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Albatros C.I

Страна: Германия

Год: 1915

Фронтовой самолет

Albatros - seaplane - 1914 - Германия<– –>Albatros - C.II - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


АЛЬБАТРОС C-I / ALBATROS C-I

  В соответствии с тогдашней авиационной "модой" на ранних "Альбатросах" пилот сидел в задней кабине, а летнаб - в передней. Это препятствовало установке на машины защитного вооружения. Поэтому уже в начале 1915 года Хейнкель спроектировал на базе B-II модификацию C-I с классическим размещением экипажа и пулеметной турелью Шнейдера в задней кабине.
  В 1914-1916 годах разведчики "Альбатрос" были, пожалуй, самыми известными немецкими аэропланами как на западном, так и на восточном фронтах. Экипажи ценили эти машины за прочность, надежность и высокие летные данные. А благодаря простоте и доступности пилотирования учебные B-IIa использовались в летных школах до конца войны. В России слово "Альбатрос" даже стало нарицательным. После изучения трофейных образцов так нередко называли любой двухместный биплан аналогичной конструкции.
  Последним невооруженным "Альбатросом" стал B-III, разработанный в конце 1914-го инженером Шубертом. "Визитной карточкой" этого авиаконструктора являлась округлая форма стабилизаторов на всех его самолетах. B-III, прозванный за относительно небольшие размеры и характерную окраску "Блау Маус" ("голубая мышь"), также широко применялся в качестве разведчика на западном и восточном фронте.
  После установки вооружения и ряда несущественных изменений в конструкции B-III переименовали в C-III. Его выпускали заводы OAW, BFW, DFW, Ханзеатиш Флюгцойгверк (HF), Сименс-Шуккерт Верк (SSW) и LVG. "Альбатрос" C-III продержался во фронтовых частях до весны 1917 года.
  Данные об объемах серийного выпуска "Альбатросов" весьма приблизительны. Однако с уверенностью можно сказать, что в 1914-1915 годах построено не менее 2000 машин различных модификаций. Помимо немецких, на них летали австрийские и болгарские экипажи. Несколько экземпляров B-III продано в Швецию.
  
  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ
  
  "Мерседес" D.III, 160 л.с. или "Бенц", 150 л.с. или "Аргус", 180 л.с., на некоторых экземплярах C-I - австрийский мотор "Рапп", 150 л.с.
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  1 турельный "Парабеллум", 1 синхронный "Шпандау".
  До 70 кг бомб.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   C-I
  Размах, м 12,9
  Длина, м 7,8
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 40,4
  Сухой вес, кг 875
  Взлетный вес, кг 1190
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 132
  Время набора высоты, м/мин 1000/6
  Потолок, м 3000


А.Александров, Г.Петров Крылатые пленники России


Располагаясь в передней кабине бипланов класса Б, наблюдатели не могли эффективно использовать стрелковое вооружение, так как спереди их ограничивала площадь, ометаемая воздушным винтом, сверху и по сторонам мешали крылья, а в нижнем секторе - фюзеляж. Между тем потребность в аппаратах, несущих пулемет или пулеметы, возрастала, и в результате появились аэропланы класса Ц, у которых пассажир, теперь стрелок-наблюдатель, поменялся с пилотом местами. Выпущенная весной 1915 г. по своей конструкции модель "Альбатрос Ц. I" мало чем отличалась от модели Б. II, но ее оснащали двигателем "Мерседес" 160 л. с. или "Бенц Ф" 150 л. с; в редких случаях вместо них ставили 150-сильные моторы "Рапп" (Rapp). Строились и модификации: Ц. Iа с коробчатым радиатором перед кромкой верхней плоскости и учебная Ц. Iб с двойным управлением, капотированными головками цилиндров и горизонтальным выхлопным коллектором. "Альбатросы Ц. Iа", выпускавшиеся компанией "Байрише Флющойгверке" (Bayerische Flugzeugwerke = В. F. W.), летали с моторами "Аргус" 180 л. с. Кроме фирм "Альбатрос" и БФВ еще 2 производителя занимались сборкой "Ц-первых", отлично зарекомендовавших себя. Манфред фон Рихтхофен (Manfred von Richthofen), впоследствии самый удачливый из германских асов, летал наблюдателем на такой машине на русском фронте. Другая немецкая знаменитость, Освальд Бельке (Oswald Boelcke), показал пример другим в том, что аэропланы класса Ц могли использоваться в качестве истребителей, а не только пассивно обороняться. Одна из захваченных машин, еще в оригинальной окраске, изображена на фотографии 37 (из коллекции ЦГАКФФД). Аппарат снят на территории 7-го авиапарка, мотор отмонтирован, на киле черной птичкой виден фирменный знак компании "Альбатрос", передняя кромка правого нижнего крыла в районе фюзеляже повреждена. Вероятно, тот же самолет, но на этот раз без несущих поверхностей, представлен на снимке 38 (из коллекции ЦГАКФФД). У его двигателя "Бенц" 150 л. с, охлаждавшегося 18-секционным радиатором "Хазет", отсутствует 5-й цилиндр - что, скорее всего, и было причиной вынужденной посадки. При всем том оружейник уже пробует "приладить" русский облегченный "Максим" образца 1910 г. к немецкой установке, на которой раньше крепился пулемет "Парабеллум" (Parabellum), модель 14. Характеристики данных систем соотносились следующим образом: калибр 7,62 мм/7,92 мм, вес 17,6 кг (без станка и воды врубашке)/9,5 кг, скорострельность 300-500 выстрелов в минуту/700 выстрелов в минуту. Несмотря на излишнюю массу, "Максим" применялся в нашей авиации не только за неимением лучшего, но и по причине своей "привычности" и относительной надежности.
  Завершим данный раздел двумя фотографиями, изображающими, образно говоря, последний полет "Альбатросов" на ржевском артиллерийском полигоне около Петрограда (93, а и б). Эти аппараты отдали, что могли, и ушли в историю.


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Albatros C I

  Designed in 1915 to take advantage of the more powerful engines then becoming available (e.g. the 150 h.p. Benz Bz III and the 160 h.p. Mercedes D III), the Albatros C I represented little more than an enlargement of its B type fore-runners. The prototype was fitted with the Benz engine, and subsequently both Mercedes D III and Argus As III engines were also installed.
  It proved to be an excellent machine. Powerful for its time, and possessing a considerable degree of robustness, it soon became popular with crews who appreciated its performance, which was well ahead of any aircraft they had previously flown. Another reason for the C I'a popularity was the fact that it carried a gun on a moveable mounting, which enabled the observer for the first time to take defensive action against hostile aircraft, as was becoming increasingly necessary. Once the capabilities of the aircraft were established, it was quickly put into production and issued to the Feldfliegerabteilungen, where it was used for reconnaissance, artillery observation, bombing and photography. Several airmen later to become famous - even legendary - flew operationally on Albatros C Is, either as pilots or observers. Manfred von Richthofen flew an Albatros C I as an observer on the Russian Front. The gentlemanly Oswald Boelcke was flying C Is during the early summer of 1915 and developing the technique of aggression by so positioning his Albatros as to enable his observer to fire effectively on enemy aircraft. His attacks were soon attended by success, and his reward was to be transferred to the single-seat monoplanes that were being issued - one or two to a Fl. Abt. - for escort and protection duties. However, Boelcke had shown that a two-seater armed with a machine-gun could be used effectively; others were not slow to follow his example.
  Basically the Albatros C I was a simple aeroplane continuing the example set by the B type aircraft in using a slab-sided, plywood-covered fuselage. This was built up on four main longerons to which the ply panels were fastened; such construction dispensed with internal bracing, and the resultant structure was of considerable strength. Wings were of wood and of a highly-cambered section with the front spar close to the leading-edge and the rear spar at approximately mid-chord. This gave an extremely flexible trailing edge which in flight assumed a slight reflex section, thereby adding considerably to the stability of the aircraft. The triangular tail surfaces were of light gauge steel tube and fabric covered, as were the ailerons. None of the control surfaces were balanced. The normal vee-type undercarriage of steel tube had hollow wooden fairings. A "claw"-type brake was fitted in the centre of the axle. This was operated by a lever in the cockpit and served to reduce the landing run, although the intervention of an obstinate root stump, or similar obstruction, often served to precipitate the aircraft on its nose and, on occasion, was known to sheer off the complete chassis.
  The engine was mounted on stout wooden bearers and initially had a long exhaust pipe extending almost half the length of the starboard side of the fuselage. Later a short chimney-type manifold, which exhausted vertically, was fitted. Some attention was paid to "nose-entry" and streamlining, but this was largely nullified by the H. und Z. radiators positioned on either side of the forward cockpit. The radiators themselves were in self-contained sections which could be added to, or reduced, to suit varying climatic conditions in differing theatres of operations.
  An effort was made to clean up the cooling system at a later date, and a new type radiator was fitted in front of the leading edge of the upper centre section. The aircraft was then redesignated C Ia. Few of these modified aircraft were built, as further development had proceeded and the C III was about to replace the C I and la on the production lines.
  Cockpit controls were of wheel and rudder-bar type. Instruments were quite comprehensive for the period, and consisted of tachometer, Bosche magneto switches, altimeter, fuel gauges, manometer, pressure pump and clock. The compass was usually mounted underneath the top wing, where it could be seen by both pilot and observer.
  In 1917 a dual-control trainer version was built, mainly by Mercur Flugzeugbau, and known as the C Ib. It could be distinguished by its revised exhaust manifold, ejecting horizontally to starboard.

TECHNICAL DATA
  Purpose: Two-seat general purpose.
  Manufacturers:
   Albatros Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. (Alb.).
   Bayerische Flugzeug-Werke (C Ia with Argus As III) (Bay.).
   Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft (C Ia) (Rol.).
   Mercur Flugzeugbau G.m.b.H. (C Ib with Mercedes D III) (Mer.).
  Power Plants: 150 h.p. Benz Bz III; 160 h.p. Mercedes D III; 180 h.p. Argus As III (all 6 cylinder in-line, water cooled).
  Dimensions: Span, C I and Ia 12.900 m. (42 ft. 4 in.); C Ib 13 000 m. (42 ft. 11 in.). Length, C I and Ia 7.850 m. (25 ft. 9 in.); C Ib 7 850 m. (25 ft. 9 in.). Height, C I and Ia 3140 m. (10 ft. 3 5/8 in.); C Ib 3070 m. (10 ft. 0 7/8 in.). Wing area, C I and Ia 40.4 sq.m. (437 sq.ft.); C Ib 42 sq.m. (45.35 sq.ft.).
  Weights: Empty, C I and Ia 875 kg. (1,925 lb.); C Ib 839 kg. (1,846 lb.). Loaded, C I and Ia 1,190 kg. (2,618 lb.); C Ib 1,154 kg. (2,539 lb.).
  Performance: Maximum speed, C I and Ia 132-140 km.hr. (82.5-107.5 m . p . h ): C Ib 140 km.hr. (107.5 m.p.h.). Initial climb, C I and Ia 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 9 3/4 min.; C Ib 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 6 min. Duration, C I and Ia 2 1/2 hr.; C Ib 2 1/4 hr.
  Armament: Parabellum machine-gun for observer. When bombs were carried they were stored in vertical drum-shaped containers between front and rear cockpits.


Albatros C I Experimental
  Albatros C I fuselage fitted with experimental deep-sectioned wing designed by Professor Madelung for later use in the G II and G III bombers. Engine, 150 h.p. Benz Bz III.


Журнал Flight


Flight, December 24, 1915.

THE CAPTURED ALBATROS FIGHTING BIPLANE

  HAVING been designed to carry a fairly heavy machinegun and a considerable amount of ammunition the captured fighting type Albatros that was exhibited on the Horse Guards' Parade is naturally of somewhat larger dimensions than was the two-seater Reconnaissance type of the same make described in our issue of November 26th.
  Generally speaking, however, it does not differ greatly in detail construction from the smaller machine, the wing design and construction as well as the method of building up the fuselage without the use of cross-wiring being practically identical in both cases. Being intended for fighting rather than for scouting purposes climbing capacity has been aimed at rather than high speed in horizontal flight. The deeply cambered wings - as cornpared with those of the majority of British machines - set at a comparatively great angle of incidence, are evidently capable of raising a great load even at low speeds.
  As the body construction is of a form not usually seen in this country, a few words regarding it may be of interest. In addition to the four main longerons situated in the four corners of the rectangular section fuselage, there are two more, one half-way up on each side. As no wire bracing is employed, the attachment of struts and cross-members to the longitudinals becomes a fairly simple matter. As far as it was possible to ascertain, this joint consists simply of a "knee" piece of hard wood resting on the two inner surfaces of the longeron, and secured by screws through the three-ply covering. The struts and cross-members appeared be simply abutting against this "knee" but were probably in reality mortised or dowelled. Where the middle longeron crossed the struts these were swelled out in the manner shown in the sketch, and further strengthened by three-ply wood as illustrated.
  As regards the strength of this method of construction, we were shown, at the time of the first visit by an Albatros biplane to this country in 1914, a testimonial from the Deutsche Versuchsanstalt fur Luftfahrt to the effect that this institute had examined and corrected the calculations made by the Albatros firm, and that the body of the Albatros biplane had a factor of safety of about 60. The Versuchsanstalt further stated that the bending resistance of a body of this type is 2.5 times greater than that of a cross-wired fuselage of the same outside dimensions, and having members of the size usually employed in the girder type of body. Compared weight for weight the Versuchsanstalt state that the Albatros firm are justified in claiming that the veneer type is the stronger of the two - by how much is not stated. Apart from the questions of strength and cost - although the latter should not count for a great deal at a time like the present - the Albatros form of construction might probably, at least so it appears to us, offer certain advantages for military machines in case of damage by shell fire. If one of the longitudinal members of a girder type body were hit by a bullet or fragment of shell and fractured the strength of the whole structure would be seriously impaired, since the component parts are so greatly interdependent one upon the other. The fracture of the corresponding member of an Albatros type of body would probably not be such a serious matter, since there would be a good deal of rigidity left in the three-ply covering. Experiments made with bodies of each type and of similar weight, purposely damaged and subsequently subjected to an equal amount of loading, should furnish some interesting data on this subject.
  Apart from variations in dimensions and engine power, the fighting type Albatros biplane differs from the reconnaissance machine in that the pilot occupies the front seat, while the observer, or more correctly speaking the gunner, is installed in the rear cock pit, where he obtains a better view and is less restricted as regards the number of directions in which the machine-gun can be effectively operated. In order to facilitate gun-laying, the circular "rim" to the rear cockpit takes the form of a turntable, on one side of which is fitted an adjustable gun-mounting of the type shown in the accompanying sketches. By rotating the turntable the gun is trained approximately, in a transverse sense, on the object aimed at, while the final sighting - vertically as well as laterally - is made possible by the universal mounting of the gun on the turntable. In addition to the pivot provided for vertical sighting, the gun may be slightly raised or lowered bodily by means of the parallelogram shown in the sketches, which is locked in any desired position by a short lever. When in its lowest position the weight of the gun is taken by a short laminated spring. A pivoted seat of the piano-stool type is provided for the gunner, and allows him of turning about in an instant to take advantage of any favourable position that may present itself.
  The front cockpit is fitted up in the usual way with all the instruments for navigation, &c, and with hand-wheel control for elevators and ailerons, and a pivoted foot bar for the rudder.
  As regards the engine - a 160 h.p. Mercedes - this has already been dealt with in a separate article, and there is therefore, no need to go into details here. It will be sufficient to mention that it is mounted on two stout longitudinal members of pine, which are in turn supported in the nose of the machine by the front cross-member of the fuselage, and at equal distances of their length by transverse panels of approximately 1-inch thickness made of multi-ply wood built up of 8-10 laminations, and lightened in the manner shown in the accompanying sketch.
  The service tank, which in the particular machine captured appears to have been instrumental in forcing it to come down, since it was pierced in two places by some large projectile, is mounted underneath the upper plane, petrol being forced by pressure from the main tank.
  A large exhaust collector or silencer is mounted on the right-hand side of the body, an exhaust pipe running back to a point behind the rear seat, so as to keep the occupants clear of the fumes.
  The radiator, which is of the Hazet type, is similar to that fitted on the reconnaissance machine, with the exception that it has ten sections on each side as against the seven sections a side of the latter. This difference in size of radiator is, of course, accounted for by the difference in horse-power of the engines, one being of 120 h.p. and the other of 160 h.p.
  Being of an older type than the reconnaissance biplane, the fighting machine does not present anything new in the way of detail constructions, which follow, as a matter of fact, closely on the lines of the large span biplane flown by Thelm at Hendon in 1914.
  The main planes are of the usual Albatros type, with the main spars comparatively close together, leaving a deep trailing edge. One alteration is to be found in the trailing edge, which in the machine under review is double surfaced throughout, and not, as in the 1914 type, single surfaced for the last foot or so.
  As in previous machines of this make, the undercarriage is of the "Vee" type, with four struts of streamline steel tubes filled with wood. The axle carrying the two large diameter disc wheels is of generous proportions, being some 2 1/2 ins. in diameter. Such a heavy tube has, of course, been necessitated partly by the great weight of the machine and partly by the fact that it serves as a pivot for the claw brake seen in the illustrations.
  The tail planes are somewhat different in shape from those of the usual Albatros machine, and are, it will be seen, of large dimensions, especially as regards the fixed horizontal tail plane. It seems probable that the object of this large stabiliser, the angle of incidence of which is adjustable (not in flight), is to preserve the longitudinal stability of the machine when flying with or without a gun and ammunition on board.

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Альбатрос" С-I ВВС Германии, начало 1916г.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Albatros C I (160 h.p. Mercedes).
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Three-quarter rear view of the Albatros fighting biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
One of the German trophies of war that have been on view for the past week at the Horse Guards' Parade. An Albatros biplane (Mercedes engine) which has been rather severely "strafed" by our boys at the front.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Three-quarter front view of the captured Albatros biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Engine and chassis of the captured Albatros fighting biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
The 160 h.p. Mercedes engine on the captured German Albatros fighting biplane, on view at the Horse Guards Parade.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
The machine on the left is of the older type, with the radiators on each side of the body. The right hand photo, is of special interest as it shows the body of an Albatros which returned from a fight with Garros with twenty bullet holes through various parts of the fuselage.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Альбатрос" С-I в полете
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE IN THE SNOW. - A German Albatros off for a trip over the lines of the Allies.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
When Major Thomsen became the Feldflugchef (Chief of Field Aviation) in March 1915, he constantly reminded all units that he expected every German aeroplane that crossed the frontline, regardless of its operational assignment, to carry some bombs to drop on towns or military installations in the enemy rear areas which were out of artillery range. Even if the only result was a few broken windows, the effect on the enemy's morale was considered a good enough reason. It was an unpopular instruction and not always acted upon. The observer of this Albatros C I would appear to be an adherent as he accepts a 10kg Carbonit bomb for delivery.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
This Albatros C I (DFW C.II ???) observer demonstrates just how crude manual bomb dropping could be in the late spring of 1915. The weapon he is posing with is the standard 10 Kg/22lb high explosive bomb introduced the previous year. By mid-1916, such weapons would be fitted to remotely released, underwing bomb racks for providing close air support to the infantry.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
With the advent of the C category two-seater which placed the observer in the rear cockpit, there was no longer any need for improvised bomb chutes and bombs could simply be dropped over the side in the manner shown here by the observer of this well armed Albatros C I. Apart from the Parabellum LMG 14 on the pivot of the rotatable gun ring, this aircraft carries a Madsen (known as 'Die Muskete' in the service) firing forward over the tips of the propeller, and for good measure a '98 Carabine is strapped to the side of the fuselage. The claw brake pivoted on the centre of the undercarriage spreader bar was a standard fitting on all two-seaters.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Oops! The Albatros C I of Lt Maass, Fl Abt 14, after nosing over in the snow at Subat on the Eastern Front during January 1916. The standard practice appears to have been that any new type found its way, initially, to the Western Front, then the Eastern Front, where the opposition was likely to be less fierce. Finally, when considered operationally obsolete, the machine would frequently pass into the training role.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Powered by a 160hp Mercedes DIII, the Albatros C.1 was a general purpose aircraft and was one of the most effective types operational in 1915. The photo shows a captured example of the type.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The Albatros C I, deployed operationally from the spring of 1915, soon built a reputation for its ease of handling and general robustness. During its two year production life, the C I underwent a series of changes, being fitted with ever more powerful engines starting with the 150hp Benz Bz III and ending with the 180hp Argus As III. Along with these changes of engine, the position of the radiator moved around, starting on the fuselage flank in the C I, but moving to drape from the upper wing's centre section leading edge, as here on this C Ia. Top level speed of the C Ia was 87mph at sea level, with a ceiling of 9,840 feet. The armament comprised a single, flexibly-mounted 7.92mm Parabellum in the rear cockpit.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Albatros C Ia (licence-built by B.F.W. with 180 h.p. Argus).
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
For Winter Wear only. - A German biplane fitted with skids instead of wheels for starting from and landing on the snow.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Albatros C I Experimental
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 37)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 38)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 93а)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 93б)
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Turntable and gun mounting on the Albatros fighting biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
The swivelling mounting for the gun on the captured Albatros biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
The petrol service tank is mounted underneath the top plane in the Albatros fighting biplane,
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Sketch showing how propeller is locked on its shaft in the Albatros fighting biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Two of the ply-wood engine bearers on the Albatros biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Detail of Albatros fuselage construction.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Attachment of lower plane to body of the Albatros fighting biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Inter-plane strut joint on the Albatros fighting biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
The hand-operated claw brake fitted on all Albatros biplanes.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
An aileron with its crank lever on the Albatros biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Mounting and housing of vertical water-cooled engines.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Альбатрос" С-I
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
THE CAPTURED ALBATROS FIGHTING BIPLANE. - Plan, front and side elevations to scale.