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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Caproni Ca.4 (Ca.40 - Ca.43)

Страна: Италия

Год: 1916

Бомбардировщик

Caproni - Ca.37 - Ca.38 - 1916 - Италия<– –>Caproni - Ca.5 (Ca.44 - Ca.47) - 1917 - Италия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


КАПРОНИ Ca.4 / CAPRONI Ca.4

  В конце 1916-го Капрони создал, пожалуй, наиболее экстравагантный аэроплан 1-й Мировой войны. Задавшись целью резко увеличить бомбовую нагрузку машины, он установил на очередную модификацию своего бомбардировщика более мощные, 200-сильные, моторы "Фиат". А чтобы компенсировать возросший взлетный вес, добавил третье крыло.
  Напомним, то был период всеобщего увлечения трипланами, но Капрони - единственный, кто сумел разработать и, главное, "довести до ума" тяжелый многомоторный самолет подобной схемы. Все остальные проекты так и не вышли за стадию прототипов, а гигантский триплан Ca.40 выпускался серийно и участвовал в боевых вылетах.
  Конструкция Ca.40 в целом была та же, что и у предыдущих машин Капрони: деревянный каркас с полотняной обшивкой. Новинкой стали восьми колесные тележки шасси и крупногабаритный бомбовый контейнер, размещенный в центре нижнего крыла подфюзеляжной гондолой. Бомбы в нем подвешивались вертикально. Экипаж - 5 человек: 2 пилота и 3 стрелка.
  В начале 1917-го появился слегка улучшенный образец Ca.41 с более узкой, обтекаемой гондолой и тандемным расположением пилотов. Вершиной развития типа стал Ca.42, на который Капрони установил самые мощные на тот момент 400-сильные американские двигатели. "Либерти", По величине бомбовой нагрузки этот самолет не имел себе равных в авиации союзников. В 1917-м построили лишь 3 серийных бомбардировщика-триплана и еще 20 - в следующем году.
  Высокая грузоподъемность Ca.42 (военное обозначение - Ca.4) привлекла внимание английского морского командования. Для авиации ВМФ Великобритании было закуплено 6 машин, которые состояли на вооружении до конца 1918-го. Остальные применялись двумя итальянскими бомбардировочными эскадрильями. Поскольку огромный тихоходный самолет представлял отличную мишень для вражеских зениток, Ca.4 почти всегда летали на задания ночью.
  Кроме уже упомянутых, выпускалось и еще несколько модификаций двухбалочных трипланов Капрони: торпедоносец Са:43, Ca.51 с бипланным оперением, а также Ca.48, Ca.52, Ca.58 и Ca.59 - транспортные самолеты без вооружения. Всего было построено свыше 40 аэропланов семейства Ca.4.


ДВИГАТЕЛИ

  3 "Фиата" по 200 л.с. или 3 "Либерти" по 400 л.с.


ВООРУЖЕНИЕ

  Носовая двухпулеметная турель в гондоле и еще две - в хвостовых балках за крыльями.
  Ca.4 с двигателями "Фиат" поднимал 1200 кг бомб, с двигателями "Либерти" - 1950 кг.


ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
Ca-42, 1916г.

  Размах, м 29,90
  Длина, м 15,10
  Высота, м 6,30
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 200,0
  Сухой вес, кг 4000
  Взлетный вес, кг 7500
  Двигатель: "Либерти"
   число х мощность, л. с. 3x400
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 140
  Дальность полета, км 600
  Продолжительность полета, час, мин 5,0
  Время набора высоты, мин/м 26/3000
  Потолок, м 4900
  Экипаж, чел. 5
  Вооружение 3-6 пулеметов
   1950 кг бомб


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


Ca-4 1916 г.

  Эта машина создавалась с целью повышения бомбовой нагрузки и усиления защиты от атак истребителей противника. Для этого инженеры фирмы "Капрони" почти в два раза увеличили размах крыльев новой машины по сравнению с Ca-33. Самолет стал четырехстоечным трипланом. На нижнем крыле по продольной оси самолета устанавливался ящик для бомб, в котором размещалось около 2000 кг бомб в вертикальном положении. Гондола экипажа и несущие балки фюзеляжа с мотогондолами устанавливались под средним крылом.
  Двигатели 12-цилиндровые, жидкостного охлаждения, рядные, от 300 до 400 л. с. фирмы "Фиат" или американские "Либерти". В балках за задней кромкой крыла монтировались турельные установки со спарками пулеметов "Ревелли".
  Гондола экипажа приобрела овальную, обтекаемую форму. Оперение большего размаха, конструктивно повторяло оперение самолета Ca-33. Шасси на трубчатых М-образных стойках имело по две короткие оси на каждой стойке. На каждой оси устанавливали по две спарки колес. Костыли имели большую длину и во избежание поломки крепились сложной системой раскосов и растяжек. Самолет нес 4-6 пулеметов и до 1950 кг бомб. Кроме итальянских эскадрилий несколько машин было передано британским ВВС и американскому экспедиционному корпусу. Но из-за довольно сложной и непрочной конструкции самолет распространения не получил.


Модификации
  Ca-41 - серийный самолет с тремя двигателями "Фиат" (300 л. с.).
  Ca-42 - развитие предыдущего с более мощными двигателями "Либерти" по 400 л. с.


R.Abate,G.Alegi,G.Apostolo Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983


April 1916 had seen the static testing of the Ca.4, a trimotor triplane which earned the Caproni formula to its extremes. Based on the biplanes’ concept and structure, the Ca.4 stood out because of its much greater size and power. Although it could carry over a ton of bombs, the Ca.4 was penalised by excessive structural complexity and less than fifty were completed in a surprisingly large number of variants.


O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)


CAPRONI CA.42 TRIPLANE

  Six examples of this three-engined triplane bomber were purchased from Italy for the RNAS, but were not, so far as is known, used operationally although originally intended for NO.227 Squadron at Pizzone, in April 1918. They had the serial numbers N526 to 531 inclusive: N527 is illustrated.


Журнал Flight


Flight, June 19, 1919.

THE, CAPRONI BOMBING TRIPLANE CA-4-1915

  THE Caproni triplane represents a type designed and built by the famous Italian constructor since 1915. This machine was created at that time for the night bombing of important military and naval bases, railway stations and war plants. As in the preceding types of machines by the same constructor, the type CA-4 triplane has for its distinctive characteristic the number and arrangement of the motors, originated by the famous Italian constructor. There are three motors, one driving a pusher screw mounted in a central nacelle, the other two are each mounted in the nose of a fuselage and drive a tractor screw. These two fuselages and the central nacelle are attached to the spars of the middle wing, whilst the centre section of the lower plane carries the bomb rack, also designed by Engineer Caproni.
  Normally the crew of the machine consists of two pilots, seated side by side, and a gunner - who operates a 1 1/2 in. gun and two Fiat machine guns - located in the central nacelle, and a gunner or observer in each of the fuselages, which are also fitted with Fiat machine guns. Each of the crew can pass from one cockpit to another, a foot walk covered with veneer wood being provided on the middle plane between the central nacelle and the fuselages for this purpose.
  The CA-4 triplane has been successively equipped with three different types of motors. At first, three Isotta Fraschini 8-cylinder vertical 240-250 h.p. engines were used; later three Fiat A/12-bis 6-cylinder vertical engines were fitted, and finally three Liberty 12 Navy type (low compression) engines were adopted. With an aggregated useful military load of 6,600 lbs. the performance of this triplane, equipped with Liberty engines, has been considerably better than those obtained with the other types of motors, especially in climbing. In the official tests, at full load and fully armed, a speed of 98 m.p.h. at 6,560 ft. was reached. The average rates of climb attained (with Liberty motors) at full military loads were: 3,280 ft. in 6 mins., 6,560 ft. in 14 mins., and 10,000 ft. in 25 mins. The ceiling is at about 16,000 ft. The total weight of the machine, empty, is 11,100 lbs., and with full military load, 17,700 lbs. With a complete fuel load of 550 gals, the bomb rack is supposed to be loaded with 2,500 lbs. of bombs, but practically in almost all bombing raids the load of bombs exceeded 3,000 lbs.
  Each of the three planes is built up in seven sections, the corresponding sections in upper, middle and lower planes being of equal span, as follows. Centre sections, 5 ft. 6 ins.; intermediate sections (two), 13 ft. 1 in. each, and outer sections 18 ft. 3 ins. The wing spars are of box spar section, and the ribs, double ribs and box ribs are of white wood and ash. Between ribs the spars are wrapped with strong linen. The connection between the two subsequent sections is obtained with the male and female box fitting system. The covering is linen, nailed on the rib flanges and on the leading and trailing edges. On the linen, above and below the wing, maple batten strips are screwed in correspondence to the ribs.
  For the interplane struts, ash, spruce and seamless steel tubes are employed, and some of the struts have adjustable ends. The bracing is, as usual, with steel cables and wires.
  As on all Caproni bombing machines, the stabiliser, elevator, rudders and ailerons are constructed of steel tubing. The stabiliser is solidly braced to the fuselage by means of cables and steel tube struts. There are three balanced rudders and a one-piece elevator. Ailerons are fitted to all three planes. Dual control is fitted, so that the machine can be controlled by either pilot at will. The control system for the ailerons and elevator is a combination of the wheel and stick type, and the rudders are operated by a foot bar of the usual pattern.
  The petrol is fed from three tanks, one each on the fuselages and one in the central nacelle. Three wind-driven centrifugal pumps deliver the petrol from the tanks to a central distributor, and thence to the carburettors of the engines. Both pilots have close a t hand the necessary devices for controlling the petrol supply. For testing the motors on the ground two small gravity tanks are provided, but these are excluded from the main system when the machine is in flight. In cases of emergency the pilot on the left can operate a hand-pump, which is capable of feeding the three engines from the central tank. Each engine has its own oil tank and a radiator for cooling the oil. The engine radiators are mounted either in the nose of the respective fuselage or nacelle, or else above in each engine, as shown in the photographs. All the radiators are of the honeycomb type, and are fitted with shutters.
  The central nacelle is perfectly streamlined. Two main longerons with steel tube compression struts between them, wire braced, form the frame on which a set of ribs are fastened, giving the shape of the nacelle. Birch veneer and walnut are employed in the construction of these ribs - a similar form of construction to that employed for flying boat hulls. The front upper part of the nacelle is formed by a cowling made of plywood with interposed layers of fabric. The two pilots are seated behind the front gunner, and behind them again is the petrol tank. At the rear of the latter, which is of the same circular section as that of the nacelle, is a short foot-way allowing free access to the engine at the rear. The engine is enclosed by cowling.
  The two fuselages are flat-sided and of the usual girder construction - four ash longerons, compression struts, and wire bracing. All the fittings to which the diagonals are fastened are manufactured from the same set of dies, and are extremely simple, light and free from welding. Their application is such that the longerons are not pierced by bolts or screws. The engine housing is cowled with sheet aluminium. The petrol and oil tanks are situated just behind the engine. and the gunner's cockpit is located a short distance at the rear of the trailing edge of the middle plane. A tail skid is mounted on the end of each fuselage. The landing gear is of special Caproni design, and is very strong. It consists of two sets of M struts, each carrying a short skid on which are sprung two pairs of twin wheels mounted one in front of the other. Each set of wheels is located under the fuselages. The M struts are of laminated ash and spruce, wrapped with strong canvas fabric. The axles are attached to the skids by means of shock-absorbing rubber cord, and steel rods anchored in universal joints which absorb lateral oscillation. The chassis is braced in the usual manner with double steel cables.
  The following are the principal characteristics of the Caproni CA-4 triplane :-



Overall span 96 ft. 6 ins.
Overall length 42 ft. 11 ins
Overall height 20 ft. 8 ins.
Chord 7 ft. 0 ins.
Gap 8 ft. 0 ins.
Area of main planes (total,
  including ailerons) 2,223 sq. ft
Area of ailerons (six) 227 sq. ft.
Area of rudders (three) 81 sq. ft.
Area of tail plane 109.75 sq. ft.
Area of elevator 81.6 sq.ft.
Overall span of ailerons 19 ft. 4 ins.
Overall span of tail plane 34 ft. 1 in.
Overall span of elevator 36 ft. 3 ins.
Angle of incidence
  (main planes) 3° 50'.
Angle of incidence
  (tail plane) 3° 8'.

А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Капрони Ca-41 RFC (1917г.)
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Caproni Ca-4, 6 крыло Королевской Военно-морской Авиации Великобритании, 1918г.
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Тяжелый бомбардировщик Капрони Ca-42 ВВС Италии (1917г.)
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Further developing the multiengine multiplane theme, in 1916 Caproni conceived the Ca.4. This enormous triplane, powered by tre Fiat A.12bis engines, sacrificed everything to its load carrying possibilities. Tested in July 1916, it was ordered in production the following January.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
This visual comparison between the Ca.4 (redesignated Ca.40 after the war) and the 1914 Ca.20 illustrates the rapid strides in aviation technology brought about by the war. While the structural parts of the both aircraft were quite similar, before the war a project of the Ca.4's size would have been inconceivable.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
A 1,000 h.p. Caproni Triplane, of 1917, nose to nose with a 100 h.p. Caproni Monoplane of 1915 type.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
This photo, taken at Vizzola Ticino in late 1916 or early 1917, summarizes wartime Caproni production. Left to right: the Ca.4 prototype, the unique Ca.37 and Ca.20, and Ca.300 serial 1173.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The preseries batch, later called Ca.40, had the prototype’s angular fuselage with a clear frontal section added for the observer.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
THE 600 H.P. ITALIAN CAPRONI TRIPLANE. - This huge machine, the size of which may be judged by the man standing just in front, is equipped with three 200 h.p. engines, and has a speed of about 80 m.p.h.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Gianni Caproni, fourth from left, with pilots and associates in front of a production Ca.4. This version, built from January 1918 onwards and later identified as Ca.41, incorporated several improvements suggested by experience with the first four machines. Together with the possibility of replacing the Fiat A.12 engines with Isotta Fraschini V.5 units, production Ca.4 sported a new, partially enclosed pilots’ nacelle whose rounded lines betrayed a Ca.5 origin.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Six Liberty-engined triplanes, retroactively called Ca.42, were briefly operated from Taranto-Pizzone by the British Royal Naval Air Service with serials N526-N531. The Caproni Flight, as the new unit was called, was led by Squadron Commander R. Whitehead. The increased power cut climbing times in half while adding 500 kg of payload and raising the top speed by 15 km per hour.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Капрони" Са.4 итальянской морской бомбардировочной эскадрильи.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The war’s end did not spell the end of the great triplanes: in June 1919 aircraft 14664, used by 181st squadriglia during the war, made a promotional tour of northern Europe. It is seen here on Bruxelles-Haren airport, where on June 14 it carried King Albert of Belgium.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Front View of a Caproni Ca 4 type Triplane bomber of 1917.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The photo, taken in 1940, shows the Ca.4 dominating the display.
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
The Caproni Ca 42, powered by three 400hp Isotta-Fraschini, or Libertys, was the last and the heaviest of the Caproni triplane bombers to be produced. Delivered in early 1918, these five-man machines carried up to 3.910lb of bombs in a central housing attached to the lower wing. Top level speed of the Ca 42 was 87mph at 6.560 feet, while its defensive armament consisted of five Ravelli machine guns. Over 20 of these mammoth triplanes were built, the machine seen here carrying the British serial no N 527, being the second of six Ca 42s operated by the RNAS for a period during 1918.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
This three-engined 1,200 h.p. Caproni triplane, has a span of about 103 ft., and carries a useful load of several tons
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The people in this photo lend scale to the Ca.4’s considerable dimensions. Among other conspicuous details are the bomb harnesses on the lower central gondola, the twin wheels and night landing lights on the wing’s trailing edge.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The war’s end did not spell the end of the great triplanes: in June 1919 aircraft 14664, used by 181st squadriglia during the war, made a promotional tour of northern Europe. It is seen here on Bruxelles-Haren airport, where on June 14 it carried King Albert of Belgium.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
British Ca.4 N528 fitted with a passenger gondola replacing the more usual bom nacelle.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The cockade on this Ca.4’s nose indicates examination by the US Army’s Bolling commission.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Despite the limited production run, the Ca.4 sported a large number of individual differences. British machines, for instance, carried twin Lewis guns in the nose, with the gunners position partially protected by a sort of collapsible screen. The photo also shows a large individual insignia and, less visible, a small eagle on the nose of N526.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Removing the lower gondola allowed heavier weights to be carried, such as the 500 kg bomb shown in the top right photo. This version was later called Ca.52.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Another view of the 600 h.p. Italian Caproni triplane, which has been doing such good raiding work on the Italian front. The machine is seen returning from a flight.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
A Navy Ca.4 at take-off. This aerial giant served with the 181st and 182nd naval squadriglie.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
An airborne Ca.4. Photos cannot record the impression the Ca.4’s majestic size and power made in its day.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
A Ca.4 just after unsticking.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
A TRI-MOTORED CAPRONI HYDRO-TRIPLANE: It has a span of 31 metres, and the useful load is 2 1/2 to 3 tons. It can be fitted with three 300 h.p. Flat or Liberty engines, and the speed is 140 kiloms. per hour.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
In 1920 Ca.4 5353 was converted into seaplane by adding a pair of floats not unlike those designed by Guidoni for the Ca.47. It was also experimentally equipped with two underwing torpedo harnesses. This version was indicated as Ca.43 in the postwar system.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
A final Ca.4 derivative was the Ca.51, easily recognized by its biplane horizontal tail. The rear gunner’s position can be made out amidst the six rudders.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Two detail sketches of the Caproni CA-4 Triplane. On the left one of the tail skids, and on the right one of the under-carriage units.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Капрони" Са.4