В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны
В 1912 году швейцарский инженер Франц Шнейдер стал главным конструктором новой немецкой фирмы Люфт-Веркерс Гезельшафт - LVG (Компания воздушного транспорта). Созданный им биплан D IV показал блестящие результаты в авиационных состязаниях и совершил ряд дальних перелетов.
В 1914 году эту машину под индексом B-I приняли на вооружение германских ВВС. В течение последующих двух лет на ее базе создан целый ряд модификаций, также строившихся серийно, состоявших на вооружении и принимавших участие в боевых действиях.
В-I - двухместный цельнодеревянный двухстоечный биплан с полотняной обшивкой. Двигатель "Мерседес", 100 л.с. или "Бенц", 110 л.с. Элероны с характерной "ступенчатой" аэродинамической круткой, позднее скопированной на самолетах "Лебедь". Шасси с противокапотажной лыжей. B-I строился на заводах фирм LVG и Отто. В конце 1914-го, после непродолжительной службы в качестве разведчика, переклассифицирован в учебную машину.
B-II - выпущен в 1915 году. От предшественника отличался меньшими размерами, отсутствием лыжи и рядом других, несущественных изменений. Двигатель "Мерседес", 100 или 120 л.с. Помимо фирмы-разработчика, выпускался в больших количествах на заводах Отто и Шютте-Ланц. Применялся на западном и восточном фронтах. Несколько экземпляров передано Турции.
Размах, м 12,10
Длина, м 8,00
Площадь крыльев, м2
Сухой вес, кг 697
Взлетный вес, кг 1075
Скорость максимальная, км/ч 105
Время набора высоты, м/мин 1000/8
Потолок, м 3000
Продолжительность полета, ч
Экипаж, чел 2
А.Александров, Г.Петров Крылатые пленники России
Если уже знакомый читателю Генрих Бир являлся в довоенный период техническим директором компании ДФВ и в какой-то степени был причастен к созданию модели МД14, то инженеру Францу Шнейдеру общество "Люфт-Феркерс" (Franz Schneider; Luft-Verkehrs GmbH, LVG = "Эльфауге") обязано своей первой оригинальной конструкцией, двухместным бипланом типа ДIV, получившим затем военное обозначение Б. I (DIV; B.I). Рождение компании произошло примерно на год раньше, в декабре 1911г. Тогда ее штат насчитывал 30 человек рабочих, собравших 2 аэроплана; в 1914 г. 450 рабочих фирмы изготовили 600 аппаратов, из них 590 для армии. Естественно, после объявления войны самолеты "Эльфауге" марки Б. I, оснащенные "стандартными" 100-сильными моторами "Мерседес" или, в редких случаях, "Бенцами" 110 л. с, оказались очень нужны, хотя ни скоростью, ни другими характеристиками, да и самой конструкцией, они вовсе не выделялись среди прочих типов. Весной 1915 г. на смену модели Б. I пришла модель Б. II, отличавшаяся более мощным "Мерседесом" марки Д. II, 120 л. с, меньшим размахом крыльев, вырезом - для улучшения обзора - в центроплане верхней плоскости и т. д. По лицензии самолеты "Эльфауге" названных модификаций производились фирмами "Отто Верке" и "Люфтфарцойгбау Шютте-Ланц" (Otto-Werke GmbH, Luftfahrzeugbau Schutte-Lanz). На снимке 9, слева, виден аппарат типа Б. I, с характерным для этой модели левым выхлопным коллектором, направленным вниз. В то же время, помещенный между центральных стоек расходный топливный бак, но больших размеров, был присущ и машинам "Эльфауге Б. II", одна из которых представлена на снимке 10. Ее подкрыльевой резервуар находится слева от осевой линии, что выдает аппарат постройки завода "Шютте-Ланц"; 120-сильный "Мерседес" оснащался правым выхлопным патрубком, выбрасывавшим отработанные газы вверх, а секционные радиаторы "Хазет" сменились лобовым радиатором перед кромкой несущей поверхности. Характерной особенностью бипланов "Элъфауге" являлась зигзагообразная задняя кромка элеронов, тогда как 2 пары направляющих для метания бомб под кабиной наблюдателя выдают военное предназначение самолета. Все-таки основное применение модель Б. II нашла в германских авиашколах, и даже после войны исследовавшие немецкую авиаиндустрию контролеры Антанты признали, что тип служил "прекрасной учебной машиной".
O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)
L.V.G. B I
The L.V.G. B I saw service during the early months of the war on unarmed scouting duties and was also used for training purposes. As was usual in B-type machines, the pilot sat aft. The kink in the aileron, which imparted wash-out at the tip, remained a characteristic of the L.V.G. two-seaters up to the C V. The B I was soon replaced by the B II, which became the main production variant. Both machines were, however, very similar in style and construction. Engine, 110 h.p. Benz or 100 h.p. Mercedes. Span, 14.54 m. (47 ft. 8 1/2 in.). Length, 7.81 m. (25 ft. 7 1/2 in.). Height, 3.2 m. (10 ft. 6 in.). Area, 40 sq.m. (432 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 765 kg. (1,683 lb.). Loaded, 1,132 kg. (2,490 lb.). Speed, ca. 100 km.hr. (62.5 m.p.h.).
L.V.G. B I, II and III
Luft-Verkehrs Gesellschaft m.b.H., located at the Berlin airfield of Johannisthal, became one of Germany's largest aircraft works. It utilized the old Parseval airship shed as a giant erecting shop until it was burned down in 1914. These premises were inherited from the pre-war days when the firm had operated Parseval-type airships on an air-traffic service which they advertised to good effect on the sides of the dirigibles. The airship service in fact gave rise to the firm's name, the literal translation of Luft Verkehrs G.m.b.H. being "Air Traffic Co. Ltd.".
The first aircraft to be manufactured were Farman types until Franz Schneider, a Swiss engineer previously with Nieuport, joined the firm in 1912 and started to produce original designs. His first successful tractor biplane design, the L.V.G. B I, flew before the war started (A and B class designations being used in 1913). It was later put into production, and was then also built under licence by the Otto firm in Munich for supply to the Bavarian Army. In June 1914 six B Is took part in the Ostmarkenflug: all were Mercedes-powered and took the first four places.
With the outbreak of war an excellent general-duties machine was immediately to hand. It was a conventional two-bay aircraft of the period. The fuselage was a simple wire-braced box-girder structure based on four spruce longerons and cross members. A 100 h.p. Mercedes D I engine was the usual power unit, although some machines were fitted with the 110 h.p. Benz. They were simply installed in the nose, with little attention to appearance; the crankcase was more or less enclosed in a curved-sheet metal decking, the cylinder block being starkly unshrouded. The exhaust collector was fitted to the port side of the Benz-engined version, the gases conducted forward and exhausted vertically downward, close by the propeller shaft. The rounded metal-decking panel on top of the fuselage extended to enclose both cockpits, in which the pilot sat aft. Radiators were mounted on the fuselage sides just above the leading edge of the lower wing attachment, and were of the type that could be added to or reduced, according to the temperature conditions. A gravity fuel tank was usually slung from the apex of the front pair of inverted-vee centre-section struts. Aft of the cockpit the fuselage was of perfectly plain rectangular section, fabric covered and tapered to a vertical knife-edge at the sternpost.
Tail surfaces were of welded 20 mm. steel-tube construction, and of flat plate section. The tailplane was a near equilateral triangle with considerable area; elevators were unbalanced and of ovoid profile. A plain triangular vertical fin of low aspect ratio was fitted, to which was hinged the unbalanced rudder.
Wings were an orthodox structure, two-bay and with a slight amount of overhang on the upper wings. Main spars were hollow box-girders of spruce, braced together with wooden compression members and steel cables. Both wings were of constant and equal chord, with slight rounding at the tips, which made for simplicity of manufacture. The ailerons were unbalanced and of rectangular shape, with an unusual "kink" at mid-span where the operating crank was located. This imparted to the outer half of the aileron an extreme washed-out section.
All struts were of wood, including those of the orthodox vee type undercarriage chassis, which included twin spreader bars and an axle sprung with elastic shock cord. The ash tailskid was mounted to a small inverted steel tube tripod at the extreme rear of the fuselage, and was also sprung with elastic shock cord.
The L.V.G. B II was very similar to the B I, but it had small improvements to obtain better operational efficiency. These did not alter the outward appearance very noticeably, apart from the reduction in wingspan. The main points which distinguished the B II from the B I were the siting of the gravity tank along the apex of the centre-section trestle (those built by Schutte-Lanz were offset slightly to port of the centre-section), the positioning of the rear cockpit farther aft and the introduction of a semicircular cut-out in the upper wing - all with a view to improving pilot visibility. The tailplane was braced to the underside of the fuselage with a single steel-tube strut instead of by two as formerly. Another change was the introduction of the 120 h.p. Mercedes D II, which was almost universally used on the B II, with consequent location of the downswept exhaust on the starboard side.
The L.V.G. B II became the main production model, and from the spring of 1915 it was used on scouting and reconnaissance sorties, but its main use was as a school machine. Production was carried on by both the Otto and Schutte-Lanz factories in addition to the parent firm.
The B II was undoubtedly a good flying machine, and was, in fact, assessed by the Inter-Allied Commission which investigated the German airaft industry after the Armistice as "an excellent school machine". Naturally the trainer version was fitted with dual controls, and many of the later machines had frontal radiators mounted against the centre-section leading edge.
As late as 1917 it was still thought worthwhile to revise the basic design for continued use as a trainer type. This variant was the B III, and practically all that was done was to revise the tail surfaces to more modern and efficient lines and to strengthen the rear fuselage by covering it with ply sheet better to withstand the rough treatment from inexperienced students, this final type was built by both the Schutte-Lanz and Euler firms.
Description: Unarmed two-seat scout, reconnaissance and training aircraft.
Manufacturers: Luft-Verkchrs Gesellschaft m.b.H. Johannisthal (Lvg.).
Sub-contractors: Otto-Werke G.m.b.H., Luftfahrzeugbau Schutte-Lanz.
Power Plant: One 100 h.p. Mercedes D I or 120 h.p. D II 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engine.
Dimensions: Span, 12.12 m. (39 ft. 9 1/8 in.). Length, 8.30 m. (27 ft. 2 3/4 in.). Height 2.935 m. (9 ft. 8 in.). Area, 35.42 sq.m. (381.5 sq.ft.).
Weights: Empty, 726 kg. (1,597.2 lb.). Loaded, 1,074 kg. (2,362.8 lb.).
Performance: Maximum speed, 105 km.hr. (65.626 m.p.h.) at 1,000 m. Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 12 min. Duration, 4 hr. on 173 litres fuel.
N.B. Above data applies to Schutte-Lanz built B II fitted with 100 h.p. Mercedes D I motor and leading-edge radiator. Trainer version as in drawing.
L.V.G. B III (Schul)
Developed in 1917, the L.V.G. B III was used specifically for training. The tail surfaces had been modernised in comparison with the earlier B types, and the fuselage was ply-covered as far aft as the cockpit, as were the rear section and vertical fin for additional strength. Also licence-built by the Schutte-Lanz company, one of whose machines is illustrated. Engine, 120 h.p. Mercedes D II. Span, 12.51 m. (42 ft. 0 1/4 in.). Length, 7.89 m. (25 ft. 10 7/8 in.). Height, 2.89 m. (9 ft. 5 3/4 in.). Area, 32.15 sq.m. (357 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 738 kg. (1,785 lb.). Loaded, 1,042 kg. (2,292 lb.). Speed, 120 km.hr. (75 m.p.h.). Climb, 3,000 m. (9,840 ft.) in 28 min. Duration, 2.5 hr.
Flight, June 5, 1914.
THE PRINCE HENRY CIRCUIT, 1914.
MACHINES IN PRINCE HENRY CIRCUIT.
The L.V.G. Biplane is similar to those in use by the German Government, with the exception that the capacity of the tanks has been increased in order to allow of completing all of the various stages of the course without intermediate landings. These machines are, as will be seen from the accompanying photographs, of the tractor type, and have fuselages of similar shape to that of the Albatros biplane which was described in these columns some time ago.
Flight, July 31, 1914.
THE DONATH SIGNAL MIRROR.
A METHOD of visual signalling in broad daylight by electricity has been recently introduced by Professor Donath of Berlin. The principle upon which it is based is that at extremely high temperatures the light transmitted from incandescent lamps is greatly augmented, without a corresponding increase in the consumption of current. In consequence thereof, however, the life of the lamps is much diminished; but as, in signalling, the duration of a flash is so short, this consideration is entirely negligible, as many messages can be transmitted before renewal of a lamp becomes necessary. It is stated by the Scientific American that the full equipment necessary for signalling by this means, including a battery for the supply of electric current, weighs only 11 lbs., and hence the device is especially adapted for use on aeroplanes and airships.
The signal mirror itself, which is similar in appearance to that used in the motor headlight, contains a small incandescent bulb fitted with a special filament, and is so designed that the lamp can be adjusted axially inside the parabolic mirror, as may be required in order to transmit a parallel beam of light. The mirror and lamp are carried on a handle which is held by the signaller, the switch controlling the supply of current to the bulb being mounted on the handle. Above the top of the lamp is a sighting tube through which the signaller observes the point with which he desires to communicate, and by depressing the button on the lamp handle he may send out flashes of varying duration - a short flash (say) of two seconds corresponding to a dot and a longer one, of about six seconds, to a dash. Thus, by the adoption of some conventional system or code, such as the Morse alphabet, communication with distant points can readily be made. Under normal conditions, it is said that signals may be transmitted over a distance of about four miles.
Flight, September 11, 1914.
AIRCRAFT "MADE IN GERMANY"
WHICH MAY BE EMPLOYED AGAINST THE ALLIES.
25. The L.V.G. Biplane
cannot, strictly speaking, be said to belong to the Arrow type, since, although the leading edge of its main planes slopes backwards, its trailing edge is straight as seen in plan. Both upper and lower main planes are set at a dihedral angle, and ailerons are fitted to the tips of the upper plane. The fuselage is of rectangular section, and resembles greatly that of the Albatros biplane. Pilot's and passenger's seats are placed close together, tandem fashion, the passenger sitting immediately behind the engine. The main weight is taken when the machine is on the ground by two wheels slung from the angle between two pairs of tubular chassis struts by means of rubber shock-absorbers. A short skid runs from the wheel axle to a point in front of the propeller, and two steel tubes running from the lower longerons of the fuselage immediately underneath the engine support the skid. A small wheel is incorporated in the angle between, the two front chassis struts, and serves to prevent the machine from turning over on her nose in case of a bad landing. This front portion of the chassis is chiefly used for school purposes, and may be removed in order to slightly increase the speed of the machine.
26. The New Type L.V.G. Biplane.
This machine differs, apart from dimensions, in minor details only from the one numbered 25. It is of slightly larger span, and head resistance has been reduced in various places, with the result that it is slightly faster than the older type. The engine fitted is a 100 h.p. Mercedes. It is worthy of note that the L.V.G. firm is one of the most important constructors of German military machines.