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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Aviatik B.I / B.II / P.15

Страна: Германия

Год: 1914

Фронтовой самолет

Aviatik - B / P.14 - 1913 - Германия<– –>Aviatik - P.20 - 1914 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


АВИАТИК B-I/B-II / AVIATIK B-I/B-II

  Немецкая фирма Аутомобил-унд-Авиатик из Мюльхаузена (Эльзас) выпустила в 1914-1916 годах несколько типов военных многоцелевых аэропланов. "Остроносые" деревянные бипланы с тянущими винтами и рядными моторами водяного охлаждения - этой схемы придерживалось тогда подавляющее большинство германских авиапредприятий.
  Открыл серию "Авиатик" B-I (заводское обозначение P.15A), появившийся незадолго до начала Первой мировой войны. Двухместный аэроплан без вооружения с двух- или трехстоечной бипланной коробкой применялся в качестве разведчика на западном и восточном фронтах примерно до начала 1915 года.
  Единственным оригинальным моментом в этой машине была ярко выраженная стреловидность крыльев, унаследованная от довоенной разработки фирмы Авиатик - аэроплана "Пфайль" ("Стрела"). Считалось, что это обеспечивает самолету повышенную продольную устойчивость. Следующим стал "Авиатик" B-II (P.15B), отличавшийся более мощным мотором.
  
  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ
  
  "Мерседес", 100 л.с. (B-I) или 120 л.с. (B-II)


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Aviatik B I
  The Aviatik B I appeared in 1914 in both two- and three-bay versions. Both types are seen in the illustration. Power unit was 100 h.p. Mercedes D I.


Aviatik B II
  Constructed and used during 1915, the B II appeared in small numbers and was a neat-looking aeroplane for the period. The painting of the patee crosses underneath the upper wingtips and on the wheel discs is noteworthy. As in the majority of B types, the pilot sat in the rear cockpit and the observer forward. Engine, 120 h.p. Mercedes D II. Span, 12.49 m. (40 ft. 11 3/4 in.). Length, 7.10 m. (23 ft. 3 5/8 in.).


Журнал Flight


Flight, August 28, 1914.

AIRCRAFT "MADE IN GERMANY"
WHICH MAY BE EMPLOYED AGAINST THE ALLIES.

7. The Aviatik Tractor Biplane
  is of the arrow type, although its wings only possess a comparatively slight sweep back. As in other biplanes of this type, the upper main plane is straight as viewed from in front, while the lower plane is given a slight dihedral angle. The rectangular section fuselage is of streamline form, but is deeper at the stern than is usually the case. The turtle back does not extend over the entire length of the fuselage, but finishes off just behind the pilot's seat, which is considerably farther forward than in other arrow type machines, owing, no doubt, to the fact that the wings are so nearly straight. In front is the passenger's seat, between which and the engine are the fuel tanks with sufficient fuel for a 4-hours flight. Either Argus or Mercedes 100 h.p. engines may be fitted. The radiators are mounted on either side of the fuselage. The chassis is of the usual simple type, differing, however, from others in that the struts do not form an angle at their lower extremities, but are secured to two short skids from which is slung the tubular axle. The tail planes are protected against contact with the ground by a short swivelling skid. With full load on board, including pilot and passenger and four hours' fuel, the machine does just over 60 m.p.h., and climbs 1,000 metres (3,281 ft.) in 15 minutes.

K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The German Air Service entered the war with a number of types. Most, as with the RFC, were tor reconnaissance duties. Among the best was the Aviatik B.1 as shown here.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The Aviatik Bll had been phased out of operational use but was still in use with training schools - as shown by the 'S' on the airframe of this example.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The Aviatik B.ll appeared in limited numbers during 1915 as a two-seat reconnaissance aircraft powered by a 120hp Mercedes DII. Note the identification crosses on the underside of the upper wing and, unusually, on the wheel hubs.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Aviatik B II
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
Aviatik B type biplanes of BAO on Allenstein aerodrome on the Eastern Front in April 1915 before taking off for Lomza. Completely mobile, housed in special railway trains, the BAO could be easily moved to different parts of the Front as required. The aeroplanes were often flown solo, allowing the weight of the observers to be used for increased fuel and bombloads. The effect of this force led to the creation of a second Brieftauben Abteilung at Metz, which additionally included aerial fighting in its duties. To differentiate between this unit and BAO, it was known as Brieftauben Abteilung Metz (BAM). These two formations formed the nucleus of the German bomber arm.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
A varied collection of two-seaters at a German airfield in 1915. The aircraft are Albatros B lIs , Aviatik B Is and B lIs.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
The crew of an Aviatik B category machine from Feldflieger Abteilung 9b at Colmar, well wrapped up against the elements and about to leave on a reconnaissance flight during Winter 1915, show their 25cm hand-held camera and the two 4.5kg Carbonit bombs to be dropped on targets of opportunity. These will be carried by the observer in the front seat, hung by their carrying handles on any suitable projection. He will then have to undo the safety wires, remove the pins, and either hand the bombs to the pilot for release or lean precariously aft out of his cockpit as he throws them over the side.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
The belly of this crashed Aviatik B II from Feldflieger Abteilung 34 shows the two bomb chute exits and the celluloid-covered downwards viewing panel immediately ahead. Two 10kg Carbonit bombs were suspended in the chutes in the pilot's cockpit beside his knees. On a bombing run the pilot rested his head on the crash pad and viewed the ground through the transparent panel; he used an intersection of fuselage bracing wires as a sight, unhooking the bombs at the appropriate moment.