIa in service, but no great number was built due to increased production of the superior Albatros lighters. The D III continued the all-wooden construction with ply-covered fuselage, differing from its forebears principally in having reduced chord on the lower wings, resulting in converging interplane struts and the wing carried on conventional centre-section struts. Engine, 180 h.p. Argus As III. Weights: Empty, 717 kg. (1,577 lb.). Loaded, 961 kg. (2,114 lb.). Armament, twin fixed Spandau machine-guns.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


LFG ROLAND D III Germany

  In a further attempt to improve visibility for the pilot, LFG evolved the D III. Using a fuselage essentially similar to that of the D II, this introduced staggered, unequal-span and unequal-chord wings, and a cabane of broad aerofoil-section struts. Retaining the 180 hp Argus As III engine of the D IIa and the paired 7,9-mm LMG 08/15 armament, the D III received type test approval in May 1917. LFG and Pfalz respectively received contracts for 150 and 200 aircraft. In the event, Pfalz did not build the LFG fighter, switching instead to the Pfalz D III, and as the former was powered by the marginally-performing Argus engine, very few Roland D IIIs were assigned to the Front, a maximum of nine being with first line units in February 1918 and the last being withdrawn in the following April.

Max speed, 109 mph (175 km/h) at sea level.
Empty weight, 1,581 lb (717 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,119 lb (961 kg).
Wing area, 213.45 sq ft (19,83 m2).


J. Herris Roland Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 9)


Roland D.III

  The Roland D.II needed further improvement to the pilot's field of view, and the Roland D.III was developed from the D.II to finally solve the problem. The D.III received a robust but conventional-looking cabane structure giving the pilot better visibility forward. The wings were also staggered and the lower wing had reduced span and chord, further improving visibility downward. One D.III flight-tested a number of wings using different airfoils.
  Like the D.II/D.IIa, different D.III fighters used both the 180 hp Argus As.III engine and the 160 hp Mercedes D.III, apparently without a different designation to distinguish between them. All D.III fighters were armed with the standard German fighter armament of twin synchronized LMG 08/15 machine guns buried in the forward fuselage. In May 1917 the D.III passed its type test, but the first order had already been given to Roland in February.
  Apparently Pfalz built about 30 Roland D.III fighters, 1330-1359/17, under license although it is not known if all were completed. Then the contract was modified for Pfalz to build its own design, the Pfalz D.III, in place of the Roland D.III to finish out the contract using the remaining serial numbers.
  The Pfalz D.III fighter design was based on Roland's Wickelrumpf "wrapped fuselage" structural technology. The Pfalz D.III, powered by the same 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine, had better maneuverability and flying qualities than the Roland D.III. Furthermore, the poor altitude performance of the Argus engine used in many Roland D.III fighters also compromised their performance and only a limited number of Roland D.III fighters were built. In fact, in June 1917 Roland was given a contract to build Pfalz D.III fighters under license, but the contract was cancelled before any were produced.
Roland D.III Production
Order Qty Serials Notes
Feb. 1917 50 700-749/17 Roland order; Argus engine
May 1917 50 3000-3049/17 Roland order; Mercedes?
June 1917 100 1330-1429/17 Pfalz Order

The first production Roland D.IIIs did not become available until late September 1917, and by December 98 were on hand. The limited number of Roland D.1II fighters that reached the front went to the Eastern Front and Bulgaria, where the air combat environment was much less demanding than the Western Front. In Bulgaria the Roland D.III was viewed as ineffective against the British SE.5a and the Spad 13, but one did manage to down a BE.2.
Roland D.III Specifications
Engine: 160 hp Mercedes D.III or 180 hp Argus As.Ill
Wing: Span Upper 9.50 m
Span Lower 8.91 m
Chord Upper 1.58 m
Chord Lower 1.20 m
Gap 1.35 m
Area 19.83 m2
General: Length 6.93 m
Height 2.9 m
Empty Weight 717 kg
Loaded Weight 961 kg
Maximum Speed: 175 kmh
Climb: 1000m 2.5 min
2000m 6 min
3000m 10 min
4000m 15.5 min
5000m 24 min


J. Herris Pfalz Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 5)


Roland D.III(Pfal)

  Initially, Pfalz was contracted to build the mediocre Roland D.III fighter under license as the Roland D.III (Pfal), and about 30 airframes were built. However, shortly after the Roland D.III design entered production at Pfalz, Pfalz was finally able to produce a competitive design of its own, the Pfalz D.III, and production of the Roland D.III(Pfal) was stopped in favor of the new design.

J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.III first prototype.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.III 700/17, second prototype.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.III, unit unknown
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.III, Bulgarian service.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Roland D.III prototype used a conventional cabane structure to further improve the pilot's view forward. This photograph was taken October 26, 1916 at the factory.This first prototype D.III was essentially the same as the earlier D.II except for the center section. Unfortunately, the maneuverability and handling qualities were not improved and few Roland D.III fighters served operationally. Production D.III fighters had a reduced-chord lower wing and larger fin.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Front view of the first Roland D.III protoype powered by a 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rear view of the first Roland D.III protoype powered by a 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The first Roland D.III protoype was powered by a 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine. The wings and tail were the same as the Roland D.II, but production D.III aircraft had a lower wing of reduced chord and a larger fin. Production D.IIIs were powered both by the 160 hp Mercedes D.III and by the 180 hp Argus As.III, apparently with the same type designation.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The second Roland D.III prototype 700/17 (work #2500) photographed on May 16,1917 shows important changes from the first prototype.The engine is now a 180 hp Argus As.III and the fin is larger for improved directional stability. The chord of the lower wing has been reduced to further improve the pilot's downward field of view, resulting in the lower wing spars being closer together as indicated by the fact the interplane struts now are closer at the bottom instead of being parallel.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The second Roland D.III prototype now carries an anemometer on the interplane strut to measure airspeed.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Manfred von Richthofen flew the second Roland D.III prototype 700/17 on May 16, 1917 at Adlershof. While his evaluation is unknown, it must not have been negative or it seems unlikely that more Roland D.III fighters would have been ordered. In June 1917 Pfalz received an order for 100 Roland D.III(Pfal) fighters.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The second Roland D.III prototype 700/17 (work #2500) photographed on May 16,1917 at Adlershof.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.III closeup showing the gun-sight and aileron actuating controls. The machine guns were internal.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A raised top wing and a conventional cabane distinguished the Roland D III from the earlier Roland fighter biplanes.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Roland D.III powered by an Argus As.III engine was photographed on June 13, 1917 at Roland's Kaiserdamm facility. This aircraft was used to test different airfoils in an effort to improve flight performance. The D.III was the third configuration of the first Roland fighter generation, all part of a continued search for better visibility for the pilot. The D.I, D.II, and D.III all had a pair of synchronized machine guns mounted inside the fuselage for minimum drag, but these were difficult for the pilots to access in flight to clear jams, which occurred frequently. The fighters also shared the same structural technology and the 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine, although many D.II and D.III fighters used the 180 hp Argus As.III as the Mercedes was in great demand for many other aircraft types. Flight performance, maneuverability, and handling qualities for these very similar fighters were also nearly identical.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Bulgarian Roland D.III has been extensively camouflaged to hide it from Allied aerial reconnaissance.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.III fighters on Levunovo airfield in 1918; the late-style insignia verify the date.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Bulgarian airmen in front of a Roland D.III of the Bulgarian air service. This aircraft has a 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine. At least six Roland D.III fighters were supplied to Bulgaria. Postwar one D.III, 3000/17, work number 2700, also powered by a Mercedes, was inspected by the British Armistice Commission.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.III fighter being assembled outside the LFG flight hangar at Adlershof.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.III fighters with their engines removed stored at Leignitz, today Legnica, Poland. Few Roland D.III fighters were built and fewer still saw combat; many, perhaps most, were sent directly to storage.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.III fighters with their engines removed stored at Leignitz, today Legnica, Poland. Few Roland D.III fighters were built and fewer still saw combat; many, perhaps most, were sent directly to storage.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The structure of the second version of the Roland D.III prototype photographed April 20, 1917, after Roland had a production contract, showing its massive, robust center section. Wickelrumpf fuselage construction gave great strength without requiring a heavy internal structure.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The structure of the second version of the Roland D.III prototype photographed April 20, 1917. The fin was larger than that of the D.II and first D.III prototype.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pilot's view from the cockpit of a Roland D.III illustrates the very robust cabane struts. The small wheel likely adjusted airflow through the offset airfoil radiator, allowing the pilot to control engine temperature.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Bulgarian Roland D.III that has been crashed, probably the result of another landing accident.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A raised top wing and a conventional cabane distinguished the Roland D III from the earlier Roland fighter biplanes.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.III
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.III