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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Caproni Ca.1 - Ca.3 (Ca.30 - Ca.36)

Страна: Италия

Год: 1914

Бомбардировщик

Caproni - Ca.17 - Ca.18 - 1913 - Италия<– –>Caproni - Ca.20 - 1914 - Италия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


КАПРОНИ Ca.1/Ca.2/Ca.3 / CAPRONI Ca.1/Ca.2/Ca.3

  В 1913 году итальянский авиаконструктор Джанни Капрони первым в Западной Европе взялся за конструирование тяжелого многомоторного аэроплана. Вскоре после сообщений об успешных полетах российского гиганта "Гранд Балтийский" ("Русский витязь"), Капрони на собственной авиафирме начал разработку машины аналогичного класса.
  Проект Капрони не являлся ни копией, ни аналогом самолета Сикорского. Итальянец создал принципиально иную схему двухбалочного трехмоторного аэроплана с коротким фюзеляжем-гондолой. В хвостовой части гондолы размещался двигатель "Изотта-Фраскини" с толкающим винтом, а перед ним - два ротативных "Гнома", приводивших в движение посредством ременных передач тянущие винты, установленные перед бипланной коробкой.
  Работа над машиной продолжалась около года, и весной 1914-го самолет с фабричным обозначением Ca.30 впервые поднялся в воздух. Летные характеристики были вполне обнадеживающими, однако сложная и капризная система передач на боковые винты постоянно вызывала проблемы. В конце концов Капрони вообще отказался от трансмиссии и перенес "Гномы" в носовые части балок. Третьим "Гномом" он заменил фюзеляжнную "Изотту-Фраскини".
  Переделанный таким образом аппарат назвали Ca.31. Он получился настолько удачным, что им сразу заинтересовались военные. В том же году Ca.31 приняли на вооружение итальянских ВВС под обозначением Ca.1 и запустили в серийное производство.
  Дальнейшим развитием типа стал Ca.32 (Ca.2) с тремя "Фиатами" A.10 жидкостного охлаждения. Эта машина также выпускалась серийно и состояла на вооружении нескольких бомбардировочных эскадрилий. Затем появилась модификация Ca.33 (Ca.3). На нее установили новые моторы "Изотта-Фраскини" V4B мощностью по 150 л.с.
  Ca.3 стал наиболее массовой версией бомбардировщиков "Капрони" периода Первой Мировой войны. Всего в Италии построено 269 аэропланов данного типа. На них летали 15 итальянских бомбардировочных эскадрилий и 2 французские. Кроме того, французы, ощущавшие в начале войны дефицит тяжелых бомбардировщиков, купили лицензию на производство машины. Во Франции Ca.33 выпускала фирма Эно-Пельтри. Построенные ею 60 самолетов обозначались буквами CEP (Caproni-Esnault-Pelterie).
  Помимо Ca.33, выпускались и другие модификации: Ca.34, Ca.35, Ca.36, Ca.36S и Ca.37, но все они носили общее военное обозначение Ca.3. Ca.34 оснастили торпедной подвеской и убрали противокапотажную стойку шасси. У Ca.35 гондола имела более обтекаемое округлое сечение. Ca.36 оборудовали складывающимися крыльями, а Ca.37 - крыльями уменьшенного размаха. Ca.36S (Ca.3M) - санитарный вариант с закрытой кабиной.
  Все модификации "Капрони" от Ca.30 до Ca.37 представляли собой цельнодеревянные бипланы с полотняной обшивкой и трехкилевым оперением (точнее - "трехрулевым", так как роль килей играли рули поворота). Экипаж состоял из 4 человек: двух пилотов, носового и кормового стрелков. Последний одновременно являлся механиком и обслуживал в полете фюзеляжный мотор.
  20 августа 1915 года "Капрони" Ca.2 и Ca.3 впервые бомбили австрийские войска в Каринтии. В дальнейшем такие налеты стали регулярными.
  Итальянские "трехмоторники" атаковали города Лайбах (Любляна), Триест, военные и железнодорожные объекты на территории Австрии. Для этого им приходилось преодолевать высокогорные, Альпы, а затем вступать в бой с истребителями ПВО. Несколько самолетов не вернулось с заданий, а 18 февраля 1916-го на аэродроме приземлился "Капрони", ведомый тяжело раненным пилотом. Все остальные члены экипажа были убиты. Но несмотря на потери, итальянцы не собирались отказываться от бомбардировок, приносивших немалый военный эффект.
  
  
ДВИГАТЕЛИ
  
  Ca.1: 3 "Гнома" по 80 л.с.
  Ca.2: 3 "Фиата" по 100 л.с.
  Ca.З: 3 "Изотты-Фраскини" по 150 л.с.
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  На Ca.1, Ca.2, Ca.З устанавливали кольцевую турель с одним или двумя пулеметами "Ревелли" в носовой части гондолы и вторую такую же турель на специальном помосте над задним двигателем.
  Ca.2 поднимал 450 кг бомб, Ca.З - 500 кг.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
Ca-33, 1914г.
  
  Размах, м 22,20
  Длина, м 10,90
  Высота, м 3,70
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 98,0
  Сухой вес, кг 2312
  Взлетный вес, кг 3312
  Двигатель: "Фиат"
   число х мощность, л. с. 3x100
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 135
  Дальность полета, км 450
  Время набора высоты, мин/м 40/4000
  Потолок, м 4100
  Экипаж, чел. 4
  Вооружение 2-4 пулемета
   500 кг бомб


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


Ca-30 1914 г.

  Проектирование этого трехмоторного четырехстоечного двухфюзеляжного биплана итальянский инженер Джанни Капрони начал еще в 1913 году, и к концу года новая машина, получившая обозначение Ca-30, была выведена на летное поле. В 1914 году началось серийное производство машин, получивших в армии обозначение Ca-1. Однако двигательная установка оказалась недостаточно мощной, да и конструкция требовала усиления, что привело к модернизации машины. Новый самолет Ca-33 (войсковое обозначение Ca-3) пошел в массовую серию, и с 1914 по 1916 годы было построено 269 экземпляров машин этого типа. Ими были вооружены 15 эскадрилий итальянского "Корпо Аэронаутиче Милитаре" и 5 дивизионов британского.
  Несколько машин в 1917 году передали американской армейской авиации. Французы купили лицензию, и фирма "Роберт Эсно Пельтерие" построила 19 машин Ca-3 для французских ВВС. Машина имела обозначение "Капрони
C.E.P." Эта машина постоянно модернизировалась и улучшалась. Она послужила образцом для всех последующих бомбардировщиков
фирмы "Капрони".
  Оба фюзеляжа имели прямоугольное сечение и деревянный каркас, обтянутый полотном. В носовой части каждого устанавливались 6-цилиндровые, рядные, жидкостного охлаждения двигатели "Фиат" мощностью 100 л. с. с тянущими винтами. Еще один такой двигатель стоял в хвостовой части пилотской гондолы, также имевшей деревянный каркас.
  Облицовка капотов двигателей и пилотской гондолы - алюминиевый лист. Трубчатые вертикальные радиаторы охлаждения крепились к стойкам бипланной коробки. Крыло двухлонжеронное, оборудовалось элеронами на обеих поверхностях. Коробчатые лонжероны и нервюры изготавливались из дерева и фанеры. Крыло обтягивалось полотном. Аналогичную конструкцию имело и горизонтальное оперение, соединявшее фюзеляжи и жесткую рамную конструкцию. Вертикальное оперение бескилевое, имело 3 компенсированных руля поворота. Шасси трехстоечное, с носовым колесом на стойках из металлических труб. Амортизация резиновая шнуровая. На главных стойках устанавливались по две спарки колес на коротких осях. Такая конструкция шасси позволяла взлетать и садиться на неподготовленное поле. По концам нижнего крыла монтировались предохранительные костыли. Вооружение состояло из двухтрех 6,5-мм пулеметов "ФиатРевелли", устанавливавшихся на двух турельных установках. Первая монтировалась в носовой части гондолы, а вторая - на выносной площадке над толкающим двигателем, за задней кромкой верхнего крыла. Самолет мог нести до 500 кг бомб. Но при полной загрузке летные данные резко ухудшались, и обычно бомбовая нагрузка составляла 150-250 кг.


Модификации
  Ca-30 (Ca-1) - опытный самолет с тремя двигателями "Фиат" по 80 л. с.
  Ca-33 (Ca-3) - серийный бомбардировщик и разведчик с двигателями "Фиат" по 100 л. с.
  Ca-34 - развитие Ca-33 без носового колеса с теми же двигателями.
  Ca-35 - тот же Ca-33, но изменена кабина экипажа, она стала закрытой сверху.
  Ca-36 - развитие Ca-33, со складным крылом для удобства хранения в ангаре.
  На базе Ca-36 был создан санитарный самолет для перевозки двух-трех раненых.
  Ca-37 - опытный самолет с меньшим размахом крыльев. Это было сделано для повышения скоростных и маневренных характеристик самолета.


R.Abate,G.Alegi,G.Apostolo Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983


On June 28, 1914 a Serb extremist shot the Austrian hereditary archduke and his wife in Sarajevo. After a month of frantic diplomatic activity between the European powers, on August 1st Germany declared war on Russia and, two days later, on France. It was the beginning of the First World War, a conflict which saw aviation make a great leap forward. Military orders for larger and more powerful airplanes, to be built in ever increasing series, accelerated the transition from the amateur phase to the industrial one, making large capitals available for research and plant expansion. Italy, which on August 2 had proclaimed its neutrality, declared war on Austria-Hungary on May 24, 1915 after a heated interventionist campaign. Already on August 20 two Capronis, serialled Ca.478 and Ca.480, attacked the airfield at Aisovizza.
  The available bombers stemmed from an idea of Gianni Caproni and the generous help of maggiore Giulio Douhet, commander of the Army’s Aviators’ Battalion. Realizing the military potential of the trimotor Caproni was designing when the Vizzola Ticino works were purchased by the Government, Douhet allowed him to build the prototype, which made its first flight in October 1914. To produce the aircraft, a cooperative named Societa per lo Sviluppo dell’Aviazione in Italia was formed in March 1915. It then leased the Vizzola works from the State and launched a production batch of 12 aircraft. Powered by three 100 hp Fiat A.10 engines, these were variously known as Ca.1, Ca.300 hp and Ca.32. A second order of 150 machines, known as Ca.2 or Ca.350 hp, was placed in January 1916. Deliveries were completed in September. A number of these were tested with more powerful engines, heavier weaponry, streamlining.
  A noticeable progress was achieved with the third series, strengthened and, more importantly, powered by three 150hp Isotta-Fraschini V.4B engines, which made the Ca.450 designation more common than the official Ca.3. Although the first Ca.300 had already struck targets in Austrian territory, including Lubljana, Trento and Fiume, it took the Ca.450 to fulfill the bombers’ promise. During the summer of 1917 the bombers struck Pola (August 2,3, and 8, with up to 36 aircraft), Assling, Chiapovano. The bombing of Cattaro, carried out by 14 aircraft on 4 October, represented the greatest success before the Caporetto disaster. Despite the losses sustained during the retreat, in November-December the Capronis were used extensively against enemy troop concentrations, dropping hundreds of tons of bombs. From February 19, 1918 a specially formed unit, the 18th gruppo, operated against German targets from French bases. Before returning to Italy it earned Marechal Foch’s compliments.
  Also worthy of mention is the plan to train and employ in Italy large numbers of American pilots, under the terms of a September 1917 governmental agreement. In the following February 411 American student pilots, led by Captain Fiorello LaGuardia (already a member of Congress and later Mayor of New York), were under training at Foggia. In March 1918 LaGuardia himself completed the Caproni course and went to the front, flying several operational sorties.

А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Тяжелый бомбардировщик Капрони Ca-33 итальянских ВВС (1915г.)
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Caproni C.E.P 2 (CEP 57), эскадрилья CEP 115 ВВС Франции, 1917г.
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Ночной бомбардировщик Капрони C.E.P 112-й эскадрильи Груп Бомбардимент де ла Нуит ВВС Франции (1915г.)
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
This Ca.36M, serial 25811, restored to represent LeRoy Kiley’s 11504, is now on display at the United States Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio. Preserved by the Caproni Museum since 1928, it was loaned to the USAF in 1988, 14,000 man-hours being expended to return it to its pristine condition. Another Ca.36M, previously owned by bomber ace Casimiro Buttini, is with the Italian Air Force Museum at Vigna di Valle, near Rome.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The first Caproni trimotor photographed partially complete at Vizzola Ticino in October 1914. It was designed Ca.1 by the Army and renumbered Ca.31 postwar by its manufacturer. Power came from three Gnome rotaries, with 80 hp units in the tractor outer positions and a single 100 hp pusher in the nacelle. Initially Caproni had envisioned a central position for the engines, two of which, coupled through a differential, would drive the outboard propellers through long shafts. In the interest of simplicity, the prototype was completed with each engine driving its propeller directly.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
FROM THE SUNNY SOUTH. - One of the Caproni biplanes which are doing such excellent work with our Italian Allies.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Капрони" Са.2 французских ВВС.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Fore part of an early Caproni Ca 3 type biplane with two rotary tractor engines and a pusher Isotta-Fraschini.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Some aeroplanes of the Fifth Army of France: Caproni.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The first Ca.1 batch had 100 hp Fiat A.10 in-line engines and were serialled 478-489. The photo shows Gianni Caproni with sottotenente Giulio Laureati on the second production aircraft. Delivered to the Caproni Biplanes Section (later 1st Caproni squadriglia) at La Comina on August 8, 1915, Ca.479 was still in service on December 3, 1916. Redesignated Ca.32 in the postwar system, these bombers were originally known as Ca.300 because of the total engine output.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The Ca.300’s maiden flight was made at Vizzola Ticino by Emilio Pensuti. Born in Perugia, Pensuti earned his wings at Aviano in 1912 and later became Caproni’s favorite test pilot, making in a single year 385 flights on 41 different types of aircraft. He died in 1918 when a backfiring engine set his plane ablaze. Pensuti managed to glide to the ground, saving Mario Galassini who was on board to conduct some tests.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
THE 300 H.P. CAPRONI BIPLANE IN FLIGHT. - These machines, which have been frequently mentioned in the reports of Italian aerial war work, are fitted with three motors of 100 h,p, each. One of these is mounted in the central nacelle, and drives a propeller, while the other two are placed some distance out on the lower plane, each driving a tractor screw. From each of these engines a structure resembling in shape and construction an ordinary fuselage runs back to form a support for the tall planes, serving at the same time to streamline the engines. In the nose of the central nacelle are seats for three, a pilot and two gunners. For long-dlstance bombing raids the Capronis have proved particularly suitable on account of their good weight-carrying capacity.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
A Caproni flying over the countryside. The lack of camouflage on the upper wing, typical of the early stages of the war, stands out. The Ca.300 had a top speed of 115-127 kilometres per hour, the Ca.350 of 129-133, while the Ca.450 reached 140.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The Technical Direction of Military Aviation ordered 150 Ca.3 in February 1917, followed by a further 100 in June. Deliveries gathered momentum in the late spring, allowing important military actions of great psychological impact to be carried out during the summer. On the photo, a Ca.3 in flight.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
An extremely revealing air-to-air photograph of the Caproni Ca 33 four man bomber developed from the original twin-boom fuselaged Caproni Ca 30 of 1913. Initially completed towards the end of 1915, the Ca 33 made its operational debut during the latter half of 1916. One of the first large bombers to be fielded, the Ca 33 was powered by three 150hp Isotta-Fraschini V-4Bs that gave it a top level speed of 84mph at sea level. Capable of lifting a maximum bomb load of 1,000lb, the machine's range with this load was 280 miles. Although obscured by the upper wing in this view, the two tractor-propellered engines were mounted at the front of each fuselage boom, while the pusher-propellered engine formed the rear of the central nacelle. Besides the two, side-by-side pilots, the Ca 33 carried a front gunner and a rear gunner, just visible below, who stood in a curious, open pulpit-like framework directly above the rear engine.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
A rare glimpse of flying a First World War bomber. Open cockpits and high operating altitudes required crews to wear heavy wool garments and thick leather coats.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
A rare glimpse of flying a First World War bomber. Open cockpits and high operating altitudes required crews to wear heavy wool garments and thick leather coats.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
A Ca.3 in flight over Venice. The island city was fiercely hit by Austro-Hungarian aircraft and during the Caporetto rout the Italians feared it might be occupied by the enemy.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Under normal conditions the Ca.3 lifted off after a ground run of about 150 meters. Upon leaving the ground it was necessary to level off to gather speed before attempting to climb. Different procedures would have caused take-off stalls.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Contrary to what their dimensions would lead to expect, the Capronis possessed excellent maneuverability by the standards of the time. This photo, taken on February 23, 1918 at the Foggia Sud field, shows sergente Federico Semprini pulling his Ca.450 into a low level loop.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Close-up of a Ca.3. Equipped with three 150hp Isotta Fraschini V4B engines - with in-line cylinders despite the designation - this version was widely known as Ca.450. The three engines were individually started by manually throwing the propeller. The poet Gabriele D’Annunzio flew many operational sorties with Capronis, developing a strong tie with their builder. Returning from a raid on Pola, on August 29, 1917 D’Annunzio created for Caproni the motto "Senza cozzar dirocco" (“I batter without clashing”). The battering ram referred to the Caproni name, which means “ram” in Italian, and linked the new weapon to traditional siegecraft.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The ground view of the Ca 33 is of interest in that it lacks the standard pulpit-mounted rear gunner's position completely. At least 250 Ca 33s were built, the type being operated by both the Italians and the French.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Caproni bombers were among the first of the true strategic aircraft and, in various forms, were operational throughout the war with a number of Allied air forces.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
11th gruppo personnel hauls a Ca.3 into its Aviano hangar.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Ca.1 serial 1138, bearing pilot Gino Lisa's "Two of diamonds" insignia, shows crew stations to advantage. A track and trolley system, seen in the foreground, was used to ease the task of inserting and extracting the large aircraft sideways from their hangars.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Under a February 1915 agreement, the French REP firm, owned by Robert Esnault-Pelterie, built the Caproni trimotors under license and was later joined by SAIB. The aircraft were assigned to the Escadrilles CEP (later CAP) 115 and 130 and made their operational debut on August 5, 1916, seeing effective use even against targets in Germany itself. From November 1917 onwards the French also received some Ca.450s directly from Italy, including the one pictured here. The Italian 18th gruppo was deployed to France in February 1918, dropping 164 tons of bombs in 56 missions before the armistice.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Nine Ca.300 from the second batch, including Ca.1248 shown here, were completed as Ca.2 by replacing the central Fiat A.10 with a 150 hp Isotta Fraschini V4B. Because the rated output now reached 350 hp, the resulting aircraft were also known as Ca.350. Curiously this variant did not receive a new designation in the postwar system. The additional power improved performance and suggested the potential of an entirely Isotta-powered variant.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Engine runs for a Ca.450. The lack of the forward weapon and the modified gun mounting suggest this machine might have been used for the trial installation of the 25,4 millimeter Fiat gun. At least three aircraft thus equipped - serialled 2314, 2401, 2404 - were on strength with the 16th squadriglia in May 1918.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
One of Italy’s most famous bomber crews was formed by tenenti Luigi Gori and Maurizio Pagliano (pilots), capitano Aurelio Barbarisi (observer) and soldato Alessandro Zamengo (motorist-gunner). The crew, assigned to 8th squadriglia, started flying together on the Ca.300 serialled 1151 and christened “Ace of spades”. The insignia is visible in the photo.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
One of Italy’s most famous bomber crews was formed by tenenti Luigi Gori and Maurizio Pagliano (pilots), capitano Aurelio Barbarisi (observer) and soldato Alessandro Zamengo (motorist-gunner). The crew, assigned to 8th squadriglia, started flying together on the Ca.300 serialled 1151 and christened “Ace of spades”. The view shows the men wearing full flight gear.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
General Carlo Porro, deputy chief of staff of the Italian Army, is seen at left in the photo on the occasion of a much publicised flight in a Caproni.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
THE WAR IN THE ITALIAN SECTION. - General Cadorna (the second from the right), who has made several flights since Italy came into the war, in one of our Ally's aeroplanes which has just returned from a raid over the Austrian lines.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Caproni crews included several famous pilots. Here, in uniform between Pasquale De Luca and Gianni Caproni is capitano Ercole Ercole.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Caproni crews included several famous pilots. Here, tenente Federico Zapelloni in front of the Ca.2380 he flew during the famous 1917 raids.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
With the arrival of the new Ca.450, the “Ace of spades” insignia was applied to Ca.2378, flown by Pagliano and Gori over Pola on August 3, 4 and 8, 1917. Gunner-engineer on these flights was sottotenente Pratesi, while the observer’s seat was filled by capitano Gabriele D’Annunzio. The photo shows Gori and Pagliano standing by their aircraft. The nacelle has been decorated with an elaborate list of the missions flown and the vertical motto Repetita luvant (“It is good to repeat”).
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
In front of a Ca.1 still lacking its military equipment are Gianni Caproni, Emilio Pensuti (at left, in flying suit) and Giovanni Agusta (at right). Hired at Vizzola in October 1913, during the war Agusta served as squadron inspector with Caproni units. He later became technical'administrative director of the Vizzola works, and in May 1921 left the firm to open a SVA and Caproni overhaul depot in Libya.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Aircraft of the 8th squadriglia were identified by card suits. Pagliano and Gori’s ace of spades was thus matched by the ace of clubs flown by tenente Mario Martini and sottotenente Gino Lisa (pilots), here seen at La Comina with gunner-engineer Zamengo. Gino Lisa was later awarded the Medaglia d’oro al valor militare.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
The nacelle and one of the tractor screws of a Caproni biplane. Standing in front of the machine is Capt. Salomone (with a bandage round his head), who, it will be remembered, returned from a raid on Lublana (Laibach) with both his passengers killed, he himself being wounded in the head. In spite of his wounds he put up a heroic fight against the hostile machines, and did not return until he had fulfilled his mission and dropped his full complement of bombs. In the photo he is seen regarding one of his dead comrades who has not yet been removed from the nacelle.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
A Ca.3 from the first production batch preparing for take-off. To avoid damaging the aircraft on the rough airfield surfaces the operating manual advised to taxi with the nose wheel slightly raised from the ground.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
A group of soldiers poses for a snapshot by an early Caproni. Between the undercarriage legs the primitive early bomb racks can be made out quite clearly. The lower wing is painted in the Italian flag’s colors, with the outer sectors respectively red and green. The central section’s unpainted fabric replaced the flag’s white band.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Front view of Caproni Ca 3 biplane of 1916-18, with the most common arrangement of three 150 h.p. Isotta-Fraschini V4B inline engines. Maximum speed 85 m.p.h. in Ca 33 form.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
An agreement between the Italian and US governments led to the training in Italy of 500 American pilots, 406 of which had completed instruction by armistice day. American student pilots, completely without flight experience, started the course on Farmans and later progressed to more complex aircraft. The photo shows Italian personnel hauling a Ca.3 into the Foggia flying line.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
American student pilots make their acquaintance with the Caproni.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
For the United States the importance of the Italian training program went beyond the comparatively modest operational deployment, cut short by the armistice. The “Foggiani”, as these pilots were soon nicknamed, represented America’s first experience of strategic bombing, originating a belief in the doctrine which stands unchallenged after almost three quarters of a century. The photo shows Lt. LeRoy Kiley climbing aboard his Ca.3.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The success of the Pola raids convinced D’Annunzio to strike Cattaro. The Distaccamento AR, named after its commander muggiore Armando Armani, was formed for this purpose. It consisted of two flights of seven aircraft, led by D’Annunzio and by capitano Leonardo Nardi. The aircraft were moved to Gioia del Colie on September 24. The raid, which involved crossing 400 km of open sea, was carried out on the night of October 4. Two aircraft were forced back by technical problems, but there were no losses. The photo shows D’Annunzio’s return on board Ca.11503.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The Ca.3 series aircraft were exceptionally long-lived: the type was finally withdrawn from service only in 1927, its long service being part helped by further small production orders placed in 1923-24. Besides equipping bomber units, the Ca.3 were also used to fly mail or passengers.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
One of the "smaller" Caproni bombing biplanes, fitted with three motors of 200 h.p. each.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
A crew snapshot next to an unusually shiny bomber.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
La Comina, near Pordenone, was the first operational Caproni base. From here sprung all the main operations of 1915-16. The photo shows the great wooden hangars built for the bombers, the defensive installations, the huge shipping crates. Construction details - notice the presence of both long and short rudders - and serials date the image to Spring 1916.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Aviano airfield, December 1917: a lineup of Ca.3s belonging to 11th gruppo’s 6th squadriglia. Before the Caporetto disaster the field hosted as many as six bomber squadrons. Individual markings were obtained by repeating the squadriglia insignia - in this case, a red circle with a white center - as often as necessary. From left to right we thus have aircraft number two, three and four. The photo also illustrates the practice of supporting the tail booms during periods of inactivity.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Another 1917 picture of Aviano. To achieve a more efficient use of hangar space aircraft were placed inside with alternate right/left facing.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Ten Capronis operated by the 7th stormo bombardamento photographed by an overflying 8th squadriglia Ca.3 during the September 26, 1925 maneuvers. The hangar track and trolley system is clearly seen in front of the buildings.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
This photo, taken at Vizzola Ticino in late 1916 or early 1917, summarizes wartime Caproni production. Left to right: the Ca.4 prototype, the unique Ca.37 and Ca.20, and Ca.300 serial 1173.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Besides equipping bomber units, the Ca.3 were also used to fly mail or passengers. In the latter role, in February-April 1922 the Libyan based aircraft were used, together with some SVAs, to resupply the 10th Battaglione Eritreo under siege at Azizia. Over 44 tons of freight, 278 military and 53 civilian passengers were carried in what is believed to have been the world’s first air bridge operation.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
When the 1934 exhibition closed, Mussolini ordered the Regia Aeronautica to transfer its historical collections from the Air Force Academy, housed in the Royal Palace in Caserta, to Milan, where they would become part of a proposed National Aeronautical Museum. The idea never bore fruit and the Caproni Museum remained the only aviation museum in Italy. This photograph, dated December 1937, shows that initially the historic aircraft were stored in the workshops.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The Caproni Museum’s entrance in 1940. A visitor’s log sits on the round table. The Ca.1 and Ca.6, easily recognized by the variable pitch metal propeller, stand alongside the carpet. Directly behind the bronze bust are the Ca.36M’s empennages, partially hiding a Macchi-Nieuport 29 fuselage. By 1943 the decaying military situation forced the Museum to disperse its three main nuclei - Museum, library and archive -, blocking all activity but also preserving much of the material for posterity.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
After a forced hiatus, the Caproni Museum gathered new momentum in the Sixties with the opening of a new display in some of the old Vizzola Ticino hangars. Some of the best preserved aircraft were reassembled here and partially restored, while others remained in storage in Venegono Superiore. The photo shows the Ca.36M loaned to the USAF Museum in 1988.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
After some tests carried out by two Ca.5 in the summer of 1917, the Ca.450 serial 2334 was experimentally modified as torpedo bomber. After removing the nose wheel and generally lightening the aircraft, a torpedo harness was fitted to the bottom of the gondola. Despite the fact that with its 700 kg weapon the bomber would exceed its maximum allowable take-off weight, the aircraft was included in the Pola raid of October 2-3 with the stated intention of hitting a battleship. Ca.2334, christened Per la Patria (“For Country”), was crewed by a mixed Army-Navy team and took off with the second wave. As agreed, pilot sottotenente Ridolfi cut the engines above the harbor and glided down. Unfortunately the naval observer tenente di vascello Pecchiarotti, perhaps fearing the Austrian reaction, released the weapon too early. Thus failed the first Italian torpedoing attempt. The photo shows Ca.2334 on the ground.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The photo shows Ca.2334 with a trial release.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Its original Fiat A.10 engines replaced with Colombo D.110s, Ca.3 I-AAMB served with the Scuola Aviazione Caproni in the Twenties. It is seen here in front of the Vizzola Ticino hangars.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
As a reprisal for the Austrian bombing of Milan on February 24, 1916 by eleven Lohner B.VIIs, the Italians decided to strike Ljubljana. In the early hours of February 18 ten Ca.300 left La Comina. Three were forced back by engine troubles. Two others were bounced by Austrian fighters, which forced Ca.479 to make an emergency landing in enemy held territory. Despite two dead crew members on board, capitano Oreste Salomone’s Ca.478 was able to return: for this feat he received the first Gold Medal for Military Gallantry awarded to a pilot. The remaining five aircraft reached the target and dropped 26 162 mm bomb-mines from heights ranging between 2500-2800 meters. The photo shows the cover dedicated to the event by the Domenica del Corriere magazine.