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Hansa-Brandenburg GW / GDW

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Hansa-Brandenburg - G.I - 1916 - Германия<– –>Hansa-Brandenburg - KDD - 1916 - Германия


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Brandenburg GW
   Developed as a torpedo strike aircraft during 1916, a total of twenty-six aircraft were supplied to the German Navy. The prototype had triple vertical tail surfaces, but the production machines had a simplified empennage. In production aircraft the frontal radiators of the prototype were re-located in the wings, and flush. The GW was capable of carrying a torpedo weighing 725 kg. (1,595 lb.), and chiefly operated from the seaplane station at Angernsee in Courland. Engines, two 160 h.p. Mercedes D III. Span, 21.56 m. (70ft.8 7/8in.). Length, 12.57m.(41 ft. 3in.). Height, 4.145 m. (13 ft. 7 1/8 in.). Area, 102.14 sq.m. (1,103 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 2,334 kg. (5,135 lb.). Loaded, 3,928 kg. (9,506 lb.). Speed, 102.14 km.hr. (64 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 22 min. Armament, one torpedo, one defensive Parabellum machine-gun.


Brandenburg GDW
   With enlarged proportions, this 1916 machine was a development of the GW and was designed to carry a heavier torpedo weighing 1,825 kg. (4,015 lb.). Only a single aircraft was built (No. 746), and it was probably seconded to training duties. Engines, two 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV. Span, 24.5 m. (80 ft. 4 5/8 in.). Length, 15.8 m. (51 ft. 10 1/8 in.). Height, 5.0 m. (16 ft. 4 in.). Area, 134 sq.m. (1,447 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 2,936 kg. (6,459 lb.). Loaded, 4,851 kg. (10,672 lb.). Speed, 130 km.hr. (81.25 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 19.5 min.


C.Owers Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI Vol.2: Biplane Seaplanes (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 18)


Type GW
  
   According to Heinkel, the GW floatplane was based on the twin-engined GF bomber. The family development is readily seen in the appearance of the machine. This large floatplane was developed during 1916 to carry a 725-kg torpedo, hence T Class. The prototype, MN 528, had triple vertical tail surfaces but this was simplified on production machines. The drag-inducing frontal radiators of the prototype were replaced by flush-mounted aerofoil radiators on the rest of the batch of floatplanes. Heinkel states it was the first time that a machine carried starting devices for the engines.(35) One defensive Parabellum machine gun was provided. The prototype passed its tests in January 1916 at Warnemunde. The German Navy ordered a further 20 of these aircraft after successful testing of the prototype.
   The twin Mercedes engines were mounted in nacelles between the wings on each sides of the fuselage. The rudder was balanced being above the fin and below the fuselage. A large triangular fin was mounted atop the fuselage. The twin floats were mounted directly below each engine nacelle. A single machine gun was provided for defence.
   The first two batches of five machines each were delivered between April and August 1916. The production examples were mainly operated from Lake Engure,(36) Angernsee seaplane station in Courland, Latvia, against Russian targets. The German army had captured large areas of the Russian Empire in 1915. The seaplane base established at Angernsee was to enable the Germans to carry out reconnaissance and aerial operations against the Russian forces on the Eastern and Southern sides of the Gulf of Riga. The lake was an excellent place from which to operate seaplanes and a nearby airfield allowed for the use of landplanes as well, Fokker Eindecker monoplanes operating from here in defence of the station. In July 1916 the 1st Torpedo-Staffel began to establish itself at the station with a single Friedrichshafen FF33H and four Brandenburg GW floatplanes. The Brandenburgs were numbered T1 to T4 and these numbers were carried on their fuselage.
   T3 (MN 648) was damaged during a Russian air raid on 16/17 August. Its tail was damaged when a Russian bomb blew the hangar door in. T1 and T4(37) also sustained slight shrapnel damage during this attack.
   Apparently the GW floatplanes were not well received as it was reported back to the test command that it took over an hour to reach cruising altitude.
   Although each batch was different they were all designated Type GW and were duly recorded as such in the SVK drawings. The prototype had triple rudders. MNs 700 - 704 had a more rounded nose and a single rudder. This batch was constructed between September 1916 and January 1917. MNs 1080 - 1084 had short noses and were constructed between September and November 1917. They saw service from Zeebrugge and other North Sea bases.
   The kuk Kriegsmarine received a single GW (MN 701) in late November 1917 that received the Austro-Hungarian serial T1 (T2 and T3 were Gotha WD.14 biplanes).

(35) Various writers have noted that Heinkel had a habit of claiming the "first" for many innovations.
(36) Also spelt Angern. This section has been written mainly from "The Battle of Angernsee", by A. Alexandrov and R. Kintner, Over the Front Journal, US, Vol.18, No.4, 2003, P.292.
(37) T4 was MN 649.


Brandenburg GW Production
Marine Numbers Class Delivered Notes
528 T Jan. 1916 Prototype. Triple rudders.
620 - 624 TMG Aug. - Oct. 1916 Machine gun provided for defence. Revised tailplane, triple rudders.
646 - 650 TMG Apr. - July 1916 Transition between triple & single rudders in this batch.
700 - 704 T Nov.1916 - Mar.1917 Single rudder. Gunner to rear. 701 to Austro-Hungarian Navy.
1080 - 1084 T Sept. - Nov.1917 Revised tailplane, balanced elevators.


Brandenburg GW Specifications
Source Typenschau Gray & Thetford Brandenburg 3-View GW IV Serie SVK MN 620 (620 - 624) SVK MN 647 (646 - 650) SVK MN 700 (700 - 704) SVK MN 1083 (1080 - 1084)
Dimensions in m
Span, Upper 21.56 21.56 21.560 21.000 21.000 21.000 21.560
Span, Lower 21.56 21.56 21.560 21.000 21.000 21.000 21.560
Length 11.74 11.74 11.700 11.700 11.740 11.900
Chord, Upper 2.56 - 2.560 2.400 2.400 2.500 2.560
Chord, Lower 2.56 - 2.560 2.400 2.400 2.500 2.560
Areas in m2
Wings 103.40 103.4 - - - - -
Ailerons 6.0 - - - - - -
Elevators 2.5 - - - - - -
Rudder 2.13 - - - - - -
Weights in kg
Empty 2,374 2,374 2,334 2,399 2,315 2,361 2,374
Loaded 3,856 3,856 3,928 3,590 3,741 3,787 3,856
Performance
Speed in km/hr 127.5 127.5 - - - - -
Time to 500 m - - - 9.9 min. 10.5 min. 9 min. 11.7 min.
Time to 800 m 20.9 min. 20.9 min. - 17.5 min. 21 min. 14.5 min. 20.8 min.
Time to 1000 m 29.1 min. 29.1 min. 22 min. 26 min. 30 min. 19.9 min. 29.4 min.
Time to 1500 m - - - 53.5 min. 60.5 min. 34 min. -
Motor 160-hp Mercedes 160-hp Mercedes D.III 160-hp Mercedes 195-hp 195-hp 160-hp 160-hp Mercedes


Type GDW
  
   As the designation shows, the Class T floatplane GDW was a development of the GW designed to carry the heavier 825-kg torpedo, the extra power being supplied by a pair of 220-hp Benz engines. Only a single aircraft, MN 746, was built. The prototype was modified after its acceptance by the SVK as photographs show that the rudder was now an inverted L shape and did not extend below the fuselage. A large triangular fin was fitted. The elevators were now balanced and in two pieces. The SVK drawing shows MN 746 with plain elevators and a large rudder with balance surfaces above and below the fuselage. The machine must have been modified after initial testing. Again a single machine gun provided defence. The pilot and gunner were both situated towards the wing trailing edge, in close proximity for communication. The pilot would have had little view above due to being situated almost completely below the upper wing. The wings were constructed in seven sections, the outer panels being swept back from the engine nacelles.
   It is thought the GDW was utilized for training as no further development took place. Production of such large aircraft in small numbers was typical of the times. Aircraft were constantly evolving and the skilled factory workers could produce a prototype in a relatively short time. Until a machine had flown there was no way of knowing if the design would perform as predicted by the aeronautical engineering science of the day.

Brandenburg GDW Specifications
Source Typenschau Gray & Thetford SVK MN 746
Dimensions in m
Span, Upper 24.30 24.5 24.500
Span, Lower 24.30 - 24.500
Length 9.50 9.5 9.500
Height - 5.0 5.000
Chord, Upper 2.935 - 2.935
Chord, Lower 2.935 - 2.935
Areas in m2
Wings 134.00 134 -
Ailerons 9.0 - -
Elevators 3.40 - -
Rudder 2.85 - -
Empty Wt., kg 2,950 2,936 -
Loaded Wt., kg 4,865 4,851
Performance
Speed in km/hr 130 130 -
Time to 800 m 13.5 min. - -
Time to 1000 m 17.5 min. 19.5 min. -
Time to 1500 m 29.0 min. - -
Time to 2000 m 45.0 min. - -
Motor 220-hp Benz 200-hp Benz Bz.IV 200-hp Benz


E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918


Kampfflugboote
T 1 Brandenburg GW Dt. Marinenummer 701 2 x Merc 160

C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Brandenburg GW #646, first aircraft of the second production batch, retained the triple rudders of the first production batch.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Brandenburg GW #650, the last aircraft of the second production batch, had the single rudder and aileron servo tabs of the later production aircraft.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Brandenburg GW #700. GWs of the third production batch were delivered between Nov. 1916 & March 1917. In this batch the gunner was moved aft.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Brandenburg GW #701 in kuk Kriegsmarine service. The lozenge camouflage is thought to be in standard German Navy colors but the stripe colors are unknown, so two different renditions are given to illustrate the most likely alternatives.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
The prototype GW torpedo bomber that was allocated Marine Number 528.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
The prototype GW torpedo bomber that was allocated Marine Number 528.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
MN 528 on the bank of the Havel River in Brandenburg. The triple rudders and front gunner's position established the layout for the first production batch. This aircraft passed its testing at Warnemunde in January 1916.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
MN 624 the last GW of the first production batch. This aircraft was part of the Torpedostaffel at SFS Angernsee. Colors thought to be light blue-grey overall.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
MN 646, the first GW of the second production batch. MN 646 had the triple rudders of the first production batch, but MN 650, the last aircraft of the second batch, had the single rudder and aileron servo tabs used on the later production batches, although it retained the forward gun turret. The different types of float dollies are noteworthy. Moving these big aircraft required a lot of manpower.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
MN 646, the first GW of the second production batch. Gotha WD8 MN 476 in background.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Construction of GW torpedo biplanes in the Brandenburg factory. MN 649 is from the second production batch.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Construction of GW torpedo biplanes in the Brandenburg factory. MN 650 is from the second production batch.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
An early GW on the beach.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Loading a torpedo onto GW MN 650. These were part of a set of propaganda photographs.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
MN 650 with torpedo. Engines were 160 hp Mercedes D.III. Twenty-six were delivered. Given the location of the pilot it is understandable that the gunner's position was relocated to improve his view.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Torpedo loaded on Brandenburg GW torpedo bomber. The type was not successful in combat due to its limited ability to carry its torpedo.
The more rounded nose with the gunner's position moved to the rear and single large rudder of the third production batch are well displayed in these photographs of MN 700. Also significant was the addition of aileron servo tabs on this batch, which reduced the pilot's control forces.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
GW MN 700 from the third production batch with torpedo loaded.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Head on view of an early GW with gun position in front. Note the torpedo under the fuselage.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Judging by the color scheme this photograph also may show MN 701. This is an unusual application of the hexagon camouflage scheme as the hexagons did not cover the sides of German marine aircraft.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Brandenburg GW Marine Number 701 after being rebuilt and sold to the Austro-Hungarian Kriegsmarine after arrival at Pola on October 23,1917. Its colorful camouflage was the standard German late-war naval camouflage supplemented by red stripes to clearly identify it as Austrian as it was the only aircraft of its type in the Adriatic. A flying boat with red/white/red Austro-Hungarian markings on its wing is in the right background.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
The sheer size of these floatplanes is well illustrated in this photograph of the launching of MN 704. Note that the fuselage cross is plain without any outline. The aileron servo tabs that reduced the pilot's control forces are clearly shown; these performed the same function as the Flettner servo tabs that later appeared on Gotha and Friedrichshafen bombers and are especially significant technology at this early date.
J.Herris - Friedrichshafen Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/ (21)
The FF41A Marine Number 678 is in the foreground. At right Brandenburg GW Marine Number 701 is being hoisted into the water carrying a torpedo; another torpedo-carrying GW awaits its turn behind Marine Number 678. Despite being a single prototype, #678 was assigned to Zeebrugge where it was assembled and test flown. Performance was judged to be poor and, as far as is known, no operational missions were flown.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
GW MN 1081 from the fourth batch. Despite their differences in layout all the machines were designated Type GW. The launching dollies for the floats are separate units.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
A GW from the fourth production batch (MN 1080 - 1084) showing the single rudder, balanced elevators, and shorter fuselage. This version could carry a 1,600 lb torpedo. There appears to be a pitot tube suspended from the nose of the fuselage.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3 - Monoplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (19)
Brandenburg GW "T3" in its hangar after the Russian bombing raid on Angersee.
J.Herris - German Seaplanes of WWI /Centennial Perspective/ (15)
More views of SF2 Marine #580, the first production SF2. It carries the Marine recognition pennants on the lower wingtips. A Brandenburg GW is in the right background.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Close-up view of a GW's float and engine mounts.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Torpedo-mine loaded in the torpedo crutch of a Brandenburg GW twin-engined torpedo seaplane. This weapon contained 95kg of high explosive and had to be laid from the usual torpedo dropping height of 6-8 metres (20-25ft) to prevent damage to the mine's mechanism. To gauge this height accurately at night, a weighted line was extended in a similar manner to a trailing wireless aerial. When the weight touched the surface, the drag of the water operated contacts that illuminated a light in the pilot's cockpit, indicating that the height was right for release.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Brandenburg GDW, a larger development of the GW to carry larger torpedoes; power was two 200 hp Benz Bz.IV engines. One was built.
The Germans tried to develop a practical torpedo floatplane and the GDW one of the very large floatplanes built in pursuit of this goal.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Brandenburg GDW
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
The GDW was one of the very large floatplanes built to develop a practical torpedo floatplane; only one, MN 746, was constructed.
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Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
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Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Brandenburg GW SVK Drawing
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Brandenburg GW SVK Drawing
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Brandenburg GW SVK Drawing
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Brandenburg GDW SVK Drawing
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Brandenburg GW MN 700 - 704
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Brandenburg GW MN 700 - 704
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2 - Biplane Seaplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (18)
Brandenburg GW MN 700 - 704