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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

RAF F.E.8

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1915

Истребитель

RAF - B.E.9 - 1915 - Великобритания<– –>RAF - R.E.7 - 1915 - Великобритания


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


РАФ FE.8 / RAF FE.8

  После ухода Джеффри Де Хэвилленда с авиазавода РАФ конструкторское бюро этого предприятия возглавил Джон Кенуорт. Под его руководством осенью 1915 года был разработан один из первых в Великобритании одноместных истребителей под индексом FE.8. Самолет создавался под ощутимым влиянием DH.2, однако Кенуорт поставил перед собой задачу добиться более высоких, чем у конкурентной машины, летных данных.
  Постройка прототипа завершена в октябре. Самолет представлял собой двухстоечный биплан смешанной конструкции с толкающим винтом. Открытая хвостовая ферма сварная из стальных труб, крылья и оперение деревянные с полотняной обшивкой, носовая гондола с фанерно-дюралевым покрытием. В целом самолет получился более аэродинамичным, чем DH.2, и это позитивно сказалось на его летных данных, особенно - на скороподъемности.
  Во время одного из испытательных полетов прототип разбился в аварии, но в декабре был готов второй экземпляр, который успешно прошел испытания. В январе следующего года самолет запущен в серию. Всего построено 300 экземпляров. 245 выпустил авиазавод фирмы "Даррак", остальные - завод концерна "Виккерс" в Вейбридже. Большинство из них оснащалось 100-сильными ротативными двигателями "Гном моносупап", но на некоторые ставили 110-сильные "Роны" 9J или "Клерже".
  Поначалу на FE.8, как и на DH.2, установили подвижный пулемет "Льюис", однако затем его стали жестко закреплять в курсовом положении.
  Серийные FE.8 появились в боевых частях лишь в августе 1916 года, почти на восемь месяцев позже, чем истребители Де Хэвилленда, и это сыграло в их судьбе роковую роль. Прогресс военной авиации тогда шел настолько быстрыми темпами, что машина Кенуорта, так же, как и BE.12, морально устарела еще до отправки на фронт. Немецкие "Альбатросы" превосходили ее по всем статьям.
  К концу 1916 года англичане поняли, что, несмотря на ряд преимуществ (хороший обзор и отсутствие необходимости в синхронизации оружия), схема истребителя с толкающим винтом и ферменной хвостовой частью фюзеляжа бесперспективна.
  Тем не менее, до весны 1917-го FE.8 состояли на вооружении нескольких британских авиачастей, в частности ими были полностью укомплектованы 40-й и 41-й истребительные дивизионы RFC, дислоцированные во Франции.
  Точку в карьере машины поставил бой 9 марта 1917-го, когда "Альбатросы" D.III из эскадры Рихтхофена без потерь сбили пять из девяти встреченных ими над фронтом FE.8, а остальные совершили вынужденные посадки. Вскоре после этого самолет был снят с вооружения. 40-й дивизион переоснастили французскими "Ньюпорами", а 41-й - "Де Хэвиллендами" DH.5.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
  Размах, м 9,60
  Длина, м, 7,22
  Высота, м 2,80
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 20,20
  Сухой вес, кг 440
  Взлетный вес, кг 670
  Двигатель "Рон"
   мощность, л. с. 110
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 151
  Скорость подъема на высоту
   2000 м, мин.сек 9,10
  Дальность полета, км 375
  Продолжительность полета, ч 2,5
  Потолок, м 4420
  Вооружение 1 пулемет


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


RAF F.E.8 1916 г.

  В 1915 году до появления синхронизатора командованием RFC был заказан истребитель с толкающим винтом. Подобные самолеты проектировали фирмы "Де Хевилленд" и "Виккерс". RAF F.E.8 - двухстоечный ферменный биплан смешанной конструкции. Гондола имела каркас из стальных труб и обшивку из алюминиевых панелей. Ферма изготавливалась из стальных труб с растяжками из стальной профилированной ленты. Крылья двухлонжеронные, деревянной конструкции, обтянутые полотном. Стойки из стальных профилированных труб. Элероны устанавливались на обоих крыльях.
  Двигатель 7- или 9-цилиндровый воздушного охлаждения, звездообразный, ротативный "Гном-Моносупап" (100 л. с.), "Рон" (110 л. с.) или "Клерже" (110 л. с.) Винт деревянный, четырехлопастной. Оперение деревянной конструкции, обтянутое полотном. Шасси двухстоечное с резиново-шнуровой амортизацией. Вооружение - 1 пулемет "Льюис" в носовой части гондолы. Выпущено около 200 экземпляров, состоявших на вооружении до середины 1917 года.
  Однако машина не имела преимуществ перед самолетами противника и использовалась в основном на второстепенных участках фронта.


P.Hare Royal Aircraft Factory (Putnam)


F.E.8

  By mid-1915 it had become evident that the Royal Flying Corps was in fairly urgent need of a single-seater fighter (or 'Scout', in contemporary parlance), both to afford some protection to its vulnerable two-seaters and to take the war to the enemy by attacking German aircraft.
  Such a machine obviously needed to be equipped with a forward-firing gun, placed within easy reach of the pilot so that it could be loaded and any jams could be cleared. As the Allies still lacked a workable gun synchronisation system, the only practicable solution was to make the new machine a pusher, despite the drag penalty and consequent reduction in performance.
  The aeroplane which the Farnborough team, headed by John Kenworthy, designed to fill this role was broadly similar in concept to its closest 'rival', the D.H.2, produced contemporaneously by the Aircraft Manufacturing Company, where Geoffrey de Havilland was then chief designer, but it differed almost totally in detail.
  The single tubular tailboom previously employed in the F.E.3 and F.E.6 was abandoned, despite its reduced drag, because its structural integrity was still far from proven. Instead, conventional steel-tube tailbooms were employed, but these were arranged to meet, unconventionally, at the tailplane spar, rather than at the sternpost. They thus formed a vee in elevation and not, as was common, in plan. The tailplane incidence was adjustable, although only on the ground and, to reduce overall weight and control forces, the rudder and elevator ribs were of duralumin. The nacelle, which was of conventional appearance, was built upon a triangulated framework of welded steel tubing which eliminated any need for internal bracing wires, the shape of its duralumin covering being maintained by wooden formers. The high-aspect-ratio, two-bay wings were rigged with five degrees of dihedral outboard of the wide centre section. Ailerons spanned all four outer wing panels, and on the early F.E.8s no spanwise balance cables were fitted, the ailerons being returned to their normal position by rubber bungees.
  Power was provided by a 100hp Gnome monosoupape rotary driving a four-blade propeller which, for some inexplicable reason, was fitted with a conical spinner.
  Instrumentation was typically spartan, comprising only a tachometer, altimeter, airspeed indicator, transverse clinometer, watch holder, compass, and fuel pressure gauge (this being vital as no gravity tank was fitted, and the engine would cut out if the pressure within the tank fell too low. A hand pump was provided for emergency use).
  The first prototype, 7456, made a brief initial flight on 15 October 1915, before any armament was fitted. Its pilot on that occasion was Frank Goodden, who was entirely satisfied with the new scout. Four days later he took it up for an hour and a half, exploring its handling characteristics to the full.
  By early November 7456 had been equipped with a Lewis machine gun pointing through an opening in the extreme nose, and capable of being swivelled through an arc of up to 30° in any direction via a linkage connected to the pilot's sighting device. On 8 November it was flown to the Central Flying School at Upavon for service trials. The school's report was most favourable, describing it as manoeuvrable, easy to land, and possessing excellent stability. The gun installation found less favour because it was inaccessible and unnecessarily complex. It was thought simpler merely to fix the gun and aim the whole aeroplane at the enemy. A week later the F.E.8 was returned to the Factory by the famous prewar display pilot B C Hucks, who had the great misfortune to crash-land and damage it beyond economical repair. The engine, which was undamaged, was removed for use in the second prototype, 7457, which was already under construction and which first flew on 19 December, piloted by Frank Goodden.
  Trenchard considered its 2 1/4hr endurance to be insufficient, and it was therefore decided to increase the fuel tankage from 24 to 29 gallons. The gun mounting, which had been widely criticised, was changed to a fixed position on the cockpit rim, similar to that of the D.H.2. Wooden racks were provided on the cockpit sides for spare ammunition drums. These modifications were incorporated in production machines, the first order for which had been placed with the Darracq Motor Engineering Company on 11 October, four days before the type's first flight.
  To forestall any possible problems, should supplies of the Gnome Monosoupape prove troublesome, experimental installations were made of a 110hp Le Rhone and of a Clerget of similar power so that any difficulties in substituting these engines should be solved in advance. In practice, however, it was airframes which proved to be a problem. Deliveries were delayed for a variety of reasons, not the least of which was the fact that this was Darracq's first venture into aircraft manufacture. Therefore it was October 1916 before a complete squadron, No 40, was in service on the Western Front, although the first six machines had been pressed into use at the beginning of August.
  Allegations that the F.E.8 was prone to spin caused considerable concern, especially among the many recently qualified pilots whose training was, at best, somewhat basic. Therefore, during August 1916, Frank Goodden carried out a series of trials in which he deliberately spun an F.E.8 in both directions, recovering easily on each occasion by employing the standard method (centralise the controls, push the stick forwards to gain airspeed, then apply opposite rudder if required). His report stated that the aeroplane was perfectly stable, and that he had only been able to initiate each spin by 'misuse' of the controls. The report, together with the story of the trials, which passed quickly down the 'grapevine' throughout the RFC, did much to stop the rumours and to restore pilots' confidence in their mounts.
  A rather more justified criticism of the aeroplane was made in respect of the rubber bungees connected to the ailerons, which broke much too frequently. On 30 August it was decided to replace the bungees with a balance cable, not only on all future machines, but retrospectively on those already in service. The fuel system was also criticised by squadron pilots, as it often proved difficult to maintain the necessary pressure, particularly when the tank was nearly full. To resolve this, a small gravity tank was fitted internally within the centre section, fed from the main tank under pressure and itself feeding directly to the engine. The D.H.2 tank was also tried, mounted externally below the upper wing centre section, but although it was streamlined it caused an unacceptable reduction in speed and the internal tank was standardised.
  Later, when it was discovered that the duralumin ribs in the elevators were reacting with the dope and causing the fabric to rot, new control surfaces with steel ribs were designed. As a temporary measure while the new elevators were being manufactured, some machines were fitted with D.H.2 elevators, their hinge type and position being modified as required to make them fit.
  Almost 300 F.E.8s were eventually built, and the type remained in service at least until July 1917. By that time it was long obsolete, but it enjoyed the dubious distinction of being the last pusher scout to see active service on the Western Front.

  Powerplant: 100hp Gnome Monosoupape rotary
  Dimensions:
   span 31ft 6in;
   chord 4ft 0in;
   gap 4ft 6in;
   wing area 214 sq ft;
   dihedral 5°;
   length 23ft 0in;
   height 9ft 2in.
  Weights:
   895lb (empty);
   1,346lb (loaded)
  Performance:
   max speed 94mph at sea level;
   ceiling 14,500ft;
   climb 9 1/2min to 6,000ft;
   endurance 2 1/2hrs.


H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)


F.E.8. It is sometimes contended that the F.E.8, which was first constructed in 1915 and remained operational until July 1917, was the last pusher fighter in British service, though that distinction appears more rightly to belong to the F.E.2d, which was serving with No.20 Squadron until the autumn of 1917. As with other pusher types, the object of the design was to obviate the use of deflector plates or synchronising gear. A single Lewis gun was initially installed low in the nose of the metal nacelle, with the barrel projecting through a circular hole. This arrangement permitted the gun to be trained over small arcs in conjunction with a sighting bar ahead of the windscreen, control being by means of a pistol grip. This position of the gun rendered difficult the clearing of stoppages and the changing of magazines, and on production aircraft the gun was raised to the level of the pilot's eyes. The form of pillar mounting has been described by Oliver Stewart as 'slightly different' from that of the D.H.2. As on the similar de Havilland fighter, the spare ammunition magazines were carried in 'panniers' at the sides of the cockpit. The magazines were four in number.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


ROYAL AIRCRAFT FACTORY F.E.8 UK
  
  Designed under the direction of John Kenworthy, the F.E.8 was the first single-seat fighter evolved as such at Farnborough, where the first of two prototypes was flown on 15 October 1915. Of pusher configuration to allow an uninterrupted forward field of fire for the 0.303-in (7,7-mm) Lewis gun, the F.E.8 was a two-bay equi-span biplane with a short fuselage nacelle to accommodate the gun, the pilot and a 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape nine-cylinder rotary engine, and four slender booms to carry the cruciform tail unit. Construction of the nacelle was of welded steel-tube with aluminium sheet covering; the wings and tail unit used conventional wooden spars and ribs with fabric covering. Trials with the second prototype in France in late 1915 led to a change in the gun installation, which was mounted within the nacelle nose and could be moved through a limited range by means of a control in the cockpit. Production F.E.8s, which began to appear in May and June 1916 from the factories of Darracq Motor Engineering at Fulham and Vickers at Weybridge, had a more practical gun mounting on the nose immediately ahead of the cockpit. Production totalled 220 by Darracq and 50 by Vickers. Service use by RFC squadrons in France began in August 1916, and, although soon obsolescent, the F.E.8 remained in service for a year, becoming the last single-seater of pusher configuration in general use. Trial installations of the 110 hp Le Rhone and 110 hp Clerget engines were made, but the Monosoupape remained the standard fit and the following data apply to this version.

Max speed, 94 mph (151 km/h) at sea level, 70 mph (113 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3050 m).
Service ceiling, 15,210 ft (4 636 m).
Endurance, 2.5 hrs.
Empty weight, 895 lb (406 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,346 lb (611 kg).
Span, 31ft 6 in (9,60 m).
Length, 23 ft 8 in (7,21m).
Height, 9 ft 2 in (2,79 m).
Wing area, 218 sq ft (20,25 m2).


Журнал Flight


Flight, September 6, 1917.

A "DE HAVILLAND" SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER.

  AN interesting illustrated description of a British biplane, appears in a German aeronautical contemporary, which we are now able to reproduce. The data relating to the "de Havilland," so described by our contemporary, are preceded by the following interesting and characteristic remarks :-
  "It was difficult for the English constructors to produce a machine equal to the German aeroplanes, especially as regards the production of a single-seater fighter. The main desiderata in such a machine were high speed, manoeuverability, climb and a free field for a machine gun in a forward direction. As English aeronautical engineering was somewhat backward, especially with regard to firing through the propeller, the construction of a tractor single-seater with the engine in front had to be discarded. The result was therefore necessarily a fighter, with the screw at the rear and an open framework carrying the tail, and it was the little de Havilland single-seater which was ordered in large quantities by the British Army. As our readers know, early in 1916 these machines were rushed to the English Front, where whole squadrons were smashed through accidents."
  "The de Havilland single-seater consists, as the accompanying illustrations show, of a central portion of 3.5 metres span, to which the wings are attached at a dihedral angle. There are two pairs of inter-plane struts on each side. To the point where occur the first pair of struts the tail booms are attached. Ailerons of 3.31 metres length are fitted to both planes. The ailerons are held flush with the trailing edge by rubber cords on the upper surface. The power plant consists of a 100 h.p. monosoupape driving a four-bladed screw of 2.34 metres diameter. In front of the motor are the petrol and oil tanks and the pilot's seat, and in front of the seat is a pivot for the movable machine gun. The weight of the machine empty is 476 kilogrammes, and with 2 1/2 hours' fuel, pilot and machine gun, it is 722 kilogrammes. The loading is thus 35.6 kilogrammes per square metre. In spite of the great resistance of the wing bracing, the machine attains a speed of 150 kilometres per hour."
  Chief Characteristics of "De Havilland" Fighter.
  Power plant, 100 h.p. Gnome Monosoupape; fuel, petrol 120 litres, oil 22 litres. Area of planes (inclusive of ailerons): Top plane, 10.7 sq. m.; bottom plane, 9.6 sq. m.; total, 20.3 sq. m. Ailerons, 4 x 1.47 sq. m.; elevators, 1.19 sq. m.; rudder, 0.67 sq. m. Angle of incidence: Main planes, 4.5°; tail plane, 0.8°. Weight, empty, 476 kg.; useful load, 246 kg.; total, 722 kg. Armament, one movable machine gun.

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
RAF F.E.8, 48-й дивизион RFC, пилот - лейтенант С.Хэй, 1917г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
RAF FE.8 - один из первых серийных экземпляров с подвижным пулеметом "Льюис", RFC, осень 1916г.
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Истребитель RAF F.E.8 41-го дивизиона RFC (1916г.)
P.Hare - Royal Aircraft Factory /Putnam/
The first prototype F.E.8, showing the original gun installation. The location is not known, but the aeroplanes faintly discernible in the background are B.E.2cs.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
FE8 prototype. This type was under consideration, along with the DH2, lor the RFC's fighter requirement in mid 1915. An effective fighter type was needed in France as aircraft began to play an increasing part in the war.
P.Hare - Royal Aircraft Factory /Putnam/
An unidentified production F.E.8 on Farnborough Common, with the Factory buildings in the background.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Powered by a 110hp Gnome Monosoupape, the FE8 was employed as a single-seat fighter on the Western Front from summer 1916 to early 1917 but its speed of 80mph (130kph) and single Lewis gun meant that it was hopelessly outclassed. The type also served with Reserve Squadrons in the UK as here with 6401 with 10 Reserve Squadron at Joyce Green.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Darracq-built F.E.8 6390. The rubber bungees which returned the ailerons into position can be seen above the upper wing.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
FE.8 из английского дивизиона западного фронта, весна 1917 г
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
The F.E.8. With Monosoupape Gnome engine. A single-seat fighter.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Side view of, according to Flugsport, "de Havilland" fighter.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
The F.E.8. With Monosoupape Gnome engine. (Three-quarter view.)
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Front view of, according to Flugsport, "de Havilland" fighter.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
First flown on 8 November 1915, the Royal Aircraft Factory FE 8 was a pusher-engined, single seat fighter that was already obsolescent when the first deliveries were made to No 29 Squadron, RFC, in mid-June 1916. Powered by a 110hp Le Rhone or Clerget rotary, giving the machine a top level speed of 97mph at sea level, its armament comprised a single .303-inch Lewis gun. 297 FE 8s are known to have been built. The FE 8, serial no 7624, seen here being inspected by its German captors, was photographed near Provin on 9 November 1916.
P.Hare - Royal Aircraft Factory /Putnam/
A replica F.E.8 on display at the Owl's Head Museum of Transportation, Maine, USA.
P.Hare - Royal Aircraft Factory /Putnam/
The replica F.E.8 built and flown by Cole Palen at Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome, New York, USA.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Современная реплика FE.8 в полете
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A 41 Squadron F.E.8, 7616, photographed in flight. The streamers denote that it is piloted by a flight leader.
P.Hare - Royal Aircraft Factory /Putnam/
The occasion which prompted this impressive line-up of Factory designs is unfortunately not recorded, nor is the purpose of the marquee behind them, but the types present suggest a date of mid-1916. Left to right, the aircraft are: B.E.2c, B.E.2c, B.E.2b. B.E.12, Hispano-Suiza-powered B.E.2c, F.E.8, S.E.4a, F.E.2c, F.E.2b, R.E.8, R.E.8, and R.E.7.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Some unique sketches of aircraft at work overseas by Captain K. H. Riversdale Elliot, Scottish Rifles and R.F.C.. The drawings are particularly accurate and full of movement, and carry the greater weight as from an active pilot.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The F.E.8 with Gnome Monosoupape engine.
P.Hare - Royal Aircraft Factory /Putnam/
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
RAF F.E.8