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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Caproni Ca.5 (Ca.44 - Ca.47)

Страна: Италия

Год: 1917

Бомбардировщик

Caproni - Ca.4 (Ca.40 - Ca.43) - 1916 - Италия<– –>Caproni - Ca.53 - 1917 - Италия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


КАПРОНИ Ca.5 / CAPRONI Ca.5

  Одновременно с работами над Ca.4 Джанни Капрони продолжал совершенствовать свои предыдущие самолеты бипланной схемы. Итогом этих работ стал тип Ca.5 - несколько увеличенный в размерах Ca.3 с улучшенной аэродинамикой и более мощными двигателями. Летные данные машины заметно повысились, и в 1917 году Ca.5 приняли на вооружение.
  До конца войны "пятерки" постепенно заменили во фронтовых эскадрильях самолеты более ранних модификаций. Под общим армейским индексом Ca.5 строилось несколько версий машины: Ca.44, Ca.45, Ca.46 и Ca.47 с незначительными конструктивными различиями. В Италии было выпущено 255 экземпляров Ca.5. Кроме того, самолет строили по лицензии в США и во Франции.

  
ДВИГАТЕЛИ
  
  3 "Фиата" по 300 л.с.
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  Кольцевая турель с одним или двумя пулеметами "Ревелли" в носовой части гондолы и вторая такая же турель на специальном помосте над задним двигателем.
  Ca.5 поднимал 530 кг бомб.
  
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
Ca-5, 1917г.
  
  Размах, м 23,0
  Длина, м 12,40
  Высота, м 4,47
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 150,0
  Сухой вес, кг 3005
  Взлетный вес, кг 5312
  Двигатель: "Фиат"
   число х мощность, л. с. 3x300
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 152
  Дальность полета, км 450
  Продолжительность полета, час, мин 4,0
  Потолок, м 4500
  Экипаж, чел. 3-4
  Вооружение 2-4 пулемета
   533 кг бомб


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


Ca-5 1917 г.

  Опыт создания и эксплуатации Ca-4 показал, что увеличение несущей поверхности крыла за счет увеличения размаха и количества плоскостей для бомбардировочной авиации неэффективно. Обеспечение необходимой прочности и жесткости крыльев ведет к значительному росту массы конструкции. К тому же, возрастает риск разрушения крыла очень большого удлинения от ударов о поверхность летного поля при взлете и посадке, когда машина раскачивается на неровностях почвы. Поэтому, создавая следующий тяжелый бомбардировщик, фирма "Капрони" пошла на увеличение поверхности крыла путем увеличения хорды. Новая машина Ca-5, имевшая схему своего предшественника Ca-33, получила более совершенную конструкцию. Гондола имела аэродинамически чистую форму. В конструкции крыла, оперения и фюзеляжа стали применяться металлические профили и трубы. На самолете установили двигатели "Фиат" мощностью по 360 л. с. Вместо трубчатых радиаторов установили лобовые сотовые, имевшие меньшее сопротивление.
  Конструкция шасси и схема установки вооружения остались прежними, как на Ca-33, но на машину установили колеса большего диаметра, что улучшило проходимость самолета по грунтовым аэродромам. Носовую стойку убрали.
  Значительно возросли скорость, потолок и дальность полета при той же боевой нагрузке, что и у Ca-33. Самолет мог преодолевать горные хребты Альп и наносить удары по целям на территории Австрии, а также современных Хорватии, Сербии и Албании. Проводились опыты по переоборудованию Ca-5 в торпедоносец. Для этой цели изменили конструкцию крепления шасси и оборудовали днище кронштейнами для подвески и сброса торпеды. Но практически испытание торпедоносца было осуществлено уже после окончания войны.
  Машина в середине 1917 года была запущена в серийное производство и находилась на вооружении ВВС и ВМС до середины 1920-х годов. Снятые с вооружения машины эксплуатировались как грузовые и почтовые.


R.Abate,G.Alegi,G.Apostolo Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983


March 1917 saw the first flight of the Ca.600 hp (or Ca.5), which maintained the Ca.3 formula with increased wingspan and chord and somewhat improved streamlining. A new plant was built at Taliedo, on the outskirts of Milan, with increased floor space and the world’s first concrete runway. At the same time, the sudden availability of a thousand 200 hp Fiat A.12 engines and the interest shown abroad, the Direzione Tecnica dell’Aviazione Militare issued a production plan calling for 150 Ca.600 in 1917, followed by a thousand in 1918, eventually' increased to 4015. Orders were placed with a consortium including Breda, Miani & Silvestri, San Giorgio, Piaggio, Reggiane, Savigliano, Bastianelli. In February 1918 other Ca.5, powered with Liberty engines, were ordered by the US government to the Standard Aircraft Corp., Curtiss and the Fisher Body Co. Difficulties in administering this huge contract - for which workers had to be trained and materials found - limited actual deliveries before the war’s end to about 700 aircraft. In operational service, the aircraft’s overall positive behaviour was negatively affected by the Fiat engine’s notorious habit of catching fire in flight.


G.Swanborough, P.Bowers United States Navy Aircraft Since 1911 (Putnam)


CAPRONI Ca-44

In 1918 the Navy procured 19 Italian-built Caproni Ca-44 bombers for use by the Northern Bombing Group. This organization had been trained by the British, and its members had obtained operational experience in British squadrons. The first independent action of the group was with Capronis on August 15, 1918, when they were used against German installations at Ostend. The unique twin-fuselage Caproni was typical of several similar models then in production, but the Ca-44 was powered with six-cylinder Fiat engines that proved to be especially troublesome and seriously handicapped operations. Span, 76 ft 10 in; length, 41ft 2 in; gross weight, 12,350 дb; max speed, 103mph.


Журнал Flight


Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

Italy's Representative

  At the actual exhibition Italy is represented by two machines only. One is the large Fiat biplane, on which recently Lieut. Brack-Papa flew from Italy to England, and which was not crashed in France on the return journey as stated in the daily press, and the other is a Caproni three-engined machine, turned into a commercial aeroplane by adding a cabin to the fuselage. A third Italian machine is, however, flying at the E.L.T.A. aerodrome - the little S.V.A. biplane with Warren girder wing bracing.

THE CAPRONI BIPLANE

  Another Italian machine which arrived at Amsterdam by air was the Caproni three-engined biplane, which made its first appearance above Amsterdam on August 7, when, after circling over the town for about an hour, it landed on the E.L.T.A. aerodrome, fortunately without coming to grief. The machine cannot by any stretch of imagination be termed a pretty one, the twin fuselages and straight, square-tipped wings giving it a somewhat ungraceful appearance. But it seems to fly very well, and does some fairly sharp banked turns, although at times it was observed to do flat turns which one usually associates with tendencies to spin. However, the Caproni does not appear to be troubled by flat turn, and at times they appeared to be chosen deliberately by the pilot when he wanted to turn quickly.
  The three engines of the Caproni are Isotta-Frachinis, the two outer ones being placed in the nose of the twin fuselages, while the third is installed in the rear of the central nacelle, where it drives a pusher airscrew. The front portion of the nacelle projects far out in front, and here are arranged two cockpits in tandem. Slightly further aft a superstructure has been added which extends up to the top plane, and forms a cabin for the passengers. The machine carries 10 persons, and flies fairly fast with its three engines developing a total of a little over 700 h.p. The general arrangement of the Caproni will be clear from one of the accompanying photographs. Like the Fiat, the Caproni was also put into the exhibition building shortly after its arrival, and may now be examined on the Caproni stand.

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Caproni Ca-5, ВВС Италии, 1918г.
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Тяжелый бомбардировщик Капрони Ca-5 (1918г.)
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Having exhausted the original trimotor’s potential with the Ca.450, during the 1916-17 winter Caproni studied a more powerful derivative. The aircraft which emerged, called Ca.5 by the Italian Army, shared its predecessor’s general layout but differed in every detail. Wing span and chord were increased; the radiators were placed in the nose and tail booms; the nose wheel suppressed. The basic type, indicated as Ca.44 in the postwar system, was powered by three 200 hp Fiat A.12 engines, large quantities of which had been made available by the cancelling of orders for obsolete SP and SIA 14B biplanes.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Капрони" Са.5 над Венецией.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE ITALIAN REPRESENTATIVES AT THE E.L.T.A.: 3. The Caproni three-engined biplane
G.Swanborough, P.Bowers - United States Navy Aircraft Since 1911 /Putnam/
A US Navy Caproni Ca-44 serving with the Northern Bombing Group Night Wing at Orly.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Ca.5 SC 42119 is one of three Liberty powered aircraft delivered by Fisher Body to the United States Signal Corps in 1918. The rampant ram and excellent finish are clearly evident.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The Ca.5 was also flown with 250 hp Isotta Fraschini V.6 engines, obtaining the version later identified as Ca.45. This group photo, in which Gianni Caproni is the sixth from the left, is taken in front of an aircraft built at Vizzola Ticino. The bomber appears to be painted green overall and has unusual underwing roundels.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
While the four man, biplane Caproni Ca 46 may have been the last of the company's illustrious line of World War I bombers, it was also the machine to be built in the greatest numbers by far, with 255 built in Italy by the parent company and sub-contractors, and more had been built in France by REP, plus five of the 1,000 ordered from Standard of the 400hp Liberty-engined version for use by American forces. Developed from the Ca 44 of early 1917, the Ca 46 was powered by three 300hp Fiat A 12s, giving it a top level speed of 95mph at 6.560 feet. Capable of carrying a bomb load of 1,300lb over a range of 760 miles, the machine had an operational ceiling of 15.000 feet.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Italian Aviators and Civilian Aviators with an Italian Service machine.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The American pilots James Bahl, at left, and DeWitt Coleman, at right, standing by their Ca.5. Shot down during an operational sortie they were awarded respectively a medaglia d'oro and a medaglia d'argento.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
LaGuardia at Taliedo, taking delivery of a Ca.5 for the US Army. A strong opponent of the SIA 7, whose dangerous unreliability the Americans had experienced first hand, LaGuardia became instead an ardent supporter of the Caproni bombers.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Some Ca.5 were also completed as torpedo bombers. Ca.11610, here pictured on Taliedo’s concrete runway, carries the insignia of the Prima Squadriglia Siluranti Aeree (First Airborne Torpedo Squadron) “San Marco”, formed under D’Annunzio’s command at Venice’s San Nicolo airfield in March 1918.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
An American officer, easily recognized by the headgear, stands in front of Ca.5 12222. The Liberty engine's greater size is clearly evident.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The Ca.5’s internal radiators were beset with cooling problems. Although the new position cut drag somewhat, cooling was also reduced. One the various modifications attempted to correct the problem is seen on this American aircraft at Mineola: the fuselage lines are noticeably altered.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Another view of the Liberty-equipped Ca.5 with its boxy nacelle, side mounted radiators and clear observation panels on the nose.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
From the basic Ca.5 design maggiore Alessandro Guidoni derived the Idrovolante Caproni (I.Ca., retroactively known as Ca.47 postwar) by replacing the undercarriage with two Zari floats, connected to the fuselage with elastic mounts. The first machine was sent to Venice for testing August 1917 but was unfortunately destroyed by an incendiary bomb before any tests were carried out. A second machine, readied and proposed to the Navy as torpedo bomber, was also lost during a ferry flight between Sesto Calende and La Spezia.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The second I.Ca taxying at Sesto Calende. After the war Piaggio completed ten by converting a batch of Ca.5 landplanes.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Caproni’s first attempt at producing an aircraft that would carry badly wounded soldiers to properly equipped hospitals dates to the First World War, when a Ca.5 biplane bomber was modified by installing two stretchers on the top of its twin tail booms. To provide a measure of protection from weather and propwash, the stretchers were partially faired. Also known as Ca.45, the aircraft could also carry two lightly wounded men in the main nacelle.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The proposed conversion of Ca.4 series bombers to obtain the Ca.50 medical aircraft remained on paper but was followed in 1924-25 by the Ca.36S medical transport, a radically modified Ca.36 bomber. In this new version the rugged biplane could carry eight wounded, four of which in the fuselage, replacing fuel tanks and bomb racks, and the remainder behind the cockpit. Access to the enclosed cabin was by means of a retractable airstair.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
In the early part of the war aircraft had been ordered piecemeal in small batches. The policy changed when the Republican member of Parliament Eugenio Chiesa was appointed commissioner of aeronautics. Among the types selected for mass production was the Ca.5, a dedicated Caproni Aircraft Production Office being established in Milan. The office, run first by capitano Oscar Sinigaglia and later by capitano Odiemo, placed orders for 4,015 aircraft with eight Italian companies. Output was negatively affected by the difficulty of introducing aircraft manufacturing techniques in non-aviation firms. Thus in 1918, while Caproni completed 359 bombers, the performance of other program participants was negligible. The photo show Ca.5 production.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Ca.5 production.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The Americans took an active interest in the Ca.5, ordering 1,050 aircraft from Standard Aircraft, Curtiss and Fisher Body. Equipped with three 450 hp Liberty engines, this version was referred to postwar as Ca.46. A comparison with the Handley-Page O/400, also selected for production in the United States, showed the Caproni to be 15 kilometers per hour faster, to climb almost twice as fast, to have one-third more range, and to cost 29,850 dollars instead of 57,900. The Handley-Page could carry a 900 kg payload - 300 more than the Caproni. On the photo, Standard Aircraft’s assembly hall in Elizabeth, New Jersey.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Капрони" Са.5