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SPAD S.XII (Spa 12 C-1)

Страна: Франция

Год: 1916

Истребитель

SPAD - S.XI A.2 - 1916 - Франция<– –>SPAD - SE - 1916 - Франция


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


SPAD S XII (Spa 12C-1)

  "Спад" S XII - первый в мире истребитель с пушечным вооружением, созданный Луи Бешеро на базе "Спада" S VII в декабре 1916 года. S XII был оснащен 200-сильным мотором "Испано-Сюиза" 8C с понижающим шестеренчатым редуктором, что позволило установить на него, помимо синхронного пулемета "Виккерс", однозарядное полуавтоматическое орудие "Гочкис".
  Пушка крепилась непосредственно к двигателю и размещалась между блоков цилиндров, а ствол проходил сквозь полый вал редуктора и ось винта. В автоматическом режиме происходило открывание затвора после выстрела и выброс гильзы, а заряжать орудие летчику приходилось вручную. Боекомплект составляли унитарные картечные патроны, каждый из которых содержал по шесть сферических чугунных пуль диаметром 18 мм. Патроны размещались в кассетах, укрепленных по бортам кабины.
  Скорострельность орудия была довольно низкой, а ручное перезаряжание - весьма неудобным и отвлекавшим внимание пилота от ведения боя. Эффективная дальность картечного залпа не превышала нескольких десятков метров. К тому же после каждого выстрела кабину наполняли пороховые газы, что создавало летчику дополнительные неудобства и негативно влияло на его самочувствие. В результате всего этого S XII был признан неудачным и не получил широкого распространения. Хотя первоначальный заказ составлял 300 экземпляров, реально построили немногим больше 20. Серийные "спады" S XII на французских аэродромах.
  Помимо вооружения, S XII отличался от предшественника слегка увеличенными геометрическими размерами, формой стабилизатора и вынесенным вперед для сохранения центровки верхним крылом.
  Большинство серийных S XII поступило в знаменитую эскадрилью "Аисты", в которой служили многие выдающиеся асы Франции. Один экземпляр был отправлен для ознакомления в Англию, еще один - в США, но там к этим машинам не проявили интереса.
  


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


SPAD S.XII CaI 1917 г.

  Фирмой было построено около 30 пушечных истребителей SPAD S.XII CaI. Машина в основном повторяла конструкцию истребителя S.VII C1. Отличался он более мощным двигателем HS-8Cb (220 л. с.; на опытном стоял HS-8C мощностью 200 л. с.), приспособленном для установки морской пушки Патэ, стреляющей через полый вал винта. Пулемет с верха фюзеляжа переносился на правый борт. Верхнее крыло для обеспечения необходимой центровки немного смещено вперед. Самолет не получил большого распространения, так как перезарядка пушки требовала времени и отвлекала от пилотирования, что в условиях скоротечного воздушного боя было неприемлемо. Однако некоторое время на S.XII СаI летал один из лучших асов Франции Поль Рене Фонк.


  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   S.XII Cal 1917г.
  Размах, м 8,00/7,65
  Длина, м 6,40
  Высота, м 2,55
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 20,2
  Сухой вес, кг 587
  Взлетный вес, кг 883
  Двигатель: HS-8 Са
   мощность, л. с. 220
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 203
  Скорость подъема на высоту
   2000 м, мин.сек 6,03
  Дальность полета, км 300
  Потолок, м 6850
  Экипаж, чел. 1
  Вооружение 1 пушка, 1 пулемет


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


SPAD S.XII France

  Late in 1916, France's leading fighter ace, Georges Guynemer, asked Louis Bechereau to design for him a fighter capable of mounting a 37-mm shell-firing gun. Bechereau developed from the S.VII a generally similar aircraft powered by a 200 hp Hispano-Suiza 8C engine and incorporating a 37-mm Puteaux cannon firing through a hollow propeller shaft, an arrangement made possible by the engine’s spur reduction gear. A supplementary 7,7-mm Vickers gun was fitted, and the main-planes, unlike those of the S.VII, had modest stagger. The SFA designation of the aircraft was Spa.XII Cal. Series aircraft were powered by the 220 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Cb engine, and, although 300 of the cannon-armed S.XII fighters were ordered, their operational use proved to be very limited. They could be flown with any hope of success only by pilots of considerable skill and experience. The cannon was a single-shot weapon, fumes filled the cockpit when it was fired and reloading in combat was tricky. Owing to the bulk of the gun, the S.XII used (at Guynemer’s suggestion) Deperdussin-type flying controls (ie, a wheel on a rocking arch). No escadrille was ever completely equipped with this fighter, which was allotted in small numbers and only to selected pilots. Guynemer made his first operational sortie on the S.XII on 5 July 1917, and 15 months later, on 1 October 1918, there were only eight S.XIIs with operational escadrilles.

Max speed, 126 mph (203 km/h) at 6,560 ft (2 000 m).
Time to 6,560 ft (2 000 m), 6.05 min.
Endurance, 1.75 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,295 lb (587 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,947 lb (883 kg).
Span, 26 ft 3 in (8,00 m).
Length, 21 ft 0 in (6,40 m).
Height, 8 ft 4 1/2 in (2,55 m).
Wing area, 217.44 sqft (20,20 m2).


Сайт Pilots-and-planes


While the SPAD 7 was a definite improvement over the Nieuport series and more than a match for contemporary German fighters, it had one definite weakness-its armament. Unlike many of the German fighters in 1917, the SPAD 7 was armed with only a single machine gun. One of the pilots who had put the SPAD 7 to such good use was Georges Guynemer. He approached Bechereau with the idea of fitting a cannon mounted to fire through the hollow hub of a 200-hp Hispano Suiza 8Cb engine. Bechereau designed the SPAD 12 to meet Guynemer's request, and the prototype first appeared in December 1916.
  The cannon selected for the SPAD 12 was a 12-round, 37mm S.A.M.C. In addition to this powerful weapon, a single Vickers machine gun was fitted to starboard. The only other obvious changes were the elimination of the tear-drop cylinder fairings and a more streamlined cowling. More subtle additions were the increase in wing area (necessitated by the weight of the cannon), positive stagger of the wings, and rounded wing tips. Subsequent modifications included fitting of a 220-hp Hispano Suiza 8Cb engine and addition of pocket extensions to the wing tips. Guynemer himself tested initial examples of the SPAD 12 in combat, and he achieved notable success with the type. However, it would seem that it took pilots of Guynemer's skill to use the SPAD 12 successfully in combat.
  The SPAD 12 prototype was successful and a total of 300 were ordered, although it seems that not all were completed. These aircraft were supplied in limited numbers to some fighter units but it does not appear that they ever equipped an entire escadrille. In August 1917 only one was on strength. The mystery as to why the operational career of the SPAD 12 was so short may be found in a memo dated 28 November 1917. Here it was noted that there were only two SPAD 12s at the front several months after the type was accepted for operational service. Because of delays in production it was decided to abandon plans to supply more aircraft to front-line units. By April 1918 the number of SPAD 12s had risen to eight, and by 1 October there were still only eight at the front. The cannon armed SPAD 12s remained available in small numbers and were intended for use by the best pilots in each escadrille. Some French aces scored numerous victories with the SPAD 12.
  It was soon found that the weight of the cannon severely limited the aircraft's performance and that the cannon was at best tricky to aim and fire. The Vickers machine gun was apparently used to aim along the line of fire and, once this was determined, the pilot had to fire the cannon at the correct moment. The single-shot weapon had to be reloaded in flight by the pilot through the breech, which extended into the cockpit between the pilot's knees. This extension prevented a control stick from being fitted, so the aircraft used a control system similar to that developed by the Deperdussin firm. In addition to these difficulties, the engine vibration and gases from the cannon made the SPAD 12 extremely difficult to fly in combat. It has been recorded that for all these reasons the SPAD 12 was disliked by most pilots and saw little front-line service.
  
  
SPAD 12 Single-Seat Fighter with 220-hp Hispano-Suiza 8Cb
  
  Span: 8.00 m
  Length: 6.40 m
  Height: 2.55 m
  Wing area: 20.2 sq. m
  Empty weight: 587 kg
  Loaded weight: 883 kg
  Maximum speed:
   2,000 m 203 km/h
   3,000 m 198 km/h
   4,000 m 190 km/h
   5,000 m 177 km/h
  Climb:
   2,000 m 6 minutes 3 seconds
   3,000 m 10 minutes 2 seconds
   4,000 m 15 minutes 42 seconds
   5,000 m 23 minutes 13 seconds
  Ceiling: 6,850 m
  Endurance: 1.75 hours
  Armament: A 12-round, 37-mm S.A.M.C.
   and a synchronized 7.7-mm Vickers machine gun
  A total of 300 were ordered but it is unlikely all were built.

А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Истребитель SPAD S.XII Cal, на котором летал Поль Рене Фонк (1917г.)
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Спад S XII, эскадрилья Spa-38, пилот - капитан Ф.Мадон, весна 1918г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
На этом пушечном истребителе "Спад" S XII с окрашенным в красный цвет фюзеляжем весной 1918г. летал французский капитан Ф.Мадон из эскадрильи SPA 38.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Французский ас Рене Фонк из эскадрильи "Аисты" (см. эмблему на борту) возле своего истребителя "Спад" S XII, на котором он сбил несколько германских самолетов на западном фронте.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
'Ace of aces' Rene Fonck who was credited with 75 victories by the end of the war; his first operational posting had been to Escadrille C47 (flying Caudrons) in June 1915 as a Corporal Pilot.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Установка мотор-пушки на "Спаде"S XII
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The cannon-armed S.XII never equipped a complete escadrille of the Aviation Militaire.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
After the Spad 12 was delivered to Guynemer, he added the name Vieux Chales and a diagonal White stripe to the fuselage sides. The individual aircraft number, 2, was in Black
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Georges Guynemer in the deep cockpit of the first Spad 12 (S.382). Guynemer personally conducted much of the flight testing on the Spad 12
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Guynemer displays his avion magique to General Francet d'Esperey at La Bonne Maison on 5 July 1917. Earlier that day, Guynemer had flown the first combat mission with the Spad 12, during which the aircraft was damaged. The wings of S.382 have been removed, pending its transport to Buc for repairs
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Georges Marie Ludovick Jules Guynemer is seen here briefing General Franchet d'Espery on the finer point of the SPAD VII's Hispano-Suiza engine in June 1917. Like the German fighter ace, Theo Osterkamp, Guynemer was initially rejected for military service on the grounds of his weak physique. Born in Paris on 24 December 1894, Guynemer befriended the local airfield commandant in order to enlist as an aircraft mechanic on 24 November 1914. Once in the service and with a little help from his well-placed father's contacts, Guynemer had been selected for pilot training by March 1915. As a corporal pilot, Georges joined Escadrille MS 3, flying a mix of single and two seat Morane-Saulniers. Initially given a two seater Type L, Guynemer scored an early victory, when he and his observer downed a two seat Aviatik during July 1915. By the end of 1915 Guynemer's unit was flying Nieuport 11s, becoming N 3 in the process. His score now stood at three. Commissioned in February 1916, Guynemer was wounded and missed most of the intensive air fighting over the Verdun area during the first half of 1916. Recovered, Georges rejoined N 3 just in time to take part in the Battle of the Somme, that opened on 1 July 1916. Guynemer experienced mixed luck on 23 September 1916, when, after downing three enemy aircraft, he, himself, narrowly missed death when his SPAD VII was shot out of the sky by 'friendly fire'. The culprit on this occasion was a 75mm French anti-aircraft shell that hit his machine at 9,000 feet. George was lucky to be able to get his fighter down for a crash landing. Sadly, luck finally deserted Guynemer on 11 September 1917, when the Legion d'Honneur holding ace was surprised by a flight of Albatros fighter and fell to their guns. At this time, Georges Guynemer had scored 45 confirmed victories.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
An early Spad 12 (S.434) parked on a French airfield. Most units had one or two Spad 12s assigned to them, with instructions to allow the best pilots in the unit to fly the aircraft. This Spad 12 is believed to have been painted overall Light Grey
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This Spad 12 (S.440) reveals the plywood pocket extensions that were fitted to the wing tips trailing edges of Spad 12s to square off the wings. Later, new wings incorporating square tips were introduced onto the production line
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The other Spad 12 assigned to Fonck was S.445. Fonck's personal number, VI, was carried on the rear fuselage and repeated on the port upper wing surface in Red, outlined in White. The White-outlined Red star on the starboard wing was the former unit insignia of Spa.103
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Spad 12s were progressively modified during production with new engines and other improvements. This late Spad 12 is powered by a 220 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Bc engine and has the louvered engine access panels removed for maintenance
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This Spad 12 was flown by the commanding officer of the 13th Aero Squadron, United States Air Service, MAJ Charles J. Biddle
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This early Spad 12 reveals the revised cowling which lacked the prominent cylinder head fairings and repositioned exhaust stacks which were lower on the fuselage sides than on the earlier Spad 7. This aircraft eas a test machine and had the fuselage undersurfaces painted Black
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This camouflaged late production Spad 12 has been modified with squared off wings tips. The Vickers machine gun on the Spad 12 was offset much further to starboard than the gun on the earlier Spad 7
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Two Spad 12s (foreground) share the field with five Spad 7s, at Reserve Generale de l'Aviation (RGA) airfield while awaiting delivery to French Escadrilles de Chasse. The two aircrafts carry different color schemes; the aircraft on the left is painted an overall dark color, while the aircraft on the right has been camouflaged
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The S.XII which mounted a 37-mm cannon.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
SPAD S XII