Самолеты (сортировка по:)
Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Westland N.1B

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1917

Single-seater Tractor Seaplane Scout

Westlake - monoplane - 1913 - Великобритания<– –>Westland - Wagtail - 1918 - Великобритания


D.James Westland aircraft since 1915 (Putnam)


N.1B

  In 1916, with a growing number of Royal Navy ships capable of carrying and launching aircraft with wheeled undercarriages or floats, the Air Department of the Admiralty was examining the potentialities of single-seat fighters. It was also considering the means whereby such an aircraft could be designed and produced to meet naval requirements. Thus the Air Department N.1B requirement was for a single-seat shipboard float plane or flying-boat fighter having a speed of 95 knots (110 mph) at 10,000 ft and a ceiling of at least 20,000 ft. This latter requirement was particularly exacting, bearing in mind the comparatively low power/weight ratios and levels of reliability of the engine available at that time.
  Three aircraft manufacturers prepared designs to meet this requirement; they were the Blackburn Aeroplane and Motor Co, the Supermarine Aviation Works and Westland Aircraft Works. Both the Supermarine and Blackburn designs were pusher biplane flying-boats but the other design, the first to emanate from the Westland Aircraft Works, was a more conventional tractor biplane floatplane. Contracts for the construction of a total of eight prototypes, all designated N.1B, were placed with the three companies; three each by Blackburn and Supermarine and two by Westland.
  The design of the two Westland N.1B was the work of Robert Bruce and Arthur Davenport, the company's manager and chief draughtsman respectively. The construction, understandably, followed the standard pattern of that era. The fuselage was a conventional rectangular-section structure with four longerons and internal wire-braced frames of spruce with steel end fittings, the front ends of the longerons carrying the mounting for the 150 hp Bentley AR.1 (for Admiralty Rotary) rotary engine. Wooden formers on the upper longerons provided a rounded top surface to the fuselage. The cockpit surround was of leather-edged ply and had a small head fairing. The entire tail unit was an externally wire-braced wooden structure. The constant chord two-bay biplane wings were built up around two ash main spars with wire-braced spruce struts and ribs, and spruce interplane struts. Ailerons and trailing-edge flaps, described as a 'wing camber-changing device patented by Robert Bruce', were fitted on all four wings. The wings were designed to fold back against the fuselage sides for shipboard stowage without requiring a jury strut to be fitted at the front spar root-end fittings. Wire-braced spruce alighting gear struts carried two rectangular-section floats, each with a number of watertight compartments. Control wires to the elevators and rudder were run externally from the cockpit but those to the ailerons and flaps were routed inside the wings. The airframe was fabric-covered with a metal engine cowling and top and side panels at the forward end of the fuselage. Armament was a fixed forward-firing Vickers .303 in machine-gun, synchronised to fire through the propeller disc and mounted in a metal 'hump' fairing on top of the fuselage in front of the cockpit, plus a Lewis .303 in gun on a swivel mounting on the upper centre-section above the cockpit. A cross-bar on the centre-section leading-edge appeared to serve the dual purpose of preventing the gun from being fired through the propeller arc and serving as a front mounting for the gun fixed to fire either slightly to port or starboard. In addition two 65 lb bombs could be carried in tandem on tubular carriers attached on the aircraft's centre-line under the fuselage.
  Two N.1Bs were built by Westland with some minor differences between them. The first, 16, was fitted with 11 ft long Sopwith main floats and a 5 ft long tail float carrying a water rudder which was moved by a vertical shaft extending down from the aircraft's rudder. In N17, the second aircraft, these were replaced by Westland-designed floats 17 ft 6 in in length with swept-up aft ends which made the tail float unnecessary. Some reports indicate that these floats could be fitted with a through axle carrying two wheels to enable the N.1B to take-off and land on suitably equipped vessels at sea, but no evidence of this design feature can be traced. The wheels which are shown in photographs are almost certainly those of a ground-handling trolley.
  Completed during the summer of 1917, in August the renowned Harry Hawker flew N16 on its first flight from Yeovil. In October at least one Westland N.1B, N16 - and possibly both aircraft - went to the Royal Naval Air Service Experimental Construction Depot at Port Victoria on the Isle of Grain for evaluation where it was flown by Sqn Cmdr J W Seddon who, in 1913, as a young Lieutenant RN flying instructor, had had as a pupil the fledgling aviator and the First Lord of the Admiralty, Mr Winston Churchill. The reports of its evaluation against the PV.2, built by the Royal Naval Air Service Depot at Port Victoria, showed that the Westland N.1B performed well and exhibited good handling characteristics; however, before the type could be developed, a change of policy ensued. Landplane single-seat fighters, such as the Sopwith Pup and Camel, had demonstrated their ability to take-off and land on vessels underway at sea, thus removing the need for the carriers to heave to and either drop or pick-up seaplanes. Because of this change of emphasis, further production and development of the Blackburn, Westland and Supermarine N.1Bs was abandoned after cancellation of the contracts in 1917.


  Description: Single-seat floatplane fighter. All-wood construction with metal and fabric covering.
  Accommodation: Pilot in open cockpit.
  Powerplant: One 150 hp Bentley AR.1 nine-cylinder air-cooled normally-aspirated rotary engine driving a 9 ft diameter wooden propeller.
  Armament: One Vickers .303 in machine-gun firing forward and one Lewis .303 in machine-gun on a swivel mounting on the upper centre-section. Two 65 lb bombs carried in tandem under the fuselage.
  Dimensions: Span 31 ft 31/2 in; length 26 ft 5 1/2 in; height 11 ft 2 in; wing area 278 sq ft.
  Weights: Empty (N16) 1,504 lb, (N17) 1,513 lb. Loaded (N16) 1,978 lb, (N17) 1,987 lb.
  Performance: Maximum speed (N16) 108.5 mph, (N17) 107 mph at sea level; alighting speed 50 mph; climb to 5,000 ft in 10 min.
  Production: Two prototypes built by Westland Aircraft Works, Yeovil, Somerset, during 1916-17.


H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)


Westland

N.16 and N.17. In common with other naval fighter bombers of their class these single-seater floatplanes of 1918 carried an offensive load of two 65-lb bombs. These were attached to tandem tubular carriers beneath the fuselage, falling when released between the cross-ties of the floats. A fixed synchronised Vickers gun was mounted on the fuselage centre line and was entirely enclosed in a 'hump' fairing. On the top centre-section was provision for a swivel-mounted Lewis gun, and running across the centre-section near the leading edge was a cross-bar which appears to have had the dual purpose of preventing the gun from being fired through the airscrew arc and of serving as a forward anchorage for the gun, pointing either slightly to port or to starboard. When bombs were carried, this gun was not mounted. Westland gave the weight of 'bombs and gear' as 150 lb and of 'gun and 250 rounds' as 60 lb.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


WESTLAND N.1B UK

  Westland Aircraft began design of its first aircraft in 1917, in response to an Admiralty requirement for a single-seat fighting scout seaplane. In the Admiralty's N.1B category, the aircraft was designed by Robert Bruce and Arthur Davenport, and was a compact two-bay equi-span biplane of conventional wooden structure and fabric covering. First flown in August 1917, it was powered by a 150 hp Bentley BR1 rotary engine. Inboard of the ailerons, on both upper and lower wings, the trailing-edge camber could be varied to obtain the effect of plain flaps. The wings could be folded backwards for shipboard stowage. Armament comprised one synchronised 0.303-in (7,7-mm) Vickers gun and a flexibly-mounted Lewis of the same calibre above the upper wing centre section. Two prototypes were built and sometimes referred to as the Westland N16 and N17 from their RNAS serial numbers. The first was flown with short Sopwith floats and a large strut-mounted tail-float whereas the second was used to evaluate long Westland floats that eliminated the need for a tail float. This second aircraft, which lacked the camber-changing mechanism on the wings, also flew with the Sopwith floats and a tail float directly attached to the underside of the rear fuselage. By the time the N.1Bs were on test at the Isle of Grain, the RNAS was experimenting successfully with the shipboard operation of wheeled aircraft and the requirement for a floatplane fighting scout faded away. The following data refer to the second prototype with Sopwith floats.

Max speed, 108 mph (175 km/h) at 3,750 ft (1 145 m).
Time to 2,000 ft (610 m), 3.8 min, to 10,000 ft (3 050 m), 28.65 min.
Service ceiling, 12,700 ft (3 870 m).
Endurance, 2.75 hrs. Empty weight, 1,504 lb (682 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,978 lb (897 kg).
Span, 31 ft 3 1/2 in (9,53 m).
Length, 25 ft 5 1/2 in (7,76 m).
Height, 11 ft 2 in (3,40 m).
Wing area, 278 sq ft (25,83 m2).

D.James - Westland aircraft since 1915 /Putnam/
N16, the first N.1B, with a tail float and a humped cowl over the Vickers machine-gun.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Three-quarter Front View of the Westland Seaplane N.16 (150 h.p. B.R.1. rotary engine).
D.James - Westland aircraft since 1915 /Putnam/
This close up of Westland N16 shows the engine cowling's fine finish, 'hump' for Vickers gun, the gun port in its cowl, two 65 Ib bombs under the fuselage and Lewis gun over centre-section. The pistol grip and spade grip of the Lewis gun are seen above the cockpit.
D.James - Westland aircraft since 1915 /Putnam/
N16 with wings folded and carrying a 65 Ib bomb under the fuselage. Note the slotted engine cowling and absense of jury struts.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
This N.1B floatplane fighter, N.16, was the first aircraft designed and built by Petter's Westland Aircraft Works. Changes in naval policy relating to this type of fighter brought its development to an early end.
D.James - Westland aircraft since 1915 /Putnam/
N17, the second N.1B, had a modified engine cowling and an uncowled Vickers gun.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
During 1916, Westlands, who were already a subcontract aircraft builder for the Admiralty, was one of three firms that responded to an Admiralty requirement for a single seat, shipboard, floatplane fighter whose performance should exceed a top level speed of 110mph and have a ceiling in excess of 20.000 feet. The company built two Westland N IBs, serial nos N 16 and N 17, both machines powered by a 150hp Bentley rotary. First flown during August 1917, the folding wing N IB with its top level speed of 108mph at sea level was only marginally below the target figure. As it transpired the Admiralty floatplane fighter need was overtaken by the advent of the Sopwith 2F Camel.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Second of the Westland N.1B scouts, N17 was flown with long floats designed by Westland.
D.James - Westland aircraft since 1915 /Putnam/
Longer float on N17 allowed the tail float to be removed.
D.James - Westland aircraft since 1915 /Putnam/
N.1B
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Westland N16, as originally flown, with short floats of Sopwith design.