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Pfalz Dr.I / Dr.II

Страна: Германия

Год: 1917

Single seat fighter

Pfalz - D.VII/D.VIII - 1917 - Германия<– –>Pfalz - Experimental Triplane - 1917 - Германия


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Pfalz Dr I
  This stocky triplane fighter stemmed from the D VII and in fact was virtually a D VII fitted with triplane wings. Official type test was in October 1917. Reports on the number of these triplanes built vary, but the most reliable figure seems to indicate that no more than ten were constructed. The performance did not offer sufficient improvement over that of the Fokker triplane. Engine, 160 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh III. Span, 8.55 m. (28 ft. 0 5/8 in.). Length, 5.5 m. (18 ft. 0 5/8 in.). Height, 2.76 m. (9 ft. 0 5/8 in.). Area, 17.2 sq.m. (186 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 510 kg. (1,122 lb.). Loaded, 705 kg. (1,551 lb.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 1.7 min., 3,000 m. (9,840 ft.) in 6.2 min. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


PFALZ DR I Germany

  Official interest in the potential of the triplane configuration for single-seat fighters prompted Pfalz to develop the Dr I. Powered by a 160 hp Siemens Halske Sh III 11-cylinder geared rotary engine, this underwent Typen-Prufung in October 1917. Armed with twin synchronised LMG 08/15 guns, the Dr I was of sufficient promise to warrant a pre-series evaluation batch of 10 aircraft, all of which arrived at the Front by the end of April 1918. Service pilots considered the Dr I too slow and its Sh III engine insufficiently reliable for frontline use, and no further examples were produced.

Max speed, 118 mph (190 km/h) at 13,125 ft (4 000 m).
Time to 16,405 ft (5 000 m), 13.5 min.
Endurance, 1.5 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,124 lb (510 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,554 lb (705 kg).
Span, 28 ft 0 2/3 in (8,55 m).
Length, 18 ft 0 1/2 in (5,50 m).
Height, 9 ft 0 2/3 in (2,76 m).
Wing area, 185.14 sqft (17,20 m2).


PFALZ DR II Germany

  Developed in parallel with the Dr I, the Dr II was a smaller and lighter single-seat fighter triplane utilising the well-proven Oberursel Ur II rotary of 110 hp. A second prototype, the Dr IId, differed in having a 110 hp Siemens Halske Sh I rotary, but neither offered sufficient promise to warrant further development. The following data relate to the Ur II-powered aircraft.

Time to 9,840 ft (3 000 m), 10.2 min.
Endurance, 1.5 hrs.
Empty weight, 882 lb (400 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,314 lb (596 kg).
Span, 23 ft 7 1/2 in (7,20 m).
Length, 19 ft 6 1/4 in (5,95 m).
Height, 9 ft 6 1/8 in (2,90 m).


J.Herris Pfalz Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 5)


Pfalz Dr.I

  The first Pfalz fighter designed from the beginning as a triplane was the Dr.I. The attractive Dr.I, powered by the then experimental 160 hp Siemens-Halske Sh.III counter-rotary engine, was well streamlined and had few bracing wires. During flight trials in August 1917 the Pfalz Dr.I demonstrated the fastest climb rate of any German WWI aircraft. It reached 5,000 meters in 11.5 minutes compared to the 35 minutes required by the Albatros D.V, then the standard German fighter. This stunning result generated great interest in introducing the Dr.I into combat in quantity. However, the Sh.III engine was too unreliable at the time, so production was limited to an evaluation batch of 10 Pfalz Dr.Is which were produced and sent to the front in April 1918. Although the aircraft had flown months before, engine unreliability prevented earlier deliveries.
  The Pfalz Dr.I proved to have less maneuverability than the Fokker Dr.l and was too slow compared to contemporary biplane fighters. Its limited speed and engine development problems prevented mass production.

Pfalz Dr.I Specifications
Engine: 160 hp Siemens Sv Halske Sh.III
Wing: Span Upper 8.55 m
Span Middle 8.10 m
Span Lower 7.82 m
Chord Upper 1.10m
Chord Middle 0.50 m
Chord Lower 0.70 m
Gap upper 0.78 m
Gap lower 0.75 m
Stagger 0.70 m
Area 17 sq m
General: Length 5.50 m
Height 2.70 m
Empty Weight 510 kg
Loaded Weight 705 kg
Climb: 1000m 1.5 min
2000m 3.0 min
3000m 5.5 min
4000m 8.5 min
5000m 11.5 min
6000m 14.5 min


Pfalz Dr.II and Dr.IIa

  Encouraged to develop the triplane configuration with a combat-ready engine, Pfalz followed the Dr.I with the slightly smaller Dr.II fitted with the proven 110 hp Oberursel Ur.II and the Dr.IIa fitted with the 110 hp Siemens-Halske Sh.I, which was more reliable than its more powerful development. Using low-powered engines, neither the Dr.II nor Dr.IIa had sufficient performance to merit production.
  Although the Pfalz Dr.I, and its smaller derivatives the Dr.II and Dr.IIa, were not operational successes, the basic Dr.I design evolved into the Pfalz D.VII and D.VIII biplane fighters, both of which were placed into production.

Pfalz Dr.II & Dr.IIa Specifications
Engine: Dr.II - 110 hp Oberursel Ur.II
Dr.IIa - 110 hp Siemens-Halske Sh.I
Wing: Span Upper 7.20 m
Chord Upper 1.20 m
Chord Middle 0.50 m
Chord Lower 0.80 m
Gap Upper 0.82 m
Gap Lower 0.69 m
Stagger 0.73 m
General: Length 5.95 m
Dr.II: Empty Weight 400 kg
Loaded Weight 596 kg
Dr.IIa: Empty Weight 395 kg
Loaded Weight 568 kg
Climb: Dr.IIa: 1000m 3 min
2000m 6.5 min
3000m 10.2 min
4000m 14.4 min
5000m 19.4 min
6000m 28.9 min


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The best-known of German triplanes after the Fokker Dr.I emerged from the Pfalz factory at Speyer on the Rhine. The design was of typical Pfalz construction; the Wickelrumpf or wrapped-skin fuselage structure was built up on a light framework of stringers by a series of thin three-ply strips and cloth tape. The result, as evidenced in the D.III, was strength but increased weight. The Dr.I was based on the Pfalz D.VII, a relatively unsuccessful product, and was compact and well-proportioned. Powered by a 160 hp Siemens Sh III engine, it began flight tests in August 1917 and recorded the best rate of climb of any German aircraft up to that time, superior to the Fokker Dr.I. Probably three prototypes were built, 3050 and 3051/17 with 3052/17 as a static test.
  On 12 December 1917 Manfred von Richthofen left his Geschwader to visit the Pfalz works, accompanied by his technical officer Lt Krefft. Such well-known pilots as Hpt Willy Meyer, von Tutschek and Ernst Schlegel also arrived to evaluate the new types. Von Richthofen was very impressed with the capabilities of the Dr I, and it is probable that as a result of his recommendations the Pfalz was ordered into small-scale production for front-line evaluation. It was further planned to build 100 Dr.I's, and to expose them all along the front simultaneously in January 1918, presumably with the purpose of demoralizing the enemy. This scheme was evidently dropped, for only ten were constructed. Nine went to the front, so presumably one Dr.I was retained at Speyer. Photographs exist of 221 and 222/17, but beyond that there is no record of other production examples or any service details of the nine that reached the front.
  The Pfalz Dr.I arrived too late to compete seriously with the Fokker Dr.I and its quicker production techniques. The official reason for its rejection was its slow speed, and indeed this would seem to have been its main disadvantage.
  
  
Description: Single seat fighter
Manufacturer: Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke, G.m.b.H. Speyer am Rhein (Pfal.)
Engine: 160 hp Siemens-Halske Sh. III
Dimensions:
   Span 8.6 m (28 ft. 1 in.)
   Length 5.6 m. (18 ft. 1 in.)
   Height 2.9 m. (9 ft. 1 in.)
   Area 17.2 sq m. (186 sq. ft.)
Weights:
   Empty 498 kg (1,122 lbs)
   Loaded 704 kg (1,551 lbs)
Performance:
   Climb to
   1,000 m 1 min 12 secs
   2,000 m 3 mins 12 secs
   3,000 m 5 mins 24 secs
   4,000 m 7 mins 48 secs
   5,000 m 10 mins 48 secs
   6,000 m 14 mins
   Ceiling 6,500 m ( 21,325 ft)
   Endurance 1 1/2 hrs
Armament: Twin Spandau machine-guns
Serials Prototypes: Dr 13050/17, 3051/17
Production: Dr 1221/17, 222/17. Five more examples built

J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Pfalz Dr.13050/17 is in factory finish with no unit or individual markings. The Pfalz factory finish evolved from overall silver-gray as seen here, which provided some camouflage in the air, to covering the flying surfaces in printed five-color camouflage fabric, to painting camouflage colors over the silver-gray fuselage.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Judging from photographs, the few production examples of the Pfalz Dr.I left the factory in an overall silver-gray finish very similar to the D.III aircraft. The serial number was marked in black on both sides of the fuselage, at the top of the rudder, the cabane struts, and on the lower section of the interplane struts. Other stenciled data included the weights table and the usual "L" and "R" markings on the interplane struts. The circular red and gold Pfalz logo was applied to the rudder, just ahead of the "DR.I" stenciling on both fuselage sides, and even to the struts. Dr.I 222/17 was one of the few Pfalz triplanes to actually reach the front, and was assigned to Jasta 73 at Mars-Sous-Bourcq airfield in April 1918. It is believed it was simply used as a personal transport by the Jasta commander Lt.d.R. Fritz Anders, as no guns are seen fitted to the machine in any of the photos.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Dr.I prototype on the Pfalz airfield. The 160 hp Siemens-Halske Sh.III counter-rotary engine required lots of cooling air, hence the cowling cut-outs.
One of the runners-up in the great German triplane fighter requirement saga in the summer of 1917 was this neat-looking Pfalz Dr I. First flown in the autumn of 1917, the Pfalz Dr I used a 160hp Siemens-Halske Sh III rotary, giving the machine an almost incredible top level speed of 125mph at sea level. The twin 7.92mm Spandau armed machine was given two operational evaluations, one in October 1917, followed by a second, conducted by Manfred von Richthofen, in December 1917. Richthofen considered the Pfalz to be generally inferior to the Fokker Dr I. Recalling that it was the Bavarians, long time critics of Fokker products and in whose domain Pfalz was based, it would be interesting to know just when they went ahead and ordered a reported ten Pfalz Dr Is to be built.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This front view of Pfalz Dr.I 3050/17 emphasizes its clean lines. The large propeller, made by the Axial Propellerfabrik in Berlin, and many cowling cooling slots are shown clearly.
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Pfalz Dr.I (3050/17), was flight tested by von Richthofen and Tutschek at the Pfalz factory in Speyer during October of 1917.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Dr I was tested at the Front in pre-production form during the spring of 1918.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A large propeller was needed for best efficiency with the slow-turning counter-rotary engine. The combination gave the Pfalz Dr.I the best climb rate of any WWI German airplane.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Dr.I 3050/17.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Unarmed Pfalz Dr.I prototype.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rear view of a Pfalz Dr.I
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
View of Dr.I 3050/17, the second prototype, showing its armament. The Dr.l aircraft all were finished in the then-standard Pfalz silver-gray with standard iron crosses without white borders. Perhaps ten built after tests in October 1917.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Dr.I 221/17 with lower cowling cutaway.
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J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Dr.I 222/17 was one of ten pre-production triplanes ordered in October 1917. It is shown here at Jasta 73 at Mars sous Bourq airfield without armament. It was flown primarily by Ltn. Fritz Anders, the Jasta CO. These photos were taken after mid-March 1918 because the Albatros in the background has Balkankreuz markings, which were not introduced until that time.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Dr.I 222/17 was one of ten pre-production triplanes ordered in October 1917. It is shown here at Jasta 73 at Mars sous Bourq airfield without armament. It was flown primarily by Ltn. Fritz Anders, the Jasta CO. These photos were taken after mid-March 1918 because the Albatros in the background has Balkankreuz markings, which were not introduced until that time.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Dr.I 222/17 is shown here at Jasta 73 at Mars sous Bourq airfield without armament. The delivery pilot was Lehmann. Part of the lower cowling is cut away for additional cooling of the slow-turning 160 hp Siemens & Halske Sh.III.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Above & Below: Pfalz Dr.l 222/17 is shown here at Jasta 73 at Mars sous Bourq airfield without armament. The delivery pilot was Lehmann, shown in the cockpit.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Armed Pfalz Dr.I at Adlershof.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Two unusual views of an unidentified Pfalz Dr.I during construction, resplended in it's newly applied aluminium dope. The national markings and datum line are already painted. Below the under-fuselage cutout for the exhaust is visible
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Manfred von Richthofen in Pfalz Dr.I 3050/17 during evaluation at the Pfalz factory.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Testing one of the prototype Pfalz Dr I's: (left to right) Ernst Schlegel, a famous pre-war and Pfalz test pilot, Manfred von Richthofen; probably Alfred Eversbusch.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
In mid-December, 1917, Rittmeister Manfred von Richthofen had an opportunity to fly Pfalz Dr.I 3050/17 prototype which had recently returned to the Pfalz factory after flight tests at Adlershof. Manfred von Richthofen is in the middle of the group in a flying suit.
The visit of pilots to the Pfalz works at Speyer in December 1917. Those identified are: (left to right) Lt Aver (in leather flying coat), Ernst Eversbusch, Hpt Willy Meyer, Hpt Muchlig Hoffmann, Lt Krefft, Manfred von Richthofen, Lt Fritz von Falkenhayn, Hpt von Tutschek, Ernst Schlegel, Alfred Eversbusch, Oblt Rist, Baierlein (with goggles)
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Mechanics work on the unarmed Pfalz Dr.II powered by the 110 hp Oberursel Ur.II. One of the Pfalz Dr.I prototypes sits along side. The larger upper gap of the Dr.II compared to the Dr.I is clearly shown.This photograph was taken at Adlershof in March 1918. The Pfalz Dr.II at left was a smaller, less powerful design based on the Pfalz Dr.I at right. Although a batch of ten Dr.Is, with the 160 hp Sh.III counter-rotary, was built, the Dr.II had lower performance and remained a single prototype.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Dr.I 224/17 after being crashed.
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W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Dr I was tested at the Front in pre-production form during the spring of 1918.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Dr.I
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Dr.I
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Dr.I
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/