Самолеты (сортировка по:)
Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Beardmore W.B.I Adriatic

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1916

Single-engine, two-seat, three-bay biplane long-range bomber

Batson - Flying House - 1913 - Великобритания<– –>Beardmore - W.B.II - 1917 - Великобритания


F.Manson British Bomber Since 1914 (Putnam)


Beardmore W.B.I

  Among the numerous commercial manufacturers contracted to build the Royal Aircraft Factory's B.E.2C was the Scottish shipbuilder, William Beardmore &c Co Ltd of Dalmuir, its output of these aeroplanes being destined for the Admiralty whose Inspector of Naval Aircraft at the factory was Lieut George Tilghman Richards. This officer had, before the War, been engaged in aircraft design and, in 1916, was permitted to resign his Commission in order to take up the appointment of chief designer in Beardmore's aviation department, so as to enable the company to respond to the Admiralty's encouragement of commercial manufacturers to embark on the design of their own aircraft.
  Richards' first aircraft, the W.B.I, was an imaginative, if not radical attempt to produce a naval bomber whose modus operandi was to attack in a long shallow glide in order to achieve tactical surprise. To this end, careful attention was paid to limiting drag, especially in the engine installation, and it is said that the gliding angle, with engine throttled back and at about half-fuel weight, was of the order of six degrees, made possible by large, high-aspect ratio three-bay wings and a wing loading of 5 lb/sq ft at this weight. Power was initially provided by a 230hp BHP engine built by the Galloway Engineering Company, the radiators being of the vertical type, attached to the sides of the fuselage and extended upwards to converge beneath the upper wing.
  Despite all the care taken to provide clean contours for the engine cowling, the undercarriage was cumbersome, consisting of two pairs of mainwheels, each pair being provided with two small forewheels on struts extending forward, cross-braced and wire-braced to the lower wings.
  It is thought that the heavily staggered wings were not made to fold owing to the interplane strut configuration and, because the mainwheels of the undercarriage were located well forward, the aircraft would have rested on its tailskid if the wings were folded. Ailerons were provided on upper and lower wings, interconnected by external cables.
  The W.B.I was designed to carry six 112 lb bombs, probably suspended from two parallel beams attached beneath the fuselage between the two main wheel mounting structures. The bombs were to be aimed by the observer/gunner who, occupying the rear cockpit situated well aft, was provided with an aperture in the underside of the fuselage for sighting, and two large transparent panels in the sides.
  The sole W.B.I, N525, was delivered to the RNAS at Cranwell on 6 June 1917 (though it was probably first flown rather earlier), but suffered damage in a landing accident while being flown by Wg-Cdr Richard Edmund Charles Peirse RN (later Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard, KCB, DSO, AFC, RAF, C-in-C, Bomber Command, during the Second World War). By the time of this accident the BHP engine had been replaced by a 240hp Sunbeam.
  The aircraft, however, was not accepted by the Admiralty for production, principally because, by the time it was flown, the Handley Page O/100 heavy bomber was already being delivered to the Service; moreover, assuming the wings were not made to fold, the span of the W.B.I would not have conformed to the maximum naval hangar storage dimensions.

  Type: Single-engine, two-seat, three-bay biplane long-range bomber.
  Manufacturer: William Beardmore & Co Ltd, Dalmuir, Dunbartonshire.
  Powerplant: One 230hp Beardmore; later one 240hp Sunbeam.
  Dimensions: Span, 61ft 6in; length, 32ft 10in; height, 14ft 9in; wing area, 796 sq ft.
  Weights (Beardmore): Tare, 3,410 lb; all-up (with 660 lb bomb load), 5,600 lb.
  Performance (Beardmore): Max speed, 91 mph at sea level; climb to 5,000ft, 26 min; endurance, 7 1/4 hr.
  Armament: One 0.303in Lewis machine gun with ring mounting on rear cockpit; bomb load of six 110 lb bombs.
  Prototype: One, N525, probably first flown early in 1917. No production.


H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)


Beardmore W.B. I. Glide-bombing was the mode of attack intended for this two-seat biplane bomber (1916/17) by the RNAS. The bomb load has been given as six 110-lb, but no such bomb appears to have been used by the RNAS and it is reasonable to suppose that the bombs were of the H.E.R.L. 100-lb pattern. These bombs were intended specifically for anti-submarine work and were horizontally stowed. The observer was stationed far aft and sighted the bombs through a hatch in the floor, passing his instructions to the pilot by means of a special visual system. Provision was made for a free Lewis gun at the observer's station.


Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919


This was a large two-seater bomber, from which the typo W.B.1a was developed later. The following gives the main particulars of this machine:
  
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine W.B.1.
Purpose for which intended Bomber.
Span 61 ft. 6 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 7 ft.
Overall length 32 ft, 10 In.
Maximum height 14 ft. 9 in.
Chord 7 ft.
Total surface of wings,
   including ailerons 796 sq. ft.
Span of tali 18 ft.
Total area of tail 106 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 40 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 20 sq. ft.
Area of fin 14.2 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 28.32 sq. ft.
   and total area 113.26 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 15.2 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 88 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 81.6 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 240 h.p. Sunbeam or 230 h.p. Beard more Adriatic.
Airscrew, diam., and revs 10 ft. 6 in. dia., 1,075 revs. (with Sunbeam).
Weight of machine empty 3,410 lbs. (with Beardmore).
Load per sq. ft, 7 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 23 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 7.3 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 187 gallons.
Performance.
   Speed low down 91 m.p.h.
   Landing speed 48 m.p.h.
   Climb.
   To 5,000 feet in minutes 26 minutes
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 44 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1,100 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 5,600 lbs.
  
  
  
THE BEARDMORE BIPLANE W.B.1A.
  
  The Beardmore two-seater biplane W.B.1a was designed as a long-distance bomber equipped with a 500 h.p. Beardmore Atlantic engine. The main planes are heavily staggered, are of large span, and have four pairs of interplane struts at either side of the fuselage. The pilot and observer are placed very much in rear of the main plane, the pilot being midway between the main and tail planes and the observer is immediately in advance of the fixed fin which emerges from the fairing round the observer's cockpit.
  
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine W.B.1a.
Purpose for which intended Bomber.
Span 70 ft
Gap, maximum and minimum 7 ft.
Overall length 32 ft. 10 In.
Maximum height 15 ft. 8 in.
Chord 7 ft.
Total surface of wings,
   including ailerons 946 sq. ft.
Span of tail 19 ft.
Total area of tail 110 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 33.5 sq.ft.
Area of rudder 20 sq. ft.
Area of fin 14.2 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 29.5 sq. ft.
   total area 118 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body. 22.5 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 105 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 131 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Beardmore Atlantic 500 h.p
Airscrew, diam. and revs. 14 ft, 900.
Weight of machine empty 4,537 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 9.4 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 17.3 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 6.5 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 214 gallons.
Performance.
   Speed low down 110 m.p.h.
   Speed at 10,000 feet 101 m.p.h.
   Landing speed 65 m.p.h.
   Climb
   To 5,000 feet in minutes 12 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 27 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 2,700 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 8,900 lbs.

Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Side View of a Beardmore Type W.B.1 "Adriatic" (230 h.p. B.H.P. Engine).
F.Manson - British Bomber Since 1914 /Putnam/
Two views of the Beardmore W.B.I, N525, as originally powered by the 230hp BHP engine.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/