H.King Aeromarine Origins (Putnam)
By no means indubitable in character (though a very real creation) was a craft of 1911 which one may regard either as a flying boat which flew with the tip of its tail in the water or as a boat which, by means of wings, lifted everything clear except its tail.
A product of the Michigan Steel Boat Co., this singular craft was displayed at the New York Boat Exhibition of 1911, and it travelled from Detroit to Cleveland (some 100 miles) in two hours.
Discussing the longitudinal stability of 'skimming and hydro-aeroplanes' in 1913, J. E. Steele, B.Sc., observed that she was in the transition stage between the skimmer and the all-air machine, only leaving the water for an occasional bound into the air, 'which bound is involuntary, and not one of her natural functions'.
The hull was an aluminium tank 7 ft 2 in. long, 5 ft 7 in. wide and 2 ft deep, with rounded-up bow. The vertical sides were carried aft past the hull for another 10 ft, where they were connected by a cross-piece which formed the horizontal tail. The hydrofoil was fitted under the hull to assist in lifting it from the surface. At a moderate speed, with the hull lifted out of the water, the craft planed along on its hydrofoil and tail; but at high speeds she lifted completely clear, except for her tail.
A speed of between 65 and 70 m.p.h. was reported for this 'winged hull' or what might be termed today ram-wing air-cushion vehicle or dynamic interface vehicle.