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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Bristol Baby (Scout)

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1914

Истребитель

Bristol - TB.8 / GB.75 - 1913 - Великобритания<– –>Bristol - PB.8 - 1914 - Великобритания


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


Бристоль "Бэби" ("Скаут") / Bristol Baby (Scout)

  Цельнодеревянный одностоечный биплан с полотняной обшивкой. Разработан главным конструктором фирмы "Бритиш энд Колониал Эйрпэлйн Компани Лимитед" ("Бристоль") Фрэнком Бэрнуэллом в феврале 1914г.
  Миниатюрный аппарат, оснащенный сравнительно мощным для тех времен ротативным мотором, предназначался для участия в воздушных гонках. Самолет не обрел успеха на этом поприще, хотя на испытаниях продемонстрировал неплохую максимальную скорость 153 км/ч.
  Вскоре после вступления Великобритании в Мировую войну были заказаны еще два экземпляра машины, которые направили в 3-й и 5-й фронтовые дивизионы RFC, действовавшие во Франции. Аппараты хорошо зарекомендовали себя в качестве скоростных тактических разведчиков, и в ноябре 1914-го последовали новые заказы - на 12 машин для RFC и на 24 - для RNAS. Тогда же появилось второе название машины (англ. Scout - разведчик).
  Очередные контракты на поставку "Скаутов" для армейской и флотской авиации последовали в феврале, апреле и ноябре 1915 года.
  Уже зимой 1914-1915 годов на некоторых "Скаутах" появились первые импровизированные пулеметные установки, как правило, сооруженные руками аэродромных механиков. Поскольку синхронизаторов еще не было, ручные пулеметы "Льюис" пехотного образца устанавливали перед кабиной под углом вверх для стрельбы поверх винта или же на борту фюзеляжа слева или справа от кабины. В этом случае ствол был направлен вперед-вбок под углом 40-45° к продольной оси самолета. Вести прицельный огонь из таких установок было почти невозможно, но, тем не менее, с их помощью англичанам удалось сбить несколько германских аэропланов, а Бристоль "Скаут" благодаря им стал первым в Великобритании одноместным вооруженным самолетом-истребителем. В начале 1916 года на некоторые морские "Скауты" установили синхронные пулеметы "Виккерс" или "Льюис".
  Ни один британский авиадивизион не был целиком вооружен "Скаутами", однако эти машины входили в разное время в состав 19 разведдивизионов на Западном фронте, трех - в Палестине, двух - в Месопотамии и одного - в Македонии, а также - 11 дивизионов ПВО Метрополии.
  Серийный выпуск машины завершился летом 1916 года. Всего построено около 1000 "Скаутов" в четырех модификациях. Самолет применялся в качестве истребителя до весны 1917-го, а затем до конца войны использовался в летных школах. Пилоты ценили его за легкость управления и хорошие пилотажные характеристики.
  
  
МОДИФИКАЦИИ
  
  "Скаут А": первый экземпляр - спортивный гоночный аэроплан.
  "Скаут В": невооруженный разведчик, построено два экземпляра.
  "Скаут С": невооруженный разведчик, построено около 200 штук. Некоторые машины оснащались самодельными пулеметными установками. Двигатель "Рон", "Гном" или "Клерже" (80 л.с.). Три экземпляра были произведены с двигателем Клерже (110 л. с).
  "Скаут D": истребитель, разведчик, учебный самолет. Часть аппаратов имела вооружение. Построено до 800 штуке двигателями "Гном моносупап", 100 л.с. (фронтовая модификация) или "Гном" или "Рон", 80 л.с. (невооруженная учебная модификация). Модифицированы крылья (уменьшен размер элеронов), хвостовое оперение и вооружение.
  
  
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   "Скаут C" ("Скаут D")
  Размах, м 7,50
  Длина, м 6,30
  Высота, м 2,59
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 18,30
  Сухой вес, кг 345
  Взлетный вес, кг 545 (570)
  Двигатель: "Рон" ("Гном моносупап")
   мощность, л.с. 80 (100)
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 150 (160)
  Скорость подъема на высоту
   2000 м, мин.сек 10,54
  Потолок, м 4750
  Экипаж, чел. 1
  Вооружение 1 x 7,7-мм пулемет "Льюис"


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


Бристоль "Скаут" (Scout) 1913 г.

  В 1912 году пионер английской авиации Джефри де Хевилленд спроектировал для фирмы "Бристоль Бритиш энд Колониэл Эйрплэйн Компани" спортивный самолет по схеме, ставшей позднее классической, фюзеляжного биплана с тянущим винтом.
  Построенный первоначально как спортивный самолет, с начала войны он стал использоваться для разведки, а позднее и как истребитель.
  Бристоль "Скаут" - это одностоечный биплан деревянной конструкции. Фюзеляж прямоугольного сечения, обтянут полотном и покрыт авиационным лаком. Для растяжек использовался либо трос, либо стальная лента. Крыло двухлонжеронное, деревянной конструкции, также обтянутое полотном. Стойки бипланной коробки - деревянные, первоначально эллиптической, а позднее каплевидной формы. На первых машинах управление осуществлялось перекашиванием, а с 1914 года крыло оборудовалось элеронами.
  Оперение обычной схемы. Стабилизатор нерегулируемый. Вертикальное оперение без киля.
  Шасси обычной схемы с V-образными стойками жесткой схемы с шнуровой резиновой амортизацией и неуправляемым костылем. 7-цилиндровый звездообразный ротативный двигатель воздушного охлаждения "Гном" мощностью 80 л. с. закрывался металлическим капотом.
  При использовании машины в роли истребителя устанавливался пулемет 7,69-мм "Виккерс" и отсекатели на винт. Однако с середины 1916 года скоростные и маневренные характеристики оказались уже недостаточными для борьбы с новыми германскими истребителями, и до конца войны оставшиеся машины использовались как учебные.
  Самолет имел несколько модификаций, отличавшихся формой и размахом крыльев и оперения, с разными двигателями мощностью от 50 до 100 л. с. В целом это был простой в производстве, удачный и отличный в своем классе по летным качествам самолет.
  Для увеличения дальности перехвата германских дирижаблей и бомбардировщиков в Великобритании пытались использовать большую летающую лодку "Феликстоу", над верхним крылом которой устанавливался истребитель Бристоль "Скаут С" как самый легкий из строившихся тогда. Но дальше опыта дело не пошло.


C.Barnes Bristol Aircraft since 1910 (Putnam)


The Bristol Scouts A-D, S.S.A., G.B.1 and S.2A

  Apart from improved replicas of the Anzani-engined Prier monoplanes, Coanda designed only one single-seat monoplane; this was the S.B.5, No. 183, a smaller version of the military monoplane, for the Italian government. When the Caproni-Bristol contract fell through in November 1913, the unfinished fuselage was still in the works awaiting disposal. There was a growing interest in single-seater biplanes for high-speed reconnaissance and Barnwell was given permission to convert the S.B.5 into a scout biplane, as 'X Department' was not fully occupied. The drawings were sketched in a manifold book under the reference' SN.183', although the result, when completed, received the new No. 206.
  The 'Baby Biplane', or Scout, was very simple in outline and economical in manufacture. The single-bay wings of 22 ft. span were similar to those designed by Coanda for the P.B.8 and had the same ailerons and stagger. A two-wheeled Vee chassis was fitted and the tailplane, elevators and balanced rudder were made from light steel tubing. A reconditioned 80 h.p. Gnome engine (Actually No. 1916, salvaged from hydro-biplane No. 120) was installed in a close cowling open at the bottom and the machine when finished weighed only 950 lb. complete with pilot and 3 hours' fuel.
  No. 206 was sent to Larkhill on 23 February 1914, and Busteed, who had had a considerable hand in the design, was delighted with it; after a very few flights to familiarise himself with so lively a mount he attained 95 m.p.h. The little biplane was then sent to the Olympia Aero Show, together with the G.B.75 two-seater. When the Show opened on 16 March, No. 206 was the smallest biplane there, but without doubt the most sensational.
  After the Show was over, the Scout went back to Larkhill, and at the end of April returned to Filton to be fitted with a new set of wings of slightly greater area, which increased the span to 24 ft. 7 in. These reduced the landing speed and improved handling without affecting the maximum speed. At the same time the engine cowling was modified to an annular shape, allowing more airflow through the central opening. On 14 May 1914 Busteed put the modified Scout through an A.I.D. performance test at Farnborough and recorded a speed range of 97.5 m.p.h. to 40 m.p.h.; he then flew to Brooklands, where he gave a spectacular demonstration and in a handicap race was beaten only by seconds by Harold Barnwell in the 100 h.p. Gnome-engined Sopwith Tabloid.
  The Scout was entered for the Aerial Derby round London on 23 May, but the race was postponed until 6 June, and on that day visibility was so bad that Sippe was not allowed to fly the Scout. However, another competitor, Lord Carbery, who owned a Morane monoplane, was so impressed by the Scout that he asked to buy it, and was allowed to because two more of the type, Nos. 229 and 230, were being built. Carbery paid ?400 for the airframe without engine and installed the 80 h.p. Le Rhone from his Morane. He took delivery at Hendon on 17 June, having already entered it for two cross-country races, the first being London-Manchester and back on 20 June. During practice flying, Carbery reached a true speed of over 100 m.p.h., but on the day the weather was very rough and having averaged 89 m.p.h. to the compulsory landing point at Castle Bromwich, Carbery landed across wind and tipped up on his nose, breaking the port lower wing and the chassis. Repairs at Filton were completed by 7 July, just in time for the second race, from London to Paris and back. In this event Carbery was scratch man and on the day of the race his engine was not giving full power. Nevertheless, he would not give up, and although he had to circle Hendon three times to gain height with 5 hours' fuel on board, and the weather was foggy into the bargain, he reached Buc safely. Unfortunately the mechanics who refuelled the Scout at Buc, during the compulsory 2 hours' stop, only filled one tank and Carbery did not check both tanks before taking-off on the return flight. Consequently he had only just crossed the French coast near Hardelot when his engine began to fail; he operated the fuel changeover cock, only to find the second tank empty also. He just had time to glide down on to the Channel beside a convenient tramp steamer; the water was calm and he was rescued without even getting his feet wet, but in salving the aircraft the fuselage was broken and all but the engine and mountings fell back into the sea.
  Concurrently with No. 206, Coanda had been engaged on a different single-seater biplane project at the request of the French· government. This was No. 219, the S.S.A. (Single Seat Armoured) biplane, whose principal feature was the bullet-proof construction of the whole of the front fuselage and cockpit as a single monocoque unit of sheet steel, colloquially known as 'The Bath', enclosing the engine and fuel and oil tanks as well as the pilot's seat, the latter being formed by the shaped contour of the rear bulkhead. The 80 h.p. Clerget rotary engine was enclosed in a sheet cowling with a large steel spinner in front; the spinner was perforated to allow cooling air to enter, but contained a central cone which prevented direct entry of bullets from ahead. The wings were staggered and set very far forward to counteract nose-heaviness, the lower wings being attached to a framework which left a gap between the wing roots and the fuselage. The chassis was of the two-wheeled type, with two skids extended aft so that no tail skid was necessary. The wheels were arranged to castor for cross-wind landing, this being a Bleriot feature esteemed by French pilots. The rear fuselage was very slender and carried a large balanced rudder and Scout-type tailplane and elevators.
  When finished, No. 219 was flown at Larkhill by Sippe on 8 May 1914, with a temporary aluminium cowling because of vibration in the steel spinner. A week later the S.S.A. was fitted with a larger rudder before going to Farnborough, but was damaged in a heavy landing. After repairs Busteed flew it again at Filton on 25 June, but an undercarriage bracing wire failed on landing, and he was catapulted out of the cockpit injuring his knees and shoulder. The S.S.A. was badly damaged, but the French authorities agreed to take delivery of it for rebuilding in the Breguet works at Douai, whither it was consigned on 3 July 1914. The S.S.A. was unarmed and was not further developed at Filton, but may be considered a forerunner of the armoured trench fighter exemplified by the Sopwith Salamander of 1918. The very similar RB two-seater, described earlier, may also have been intended as an armoured machine, and was exactly contemporary with the S.S.A.
  Nos. 229 and 230 differed from No. 206 only in detail, notably the wing bracing and engine cowling, and were designated Scout B to distinguish them from the prototype, which became Scout A in retrospect. Barnwell sketched out a version of the Scout with a Statax engine, a small diameter swash-plate design which showed initial promise but was never properly developed. He also designed a racing single-seater, the G.B.l, for the 1914 Gordon Bennett race. This was discussed by the Directors on 26 June, but they decided not to built it. It was to have had a 100 h.p. Mono-Gnome engine mounted between horizontal bearers, as in the Sopwith Tabloid, and a tapered fixed fin.
  The two Scout Bs had not been flown when war broke out on 4 August 1914, but they were at once requisitioned by the War Office and delivered to Farnborough on 21 and 23 August, respectively. They were then sent to France, where their high speed and rate of climb won the approval of discerning pilots, who nicknamed them 'Bristol Bullets'. They were allotted R.F.C. numbers 633 and 648 and were flown by Lt. Cho1monde1ey and Major J. F. A. Higgins, of Nos. 3 and 5 Squadrons, respectively. The former armed his Scout with two rifles, on either side of the cockpit and offset from the line of flight so as to miss the airscrew.
  Although committed to ordering Royal Aircraft Factory designs, for which large contracts had been placed when war was imminent, the War Office was sufficiently impressed by its new Bristol, Martinsyde and Sopwith Scouts to place small production contracts for them, and the Company received an order for 12 of a further improved version, Scout C, on 5 November 1914. The Admiralty wanted them too and ordered 24 Scouts on 7 December, but this led to a dispute between the two Services, who both demanded priority in delivery. A compromise was reached whereby the first Scout C, No. 450 (1243) was completed urgently and delivered to the Admiralty on 16 February 1915. It was followed by Nos. 451-462 (1602-1613), delivered to the War Office between 23 April and 13 June 1915, followed by 17 more for the Admiralty, Nos. 463-479 (1244-1260) between 3 June and 18 July 1915. Meanwhile the War Office had placed a second contract for 75 Scout Cs on 16 March and the first six of these, Nos. 480-485 (4662-4667) were delivered between 10 and 29 July, followed by the remaining six, Nos. 486-491 (1261-1266), for the Admiralty between 29 July and 24 August 1915. All these Scouts were fitted with 80 h.p. Gnome engines. Manufacture of the Scout C was undertaken at Brislington because the Filton factory was fully committed to B.E.2c production. The next 32 for the War Office, Nos. 492-523 (46684699), were completed between 9 August and 12 November 1915, all after the first four being fitted with 80 h.p. Le Rhone engines after delivery because of a growing shortage of Gnomes. The Admiralty, however, insisted on having Gnomes because of their greater reliability, particularly for over-water flying, and had ordered 50 more on 6 June 1915; the first of the batch, No. 524 (3013), was delivered on 5 September, but the shortage of Gnome engines caused progressive delay until early in the New Year, and the 37th machine, No. 560 (3049), was delayed until 9 February 1916. However, it was followed quickly by the remaining 13, Nos. 771-783 (3050-3062), between 11 February and 25 March.
  Meanwhile, the remaining 37 Scouts for the War Office, Nos. 784-820 (5291-5327), with Le Rhones, had gone ahead smoothly and were dispatched between 13 November 1915 and 18 February 1916. This completed the production of the Scout C, of which 161 in all were produced, 74 for the Admiralty and 87 for the War Office; 65 of the latter had 80 h.p. Le Rhone engines and all the others had 80 h.p. Gnomes. At least one R.N.A.S. Scout (3035) was tested with an 80 h.p. Clerget.
  Bristol Scouts were dispersed among many R.F.C. squadrons, but never formed the sole equipment of any squadron. They were not armed when issued and much ingenuity was displayed by individual units and pilots in adapting them to an offensive role. How effective they could be was demonstrated on 25 July 1915 by Capt. Lanoe G. Hawker of No. 6 Squadron, who on an evening patrol forced down three enemy two-seaters all armed with machine-guns, although he himself had only a single-shot Martini carbine mounted at an angle on the starboard side; for which feat he was awarded the Victoria Cross. Other weapons, similarly mounted to miss the airscrew, included the larger 0.45 in. Martini carbine firing incendiary bullets, the Lewis gun and even a breech-loading duck-gun firing chain-shot. The fowling-piece was useless, but good use was made of Lewis guns.
  Most Naval Scouts were unarmed, but carried canisters of Ranken darts, designed to set fire to Zeppelin airships. Each Scout had two containers on the cockpit floor, each holding 24 darts, which could be released three at a time. Some Naval Scouts had a Lewis gun mounted above the centre-section, and a few had one mounted parallel to the top longeron and firing through the airscrew disc, sometimes but not always synchronised by a Scarff-Dibovski interrupter gear. The long duration and rapid rate of ascent of the Zeppelins made them particularly difficult to attack, except with small fast Scouts which had insufficient range to intercept them. In an attempt to overcome the range problem several Isle of Man steamers had been converted into seaplane carriers, and one, H.M.S. Vindex, was equipped with a flying-off deck forward. On 3 November 1915 the first take-off from this deck was made by Flight-Lt. H. F. Towler in a Scout C (1255), and thereafter two Scouts were carried by Vindex on anti-Zeppelin patrols. Another of the Vindex Scouts (3028) was loaned to Squadron Commander John Porte at Felixstowe for an experiment in which it was successfully launched from a large three-engined Porte Baby flying boat, flown by Porte himself. The Scout was carried on the upper wing of the flying boat, and its pilot, Flight-Lt. M. J. Day of Vindex, switched on his engine and climbed away when the composite aircraft had reached a height of 1,000 ft. above Harwich Harbour, landing safely soon afterwards at Martlesham Heath. This experiment took place on 17 May 1916, but was not repeated because Flight-Lt. Day was killed in France soon afterwards and newer aircraft able to tackle Zeppelins more effectively were coming into service by that date.
  During the period of Scout C production at Brislington few modifications had been made to Barnwell's design, and meanwhile Barnwell had joined the R.F.C. and Tinson had gone to the Admiralty Air Department. The principal change necessary was a rearrangement of the tanks so as to bring the oil tank forward from its original position behind the cockpit; here it had insufficient head to maintain oil supply while taxying, particularly with the Le Rhone engine, whose oil pump was less effective than the Gnome's. In August 1915, however, Barnwell was released from active service to resume duty at Filton as Chief Designer, and he quickly took action to remedy some of the shortcomings of the existing Scout C, as reported by both Services. Some requests, such as the Admiralty's for a fixed fin and a rudder area of 5 sq. ft. he rejected. (There is a note in his handwriting in reply to the Admiralty overseer, Lt. Ronald Kemp, saying, 'We have already given them a rudder of 5.13 sq. ft. do they want a negative fin area?') But he took steps to improve detail design and performance, substituting streamline Rafwires for stranded cable and ensuring better interchangeability and reliability of quick-wearing parts. Provision was made for a synchronised Vickers gun, and tank design was improved to overcome fue11eaks caused by vibration. Loss of fuel from this cause forced Flight-Lt. Freeman of Vindex to break off an engagement with Zeppelin L.l7 after hitting it with his Ranken darts; he had to ditch his Scout, but was rescued by a Belgian ship and interned in Holland for a few days before being repatriated as a 'shipwrecked mariner'.
  The revised design, Scout D, completed in November 1915, matched a new War Office contract awarded on 3 August for 50 Scouts, Nos. 1044-1093 (5554-5603). These were delivered without engines between 14 February and 3 June 1916 and retained the same wing rigging and aileron area as the Scout C, but an alternative wing design was already approved for a smaller aileron combined with increased dihedral; in this type the wing-tip skids were moved outboard from below the interplane struts. The production drawings confirm that both types of wing were manufactured for the Scout D and that aileron size is not a criterion m recognising a Scout C from a Scout D. Two sizes of rudder were designed for Scout D, the larger being fitted in conjunction with long ailerons, the so-called 'medium' in conjunction with short ailerons; both the Scout D rudders were larger than the Scout C type in height and chord, but differed from each other only by 2 1/2 inches in height. A repeat contract for 30 Scout Ds Nos. 1094-1123 (7028-7057), was placed by the War Office on 18 October 1915, and these were equipped with standardised gun mountings and the modified wings; they were delivered without engines between 7 June and 15 July 1916, and followed by a further 50, Nos. 1381-1430 (A1742-A1791), delivered between 22 July and 27 September 1916. Meanwhile the Admiralty ordered 50 with the 100 h.p. Monosoupape-Gnome, Nos. 1124-1173 (8951-9000), on 9 November 1915; their delivery was spread over the period 18 April to 5.August 1916 and they had a modified cut-away centre section with a mounting for a movable Lewis gun. The cowling for the Monosoupape engine was larger in diameter than for the 80 h.p. engines and had a bulge on the starboard side to improve exhaust scavenging. A final production batch of 30 Scout Ds, Nos. 1837-1866 (N5390-N5419), covered by an Admiralty contract on 1 November 1916, was delivered between 2 November and 16 December 1916, but by this time the Company had begun production of the F.2A two-seater fighter at Brislington and declined an Admiralty invitation in March 1917 to tender for a further 40 Scouts. The first ten of the final batch had 100 h.p. Monosoupape-Gnomes, but the remainder reverted to 80 h.p. Gnomes and went to RN.A.S. flying schools. The R.F.C. also expressed interest in a more potent version of the Scout D, and three, 5554, 5555 and 5556, were modified to take the 110 h.p. Clerget, which like the Monosoupape, required a larger diameter cowling. In March 1916 Barnwell designed hemispherical spinners to suit each engine, and 5555 was fitted with the largest and provided data for the Clerget installation proposed for the M.1A monoplane. The other spinners were also tested, as well as a Morane spinner, which was flown extensively on a Scout D with a 110 h.p. Le Rhone by Lt. Frank Courtney at Farnborough. A conical spinner tested on 5556 suffered badly from distortion and vibration and no spinners were approved for production aircraft. The number of Scout Ds produced was 210, 130 for the R.F.C. and 80 for the R.N.A.S., so that the total of all Scouts A to D was 374, a not inconsiderable progeny from a project which started as a carbon-copy stop-gap.
  Scouts C and D found their way to most theatres of war in small numbers and saw service with the R.F.C. on the Western Front, in Palestine with Nos. 14, 111 and 67 (Australian) Squadrons, in Mesopotamia with Nos. 30 and 63 Squadrons and in Macedonia with No. 47 Squadron. With the R.N.A.S. they were flown by No.2 Wing from Mudros, Thasos and Imbros in the Dardanelles campaign, from H.M.S. Vindex in the North Sea, and from coastal stations at home. Both services employed them extensively for training and communications, and 8976 went to the Australian Central Flying School at Point Cook; another, rebuilt by No.1 (Southern) Aeroplane Repair Depot, R.F.C., as B763 was sent to McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio, where it was tested by the U.S. Army Engineering Division as Project no. P32.
  Only one Scout D, No. 1060 (5570), delivered new on 18 March 1916, survived the war to enter private ownership as G-EAGR in the British Civil Register. It was first owned by Major J. A. McKelvie, who sold it in 1926 to Squadron Leader Champion de Crespigny, who sold it a year later to Flight-Lt. A. M. Wray; it was stored for a time at Hedon, Hull, awaiting renewal of its certificate of airworthiness, which was refused because no approved fireproof bulkhead was fitted, and it was finally scrapped in 1930. In 1919 a Spanish private pilot, Juan Pombo, wished to order a new Scout D but the Company declined to build a single new specimen and could not recommend any of those still in store at that date as being fit for reconditioning.


SPECIFICATIONS AND DATA
Type: Scouts A-D, S.S.A.
Manufacturers: The British & Colonial Aeroplane Co. Ltd., Filton and Brislington, Bristol

Type Scout A Scout B Scout C Scout D S.S.A.
Power Plant 80 hp 80 hp 80 hp 80 hp 80 hp
   Gnome or Gnome Gnome, Gnome, Clerget or
   Le Rhone Le Rhone Le Rhone or Gnome
   Clerget Clerget,
   100 hp
   Mono-Gnome,
   110 hp Clerget
   or Le Rhone
Span 22 ft 24 ft 7 in 24 ft 7 in 24 ft 7 in 27 ft 4 in
   24 ft 7 in
Length 19 ft 9 in 20 ft 8 in 20 ft 8 in 20 ft 8 in 19 ft 9 in
Height 8 ft 6 in 8 ft 6 in 8 ft 6 in 8 ft 6 in
Wing Area 161 sq ft 198 sq ft 198 sq ft 198 sq ft 200 sq ft
   198 sq ft
Empty Weight 617 lb 750 lb 760 lb 760 lb 913 lb
   750 lb 925 lb
All-up Weight 957 lb 1,100 lb 1,200 lb 1,250 lb 1,200 lb
   1,100 lb 1,440 lb
Max. Speed 95 mph 100 mph 93 mph 100 mph 106 mph
   100 mph 110 mph
Initial Rate of
Climb 800 ft/min 1,000 ft/min 1,000 ft/min 1,100 ft/min
Duration 3 hours 2 1/2 hours 2 1/2 hours 2 1/2 hours 3 hours
   5 hours 2 hours
Accommodation 1 1 1 1 1
Production 1 2 161 210 1
Sequence Nos. 206 229,230 219


O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)


Bristol Scout C and D

  The Bristol Scout occupies a unique position in British naval flying by being the first landplane with a wheeled undercarriage to take off from the deck of an aircraft-carrier. This feat was achieved on 3 November 1915 when F/Sub-Lt H F Towler flew his Scout C (No.1255) from the short flying-deck of the seaplane carrier Vindex. Two Bristol Scouts were accommodated, and for stowage they were dismantled. As there were no facilities for landing-on, flotation bags were fitted so that the aircraft could 'ditch' alongside.
  The RNAS used both the Bristol Scout C and D, both of which were developments of the original Bristol Scout flown in February 1914. The RFC was the first Service to adopt the type (on 5 November 1914), but the RNAS followed soon afterwards with an order for 24 (Nos.1243 to 1266) on 7 December 1914. Some of these early Scout Cs served with the RNAS on the Western Front in 1915. They were followed by a second batch of 50 Scout Cs (Nos.3013 to 3062).
  Later Admiralty orders were for the Scout D, which differed from the C in having shorter ailerons, increased dihedral and wingtip skids further outboard. Of the 80 Scout Ds delivered to the RNAS, the first 60 had 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape engines (Nos.8951 to 9000 and N5390 to 5399), N5400 an 80 hp Le Rhone and the final 19 (N5401 to 5419) the 80 hp Gnome, as on the Scout Cs.
  Despite its fine design, the Bristol Scout was handicapped by lack of effective armament. It was used extensively for anti-Zeppelin patrols, both from carriers in the North Sea and from land bases such as Redcar and Great Yarmouth, but with no real success. One method of attack was to climb above the Zeppelin and drop Ranken darts.
  The RNAS also employed Bristol Scouts in the Dardanelles campaign, sometimes to escort bombing raids.

UNITS ALLOCATED
  No.2 Wing, RNAS (Belgium. Imbros and Mudros); 'A' Flight, RNAS (Thasos). Coastal air stations at Eastchurch. East Fortune, Great Yarmouth, Port Victoria and Redcar. Training schools at Chingford and Cranwell. Seaplane carrier Vindex.

TECHNICAL DATA (SCOUT C)
  Description: Single-seat scout, land-based or carrier-borne. Wooden structure fabric covered.
  Manufacturers: British & Colonial Aeroplane Co Ltd, Filton and Brislington, Bristol.
  Power Plant: One 80 hp Gnome.
  Dimensions: Span, 24 ft 7 in. Length, 20 ft 8 in. Height, 8 ft 6 in. Wing area, 198 sq ft.
  Weights: Empty, 750 lb. Loaded, 1,190 lb.
  Performance: Maximum speed, 93 mph at sea level. Climb, 9 1/2 min to 6,000 ft. Endurance, 2 1/2 hr. Service ceiling, 15,000 ft.
  Armament: Anti-Zeppelin aircraft carried 48 Ranken darts. Some Scout Ds had one Lewis gun above the centre-section.


H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)


S.S.A. Although this book is mainly concerned with armament, and not passive protection, the fitting of armour to military aeroplanes inevitably has some place, and in no more fining instance than this single-seat 'scout' built to Coanda's designs in 1914. As in the later Sopwith Salamander, the whole of the forward fuselage, including the cockpit, was of sheet steel construction (in this case monocoque) and even the engine was protected. A few weeks before war came this aeroplane was sent to the Breguet works in France. It may be mentioned in this context that at the Olympia Aero and Marine Exhibition of 1914 The Integral Propeller Co Ltd showed 'an armoured propeller specially designed and built for warplanes'.

Scout. The Scout, or Bullet, originated in 1914 as an eminently appealing creation apparently suitable for no other warlike purpose than that of carrying a man swiftly on the mission its name conveyed. Two years almost to the month from the first flight of the original machine, a Scout was at the lighting from with the first operational installation of British gun-synchronising gear. This was of the Vickers type, as was the gun itself. Many and exotic were the improvisations both before and after this historic installation. Pistols were carried not only upon the pilot's person, or in his tiny cockpit, but attached to the airframe also, the classic example being the battery of three Webley-Fosbery revolvers carried in a rack affixed to the Scout of Maj W. G. Moore. Capt Vesey Molt was credited with destroying two enemy two-seaters with a pistol. Shotguns, sometimes with choke bore, were somehow shipped aboard, firing buckshot and even chain shot, and rifles were attached, with or without their stocks, and variously stripped. A 0.45-in Martini-Henry rifle was, in one instance, lashed to a centre-section strut, tiring outside the airscrew arc at an angle of 45 degrees to the line of fire. One identified load was a Short Lee-Enfield rifle without its stock, a Mauser self-loading pistol and five rifle grenades. Two rifles were fixed to the fuselage sides, firing at about 45 degrees to clear the airscrew, and a Lewis gun was mounted to lire straight ahead, and thus not to clear the airscrew, the resulting holes being filled and bound with sticky tape. (Airscrew scrapped, if holes more than three in number.) Lewis guns were also mounted for outward, upward or forward firing, in the last instance over the top wing, sometimes with a trigger extension attached to the spade grip. At least one Scout carried two Lewis guns, one on the port side and one over the top wing, pivoted at the rear and lying at its forward end in a rest carried on a pylon. In another arrangement there was one forward-firing Lewis gun on each side. Installations of the Vickers gun were not altogether crude. Attempts were made at partial fairing, and a system of channelling the empty cases and links overboard, as devised by G. H. Challenger and as will be illustrated in Volume 2, was applied. A type of cross-wire sight has been identified. In addition to the Vickers synchronizing gear, there were installations of the Scarff-Dibovsky mechanism these on RNAS Scouts. Rifle grenades were carried in external racks, and Capt G. I. Carmichael has recalled that the detonator pins 'usually had to be withdrawn by the pilot's teeth'. The rods which fitted in the rifle barrel were sawn off and streamers were attached for stability. Ranken Darts in canisters of 24 were attached to the lower longerons, and RNAS Scouts are known to have carried two such canisters. Four bombs were carried under the nose of some RNAS Scouts.


M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)


Bristol S.B.5

  During 1913, once it had become apparent that the aeroplane had reached a state of development whereby it could be of use in warfare, several firms initiated design work on single-seat scouts. Among them, was the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company, one of whose designers, Mons. Henri Coanda, produced a tractor monoplane known as the S.B.5. An 80 h.p. Gnome engine was specified and construction was started under works number 183. The War Office's disapproval of monoplanes had its effect on the project, however, and the building of the S.B.5 was brought to a halt at an early stage. The parts were used later in the Scout A.


Bristol S.S.A.

  Built for the Breguet concern, the S.S.A. was a single-seat armoured scout designed by Mons. Henri Coanda under works number 219. It was a tractor biplane powered by the 80 h.p. Clerget, and crashed at Filton during 1914 while being flown by Harry Busteed. The S.S.A. featured a large spinner with an annular cooling slot between itself and the cowling. The whole of the front fuselage was built as a sheet-steel riveted monocoque enclosing the engine mounting, fuel and oil tanks and the pilot's seat, earning the machine its nickname of "The Bath". The two-wheel undercarriage incorporated a pair of skids lengthened at the rear so as to dispense with a tailskid; an early attempt to provide castoring wheels for cross-wind landings was also made.


Bristol Scout A and B

  During 1913, Frank Barnwell set to work to produce a single-seat scout in the form of a biplane, and the resultant Scout A was built under works number 206. The partly-completed airframe of the abandoned S.B.5 was converted for use in the Scout A, the design of which was assisted by Harry Busteed. The power plant was the 80 h.p. Gnome partly cowled, the lower portion being left open. Single-bay wings of a comparatively small span of 22 ft. were used, together with cable-connected ailerons on upper and lower tips. The wooden fuselage consisted of a slab-sided structure, surmounted by a former and stringer decking, and metal cowling panels extended to the rear of the cockpit. The Scout was not provided with a fixed fin. The undercarriage was a simple, neat arrangement of a pair of vee-struts, with the wheels of fairly generous diameter mounted on a transverse axle with rubber cord shock-absorbers, the unit being devoid of unsightly, drag-inducing skids and their attendant struts and wires. All of the control wires were duplicated for safety, and the pilot's seat was adjustable for height.
  Upon completion, the Scout A was taken to Larkhill, where, piloted by Harry Busteed, it was flown for the first time on 23rd February, 1914. Test flights were very successful, and the machine was displayed at the 1914 Olympia Aero Show held during the following month. It was decided to fit larger wings to the prototype, and it reappeared on 2nd April, 1914, with an increased span measuring 24 ft. 7 ins. The cowling also was modified to a fully circular type. A practical demonstration of its speed was given at Easter, when Busteed flew it from Larkhill to Brooklands in 20 minutes. On 14th May, 1914, Harry Busteed put the Scout A through its A.I.D. tests and recorded a top speed of 97 m.p.h. and a climb of 800 ft. per minute. The machine was entered for the third Aerial Derby due to be held on 23rd May, but which, owing to bad weather, had to be postponed until 6th June. S. V. Sippe was the pilot nominated to fly it in the race, but he was forced to withdraw as the visibility was too poor. Two days after the contest, on 8th June, 1914, the Scout A was flown by Lord John Carbery. He was so impressed by the prototype's performance that he was allowed to buy the bare airframe, in which he installed the 80 h.p. le Rhone from his Morane Saulnier Monoplane, the work being completed in time for him to fly it under racing number 12 in the Hendon-to-Manchester and return race flown on 20th June. Lord Carbery damaged the undercarriage when he nosed over upon landing at Birmingham and was forced to retire from, the event. Repairs were soon effected and extra fuel tanks were installed to increase the Scout"s range for the London-to- Paris and return race flown on 11th July, 1914. Lord Carbery was the pilot but on the return lap he ran out of petrol in mid-Channel, owing to a mistake in refuelling in Paris; the resulting engine failure forced him to land in the water. Luckily he was picked up by a passing tramp steamer, but the Scout could not be salvaged and it sank.
  Prior to the outbreak of war, two additional improved 80 h.p. Gnome Scouts, designated Scout B and given works numbers 229 and 230, were supplied to the R.F.C., flying as 633 and 634 respectively. The Scout was produced later in quantity for the R.F.C. and the R.N.A.S., and gave extensive service during the 1914-18 War under its designations Scouts C and D. When the numbered system of Bristol types was applied retrospectively in 1923 the Scout C was chosen to start the range as Type I.

SPECIFICATION

  Description: Single-seat racing and reconnaissance biplane. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
  Manufacturers: The British and Colonial Aeroplane Co. Ltd., Filton, Bristol.
  Power Plant: 80 h.p. Gnome. 80 h.p. le Rhone.
  Dimensions: {Scout A) Span, 22 ft. (later 24 ft. 7 ins.). Length, 19 ft. 9 ins. Wing area, 161.5 sq. ft. (later 198 sq. ft.). (Scout B) Span, 24 ft. 7 ins. Length, 20 ft. 8 ins. Height, 8 ft. 6 ins. Wing area, 198 sq. ft.
  Weights: (Scout A) Empty, 617 lb. Loaded, 957 lb.
  Performance: (Scout A) Maximum speed, 97 m.p.h. Landing speed, 47 m.p.h. Climb, 800 ft. min. Endurance, 3 hrs.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


BRISTOL SCOUT D UK
  
  Derived from a single-seat sports biplane designed by Frank Barnwell, first flown in February 1914 and retrospectively known as the Scout A, the Scout D was a revised design which, completed in November 1915, had provision for a fixed synchronised 0.303-in (7,7-mm) Vickers gun. The Scout D had been preceded by two Scout Bs, which, intended for reconnaissance, were officially unarmed, but one of which was fitted with a rifle on each side of the fuselage and angled outward to avoid hitting the propeller when fired. These had been followed by 161 Scout Cs (74 for the RN and 87 for the RFC) which, again, were officially unarmed, although much ingenuity was displayed in the field in fitting pistols, rifles and carbines, while some RN Scouts carried 24-round canisters of Ranken darts which it was intended to use against Zeppelins. The Scout D was thus the first model for which armament was officially intended, though relatively few of these had the synchronised Vickers gun and the armament of others varied considerably, some having a 0.303-in (7,7-mm) fixed Lewis gun firing straight ahead without synchronising equipment and others having a movable Lewis above the upper wing. Of the 210 examples built, 80 went to the RN, of which 50 had 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape engines and the remainder the 80 hp Gnome. Most of those delivered to the RFC ultimately had the 80 hp Le Rhone engines and the following data relate to the Scout D with this engine.

Max speed, 100 mph (161 km/h) at sea level, 86 mph (138 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3050 m).
Time to 10,000 ft (3050 m), 18.5 min.
Endurance, 2.5 hrs.
Empty weight, 760 lb (345 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,250 lb (567 kg).
Span, 24 ft 7 in (7,49 m).
Length, 20 ft 8 in (6,30 m).
Height, 8 ft 6 in (2,59 m).
Wing area, 198 sq ft (18,39 m2).


Журнал Flight


Flight, March 14, 1914.

WHAT THERE WILL BE TO SEE AT OLYMPIA.

THE EXHIBITS.

Bristol (British and Colonial Aeroplane Co., Ltd.). (43.)

  THIS firm of constructors, who were our sole representative at the recent Paris Aero Exhibition, are showing two machines, one of which is a two-seater with the seats arranged in tandem, and the other a single-seater, as well as their travelling motor-repair workshop. Both machines exhibited are 80 h.p. Gnome-engined tractor biplanes, the engine on the two-seater being of the new Monosoupape type mounted upon supporting plates of pressed steel, and entirely enclosed in an aluminium shield that is continued forward in advance of the propeller for which it forms the boss and with which it rotates.
  Special attention has been given in the design of the wings, which, on the single-seater machine, are all fitted with double-acting ailerons. The empennage of this machine is non-lifting, and the frames for this as well as those for the elevator flaps and rudder are of steel tubing, the fabric covering being sewn on. On the two-seater the empennage is set at a negative angle and is used as a directive organ. The landing chassis of the latter is of the standard Bristol type, but the single-seater machine has a special two-wheeled undercarriage. Sufficient petrol may be carried to give a flight lasting for 3 hours in the case of the single-seater and 5 hours for the two-seater.
  The travelling workshop is fully equipped with every means necessary for the purpose of executing repairs to an aeroplane, and has been kept to the smallest possible dimensions. Winding gear, for the purpose of enabling the vehicle to wind itself or haul a trailer, is provided, as well as a dynamo of 50 amperes capacity at 65 volts, with suitably arranged switches for controlling the machine tools, which are driven by a separate electric motor. These machines include a lathe, band-saw, drilling machine, portable drill and a grinding machine, but a hand-operated shaping machine is also fitted. Increased floor space n obtained whilst the workshop is at rest, by dropping the two halves of each side door.


Flight, March 21, 1914.

THE OLYMPIA EXHIBITION.

THE EXHIBITS.

BRISTOL. (BRITISH AND COLONIAL AEROPLANE CO., LTD.)

  THE two biplanes exhibited on this stand differ considerably from previous models, the two-seater bearing hardly any resemblance to its prototype shown at Olympia last year, whilst the small fast single-seater scouting machine may be said to be the first of a new type to be turned out by this firm.
<...>
  In the 80 h.p. Scouting Machine both the span and the chassis appear to have been reduced to a minimum, for the span is only 22 ft. and the chassis is of the simplest imaginable form, consisting of two pairs of V struts of spruce, from which the axle is slung by means of rubber shock-absorbers. The rather wide and deep fuselage is built up in the usual way, and entirely covered in by aluminium in front and fabric in the rear. An 80 h.p. Gnome is mounted on overhung bearings, and almost entirely covered in by an aluminium shield.
  The main planes, similar in section, although on a reduced scale, to those of the two-seater, are separated by one pair of struts only on each side, and are attached to the fuselage by means of a steel clip and vertical bolt through the spars. The pilot is accommodated on an aluminium seat of the bucket type, and controls the machine by means of a single central column and a foot-bar. The column terminates in a double handle similar to those fitted on the Prier-type Bristol monoplanes.
  The tail planes consist of a flat non-lifting fixed tail plane mounted on top of the fuselage, and of a divided elevator. The rudder is of the balanced type, and no vertical tail fin is fitted. A small pivoted tail skid, sprung by means of rubber shock absorbers inside the fuselage, protects the tail planes.


Flight, April 25, 1914.

THE 80 H.P. BRISTOL "SCOUT."

  IT is a matter of gratification that the best of British-built machines are now generally acknowledged to be at least equal to those produced in other countries, in spite of the scant encouragement which the British industry has received in the past. It appears that Great Britain is in a fair way to take the leadership, at least as regards a certain type of machine originated in this country, a type possessing great possibilities, which has not up to the present received much attention abroad. We refer to the small, fast, single-seater, tractor-type biplane. In France, when high speeds are desired, designers almost invariably turn to the monoplane type of machine, whilst German constructors do not appear to pay any considerable attention to really fast machines. There is little doubt, however, that the small span tractor biplane has great possibilities where, in addition to a very high maximum speed, a low minimum speed is desired, for the biplane construction allows of a considerable amount of saving in weight, whilst still retaining a reasonably high factor of safety. Evidently British constructors are realising the possibilities of this type, as, at the recent Olympia Show, three well-known English firms exhibited machines of this type. Of these machines, the one exhibited by the British and Colonial Aeroplane Co. has already proved its capabilities in actual flight. Since the closing of the Show, Mr. Harry Busteed, the well-known Bristol pilot, has done a considerable amount of flying on the machine, most notable among these flights being one made during Easter, when he flew from Salisbury Plain to Brooklands in 27 mins. Of course this flight was accomplished with the aid of a following wind, but even so it was no mean performance.
  In the general disposition of its component parts the machine follows standard practice, having a rectangular type fuselage, built up of four longerons, which are of ash in the front portion, and spruce at the rear. Vertical and transverse spruce struts separate the longerons, and the whole structure is made rigid by high-tension steel piano wires attached to steel plate joints. Mounted on overhung bearings in the nose of the fuselage is the 80 h.p. Gnome engine which drives directly a Bristol propeller of 8 ft. diameter. An aluminium cowl almost entirely encloses the engine. This cowl appears to present a comparatively large vertical surface, and it would seem that some form of hemispherical nose-piece, revolving with the propeller as in the large two-seater Bristol biplane exhibited at the Show, might add slightly to the speed. The front part of the fuselage up to a point behind the pilot's seat is entirely closed in by an aluminium covering, whilst the rear portion is covered with fabric. Just behind the inner pair of rear struts is the pilot's cockpit, in which is accommodated the seat, slung from the fuselage on piano wires. By means of the wire strainers incorporated in the seat suspension, the position of the seat may be altered to suit the pilot. Control is by means lever, which operates the elevator pivoted foot-bar actuating the rudder. The vertical lever terminates in a form of handle similar to those known from the Prier type Bristol monoplanes, on which is mounted the switch. Between the pilot's seat and the engine are mounted the tanks, which have a capacity sufficient for a flight of three hours' duration.
  Attached to the upper longeron at the rear end of the fuselage, is a flat, non-lifting stabilising plane, to the trailing edge of which is hinged the divided elevator. The rudder is pivoted round an extension of the sternpost of the fuselage, and is partly balanced by a small portion of it projecting forward from the rudderpost above the stabilising plane. All control cables are in duplicate and have a very high factor of safety.
  The main planes are chiefly remarkable on account of their unusually short span, and on closer inspection the wing section proves to be highly interesting, as it does not resemble any of the standard sections employed by other well-known firms. As a matter of fact, the section is the same, of course to a reduced scale, as that on the two-seater Bristol machines, which has been found by the Eiffel laboratory to give an exceedingly good lift/drift ratio. This wing section was, as our readers are no doubt aware, designed by Mr. Coanda, and is probably one of the contributory causes to the high speed and good speed range of the machine. Double acting ailerons are fitted to both upper and lower planes, so that the machine must have ample lateral control. Internally the wings are braced by piano wire, whilst the external diagonal bracing is effected by stranded cables having a high factor of safety. Only a single pair of spruce struts on each side of the fuselage separate the main planes, so that there is very little head resistance.
  The chassis has been reduced to an absolute minimum. Two pairs of V struts joined at their lower extremities by a transverse member constitute the rigid portion of the chassis. The tubular axle rests in the angle between the struts, from which it is sprung by means of rubber cord. The tail planes are protected against contact with the ground by means of a short skid projecting through the fuselage covering, and sprung inside the fuselage by means of rubber cord. The main characteristics of the machine are :-
Weight of machine empty 616 lbs.
Minimum speed 47 m.p.h.
Useful load carried 340 lbs.
Range of flight 3 hours.
Maximum speed 95 m.p.h.


Flight, May 22, 1914.

THE AERIAL DERBY.

THE PILOTS AND HOW TO RECOGNISE THE MACHINES.

No. 18. The 80 h.p. Bristol Biplane,
  as has already been explained, will look, when flying at a height, somewhat similar to the Vickers biplane, but may be identified by its narrower fuselage.

THE MACHINES AND HOW TO RECOGNISE THEM.

No. 18. The 80 h.p. Bristol Biplane is similar to the machine exhibited at the last Olympia Aero Show, on which some time ago Mr. Busteed flew from Salisbury Plain to Brooklands in 27 mins., and as this new machine is, if anything, faster than the old one, it should stand an excellent chance of being one of the first to finish the course.


Flight, March 26, 1915.

EDDIES.

  Although accounts of duels in the air are frequent enough in the daily press, these reports are generally more or less coloured, and frequently sound highly improbable. I was therefore very interested the other day in hearing from a pilot who was home on leave a description of a fight between an English and a German machine. My informant was stationed at - well, never mind, "somewhere in France" - when one day a German machine having slightly backswept wings (probably an Aviatik biplane) appeared over the town flying at a great height, and dropped three bombs in quick succession. After this heroic feat, the machine turned tail and headed towards the German lines. Two Bristol scouts were quickly away in pursuit, one of which returned after about an hour's absence, the pilot having been unable to find his quarry. Everybody was scanning the skies anxiously awaiting the return of the second Bristol when suddenly the Aviatik hove in sight again, probably, my informant thinks, to try to find out what damage his bombs had done. Presently the second Bristol scout was seen some little distance behind the Aviatik, going - in the fluent flow of the story I did not quite catch the words used by my informant, but it was something to do with leather, and intended to convey the impression that the Bristol was not actually crawling along. It did not take the British 'bus long to overhaul the Aviatik, and as he flew past it, reports could be distinctly heard from the rifles which had been strapped on each side of the fuselage. Getting a short distance ahead of the German biplane, the Bristol was seen to swerve sharply and fly right across its course, evidently trying to head the German off. This performance was repeated several times, the Bristol crossing the nose of the Aviatik at very close quarters. Suddenly the Aviatik was seen to put its nose down, and presently flames were visible behind the engine, the machine falling to the ground a blazing wreck. The officer piloting the Bristol returned shortly afterwards, and was, needless to say, received with enthusiasm.


Flight, November 12, 1915.

CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS.-X.

  UNDERCARRIAGES of the "Vee" type and constructed of steel tubes were dealt with in our last issue, and some of the relative advantages of the two forms of construction, steel and wood, were pointed out. In our present page of illustrations are shown a few examples of how the construction of a "Vee" undercarriage may be carried out when the material employed is wood. A very simple type of chassis, offering a minimum of head resistance, is that of the Bristol scouting biplane, the first of which was exhibited, as our readers will remember, at the Olympia Aero Show in 1914. A good deal of criticism of this chassis was vouchsafed at the time from various quarters, mainly on the grounds that spruce struts had been used, and that the rear struts were much more nearly vertical than is usual practice. Since then, however, Bristol scouts have done some exceedingly good work, and as far as one can gather, the undercarriage has, without being materially altered, proved equal to the work for which it was designed. The four struts that constitute the chassis are secured at the top to the lower longitudinals of the body by steel clips, and are joined together two and two at their lower ends by other steel clips bolted through the lower, flat portion of the struts. From these clips project outwards on each side short lugs, to which are anchored the rubber cords that provide the flexible suspension of the wheels.
  The single tubular axle rests in the angle between the struts, and is prevented from moving sideways by steel wires running from the rear chassis strut on one side to the opposite end of the axle. No radius rods are fitted, the rear struts being so nearly vertical that they prevent the axle from moving back to any appreciable extent.
<...>


Flight, January 13, 1916.

A Model Bristol Scout.

  From South Lowestoft Mr. Lewis E. Richards sends a photo, of a beautifully-made Bristol scout, of which he says :-
  "Enclosed herewith are photos, of a model Bristol Scout, Type C, 1915, constructed a few months back, which might interest your Model Section.
  "Made almost entirely of mahogany and copper, to a scale of 1/12th , it was primarily intended as an exhibition working model, having in view the suggestion I put forward in your columns last February in connection with the Flying Services Fund.
  "Not the least interesting features incorporated in its construction are a special copper stamping for the engine housing, and a laminated air screw, whose shafting is coupled to a motor and driven by a dry battery in the fuselage.
  "Controls are functioned by levers situated in the cabane, including a device for starting up and switching off the motor. To facilitate dismantling and inspection, all members are readily and easily detachable.
  "Details have engaged closest attention, and to ensure accuracy, blue prints were supplied through the courtesy of Messrs. The British and Colonial Aeroplane Co., Ltd., to whom I am greatly indebted for their kind and valued assistance.
  "The planes are only shown in section, pressure of business having prevented their completion."


Flight, January 23, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE "BRISTOL" MACHINES

  As one of the pioneer firms in the aircraft industry particular interest attaches to the products of the British and Colonial Aeroplane Co., Ltd., of Filton, Bristol, who commenced their career quite in the earliest days with "box kites" of the Farman type, later followed by more original designs by, in succession, Prier, GordonT England, and Coanda. It was, however, to neither of these designers that the honour of designing the "Bristol" War machines fell. This responsibility rested upon Capt. F. S. Barnwell, R.A.F., who joined the firm as designer before the War, and produced, in collaboration, we believe, with Mr. Busteed, the little Bristol scout of pre-War days. The first of these machines was exhibited at the Olympia Aero Show of 1914, scale drawings of which were published in "FLIGHT" of April 25, 1914. Later in the year a similar machine was flown by Lord Carberry in the London-Paris-London race. The first Bristol scout was not greatly different from the type D scout illustrated herewith, although there are certain variations as regards dimensions, etc.

The Bristol Scout, Type D.

  The original Bristol scout had an area of only 156 sq. ft., whereas the type D shown in the accompanying illustrations has a total wing area of 200 sq. ft. In general outline the type D is very similar to the original Bristol scout, the rudder, tail plane and fins, as well as the body and main planes, being of almost identical shape. The body is somewhat deeper in front, and the cowling is slightly different, but otherwise the machine remains true to its prototype. Unlike several other makes of single-seater tractors, the Bristol has its wing bracing wires arranged in the plane of the staggered struts, a feature that has been considered undesirable on account of the extra drag stress it may impose on the internal bracing of the top plane, but in the case of the Bristol any such tendency is countered by fitting external drag wires running from the upper and lower ends of the rear inter-plane struts to the front of the fuselage. That this form of bracing is adequate would appear to be proved by the fact that to the best of our knowledge no Bristol scout has ever shed its wings in the air. Several variations of the Bristol type D have been built. With the exception of the fitting of different engines and minor alterations, they have not, however, been greatly different from the machine illustrated. To mention only one, there was the 110 h,p. Clerget-engined machine, which had a slightly different cowl, and had a rotating "spinner" fitted over the propeller boss. Unfortunately we have not received any particulars of the performance, etc., of this machine, and so are unable to include it in the accompanying tables.

W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
An Admiralty Scout C at RNAS Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey, 1915.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Невооруженный Бристоль "Скаут" с британской военно-морской авиастанции в Истчерче, июнь 1915г.
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Разведчик/истребитель Бристоль "Скаут", 1-я эскадрилья RFC (Франция, 1915г.)
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Бристоль "Скаут", 6 дивизион RFC, пилот - капитан Л.Дж.Хоукер, июль 1915г.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A Scout D from the first production batch, 55 Sqn RFC, Yatesbury, 1917.
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Летающая лодка "Феликстоу" (Porte Baby) с установленным на верхнем крыле истребителем "Скаут"
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Side view of the Bristol "Scout" single-seater.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Three-quarter rear view of the Bristol "Scout" single-seater.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Первый опытный экземпляр самолета Бристоль "Бэби".
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Original Scout, No. 206, at Larkhill, February 1914; Busteed in cockpit, Barnwell holding up tail.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Довоенный снимок "Скаута" А. Внешне самолет отличался упрощенным капотам двигателя с большим вырезом снизу и отсутствием предохранительных дуг под нижним крылом. / Side View of Bristol "Scout", early type.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Bristol Scout A prototype on display at the 1914 Olympia Aero Show.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The Bristol scout.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Bristol Scout A prototype after fitting with 24 ft. 7 ins. span wings and circular cowling.
The extremely business-looking 80 h.p. Bristol Scout. Note the method of carrying the shield all round tie engine.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Bristol Scout Type A of 1914.
The 80 hp Le Rhone Bristol Scout prototype which Lord John Carbery flew in the London-Paris-London Race on 11 July, 1914, and which was lost in the English Channel on the retun trip.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Lord John Carbery's Bristol Scout A prototype, fitted with 80 h.p. le Rhone, at the start of the London-Paris-London Race on 11th July, 1914.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Scout A modified; Carbery starting from Hendon in London-Manchester Race, July 1914.
P.Lewis - British Racing and Record-breaking Aircraft /Putnam/
A disappointed Lord Carbery surveys the damage to his Bristol Scout, which crashed on landing at Birmingham during the race from London to Manchester on 20 June, 1914.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Bristol Scout Type B of 1914.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Mr. S. V. Sippe on the Bristol Scout at Brooklands Aerodrome.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
A reminiscence of FLight-Commander S. V. Sippe, D.S.O. (whose marriage was announced on December 8th), on the Bristol scout at Brooklands Aerodrome in the days that are gone.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Pilot: Mr. H. Busteed.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
First production Scout C at Eastchurch in March 1915.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Невооруженный Бристоль "Скаут" английской морской авиации, 1915 год.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Although the United States entered the war in April 1917, it was spring 1918 before any significant number of air units were deployed to France. Here personnel pose with a Scout С at Waddington, one of the training units to take USAS personnel.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
During the last weeks of 1913, Frank Barnwell of Bristol's X' Department, drew up his first aircraft design. This machine, initially known as the Baby Biplane, became the Scout when demonstrated to the British Army in February 1914. With relatively minor modifications, this prototype was developed into the Scout B, of which the War Office bought two, followed by the Scout C, the first of the series to entered full scale production in late 1914 for both the RFC and the RNAS. The 110hp Clerget or Le Rhone powered Bristol Scout D, seen here, made its debut in November 1915. Armed with an overwing mounted single .303-inch Lewis gun, the Scout D had a top level speed of 110mph at sea level and entered operational service in February 1916. The RFC and the RNAS each took delivery of 80 Scout Ds.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Although the Bristol Scout D had made its first appearance in late 1915, it was the following year before they became operational with the RNAS. Some 80 Scouts Ds were ordered by the RNAS. a number of which were handed to the RFC during the summer.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Scout D of R.N.A.S. (100 hp Mono-Gnome) with large ailerons, latge rudder and cut-out for Lewis gun; Cranwell 1916.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Bristol Scout D '8988. This type, a development of the Scout С was destined to see extensive operational use in most theatres even though it was never truly successful.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Front View of Bristol Scout, type "D" commonly known as the "Bullet" (80 h.p. Gnome engine).
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
Bristol Scout D(No.8980) of the RNAS with 100 hp Mono-Gnome and small ailerons..
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Scout D was the first fully armed version of the Bristol biplane, but many flew unarmed such as that in Australia in 1919.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Bristol Scout of the RNAS, with Lewis gun mounted on starboard side of the fuselage.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Бристоль "Скаут" без полотняной обшивки в одном из британских авиамузеев.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
B.E.2d and Scout D biplanes ready for dispatch from Filton in 1916.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Scout D of R.F.C. with 110 hp Clerget, spinner and large ailerons.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Model of a Bristol scout fuselage by Mr. Lewis E. Richards.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Two views of a scale model Bristol, which can be flown, made by Mr. Barrows.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
GETTING HER HEIGHT. - The Bristol Scout climbing.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The small 80 h.p. Bristol single-seater.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Chassis and engine housing on Bristol "Scout."
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The tail of the Bristol "Scout" biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Attachment of tail plane on Bristol "Scout."
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Wing section of the Bristol "Scout."
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Attachment of lift cable.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Various "Vee"-type undercarriages constructed of wood.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Various engine mountings and housings.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Bristol S.S.A.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Bristol SSA biplane. This armored Scout was built for a French requirement, but only one example was built.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - These are all drawn to a uniform scale, the scale being the same as that of the D.H. Milestones, published on January 9.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
PLAN VIEWS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - The scale to which these are drawn is the same as that of the D.H. machines previously published.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Bristol Scout A (modified)
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
Bristol Scout D
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Bristol Scout D
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
THE BRISTOL "SCOUT" BIPLANE. - Plan, front and side elevation to scale.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Bristol Scout C