L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)
In 1901 Firmin Bousson built his first machine, described as a dirigible equipped with flapping wings. He was assisted - presumably unsuccessfully - by Achille and Paul Borgnis, and the 3 stayed together building kites and models; on 19 August 1908 they put out another complicated machine, the Auto-Aviateur. A tail structure of 4 uprights supported a high short upper wing with a longer lower wing close beneath it and shorter third wing below that; the floor of the tower held the pilot and the 34 hp Buchet driving a large 4-blade pusher propeller. A pair of long curved outriggers supported a pair of forward horizontal surfaces in tandem, the front single one a canard, the rear divided pair acting as a control surface; a large vertical surface between the outriggers served as fin. The machine was modified at least once; it may have been the second canard built after Santos-Dumont's.
In 1909 Bousson alone built a large triplane glider which succeeded in remaining for "one hour in the air, 200 meters high." The pilot sat low in an uncovered box frame fuselage fitted with a biplane tailplane with 2 rudders set between; control was through a large rectangular forward elevator.