В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
Амфибия "Виккерс-Викинг" , тип IV, - это летающая лодка, двухстоечный биплан с толкающей установкой двигателя "Нэпир-Лайон" в 450 л. с. Колеса поднимались вдоль бортов лодки вперед, костыль, он же водяной руль на заднем редане, не убирался. Летчик и летнаб находились в носовой части лодки, стрелок - за винтом. Конструкция деревянная. Был приобретен осенью 1922 г. в одном экземпляре. В 1923 г. летчик Л. И. Гикса с механиком Радеевым совершил на нем перелет из Петрограда в Севастополь.
Двигатель , марка||<Нэпир-Лайон>
мощность, л. с.||450
Длина самолета, м||10,22
Размах крыла, м||15,24
Площадь крыла, м2||63,5
Масса пустого, кг||1850
Масса топлива+ масла, кг||230+25
Масса полной нагрузки, кг||780
Полетная масса, кг||2630
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2||41,5
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс||5,8
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч||170
Потолок практический, м||4300
Продолжительность полета, ч.||4
Дальность полета, км||650
C.Andrews Vickers Aircraft since 1908 (Putnam)
The Viking Amphibian
In December 1918 a project design was drawn up by Pierson for an amphibian flying-boat, to have its engine mounted above the hull deck under the centre section of the top wing. In order to provide crew and passenger accommodation forwards a pusher propeller was essential. This had to be of restricted diameter for hull clearance and, consequently, with wide blades to absorb the power.
To ease production in a class of aeroplane not previously built by Vickers (although they had the experience of S. E. Saunders and Co of Cowes, Isle of Wight, then Vickers' subsidiary, to rely on) and to provide a simple manually retracting land undercarriage, a hull with almost vertical sides was decided upon. This resulted in a narrow-beam planing bottom, as contrasted with the wider beam featured in the Linton Hope type of hull with sponsons, a design successfully exploited by the Supermarine Aviation Company, then a competitor of Vickers in this class. This narrow beam led to a measure of hydrodynamic instability, and various changes were made in the hull design to improve water-planing efficiency, through the various marks of Viking. Only in the last versions, named Vulture and Vanellus, was any serious attempt made to flare the sides of the hull to provide a wider planing bottom. The report of Vickers' water test-tank at St Albans, established in 1912 for testing ship models, disclosed a tendency of the Viking to porpoise, a phenomenon caused by the crests of the waves, formed by the front step, striking the chine aft.
The Viking prototype, the Mk I, was built in two months in a Weybridge dance hall, which had been used during the first world war by Vickers as a woodworking shop, and was completed at Brooklands. Female labour was principally employed. The aircraft flew at Brooklands in landplane form in late 1919 and was registered as G-EAOV.
Construction was conventional, with spruce wing members and elm timbers in the hull, which was covered with the patent Saunders Consuta copper-wire sewn plywood. A neat cabin was provided, with dual wheel control, and seats for four passengers. Pierson had studied a Norman Thompson NT2B single-engined flying-boat, exhibited in Harrods of Knightsbridge as a civil aeroplane, and fitted with a cabin. The Vickers design office was then (1918) located at Imperial Court, Basil Street, close to Harrods.
Late in the design stage some difficulty was encountered in choosing a suitable engine. After considering the 200 hp Wolseley-built geared His-pano Suiza, Pierson eventually decided to fit the 275 hp Rolls-Royce Falcon. Apparently one of the problems of the Hispano Suiza was how to embody a satisfactory air intake in a pusher arrangement, although earlier series of the same engine had been installed in the Vickers F.B.26 and the Royal Aircraft Factory's F.E.9 and N.E.I, all pusher propeller aircraft. The greater power of the Falcon was also desirable, and in subsequent marks further increases of engine power were found necessary; the Viking in its earlier versions was underpowered.
On 18 December, 1919, Sir John Alcock, then Vickers' chief pilot, was flying the Viking I, G-EAOV, solo to the Paris Aero Show when he ran into thick fog near Rouen, and in attempting a forced landing he struck a tree in an orchard. The aeroplane was wrecked and Sir John was killed, only a few months after he and Whitten-Brown had created air history by flying across the Atlantic. It was a premature ending to a brilliant flying career which began in the pioneering days at Brooklands aerodrome.
The Mk II Viking appeared later in 1919 and contained a number of modifications. It was powered by a Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII of 360 hp, mounted independently of the wing structure on a pylon mounting. The wheelbase was widened and undercarriage details improved, with in-creased-diameter wheels, and the wing area was increased and a third rudder added behind the central fixed fin. To overcome the tendency of the prototype to dig its bows into the water during take-off the nose of the Mk II was made more blunt. The re-entrant curve of the planing bottom between the steps was modified to try to solve the wave crest problem, and behind the rear step an oleo-pneumatic tailskid cum water-rudder was fitted. Stan Cockerell, who had taken the place of Sir John Alcock as chief pilot (later joined by Capt Broome), flew the Viking II, registered G-EASC, at Cowes in June 1920, and it was displayed at the Aero Show in Olympia that year. In August it won the Antwerp Seaplane Trials.
As a result of Cockerell's report, further modifications were made in the Viking Mk III, which was entered for the Air Ministry Competitions for civil aircraft held at Martlesham Heath and Felixstowe in September and October 1920. Registered G-EAUK, the Viking III won the competition for amphibians and the first prize of ?10,000. The Supermarine entry was such a close runner-up that the second prize was increased from ?5,000 to ?8,000. (Later on, in 1928, Vickers acquired the Supermarine Aviation Company.) In the official report of the Competitions was a suggestion that the tendency of the Viking to porpoise might be cured by altering the position or shape of the step, and also that the shape of the bows should be modified to keep down spray and sea. Flown by Cockerell, the performance of the Viking III was assessed as very good, and the judges were obviously impressed with the safety of the boat type of amphibian.
The main differences between the Mks II and III were the fitting of a still more powerful engine, the 450 hp Napier Lion, the lengthening of the nose while retaining the same shape of bows, a redesigned tailskid cum water-rudder, a further increase in wing area by introducing a slightly wider chord and, to counter greater engine torque, a small rectangular fin was added above the upper tailplane.
On 6 February, 1921, Cockerell began a series of tests with G-EAUK to determine the feasibility of passenger services from the River Thames, in the heart of London, to the River Seine, in Paris. These journeys took only two and a half hours, which bears comparison with elapsed times between the city centres of the two capitals today. Sir Frederick Sykes, Controller of Civil Aviation in Britain, and M. Laurent Eynac, his French opposite number, tested the service for themselves in April 1921. Subsequently, the Viking III went for trials on the aircraft carrier HMS Argus for which it was allocated the service number N147. The deck-handling and operating trials were quite satisfactory, the aeroplane taking-off easily and landing with no external aids except the deck-arrester wires.
As a result of these successful tests, covering a wide range of operational use both off the water and from land aerodromes, firm interest was created, and a production line was started at Weybridge of the Viking Mk IV in three main variants: fleet spotter, military and commercial. Some were fitted with folding wings, notably the fleet-spotter variants, where stowage space was a limiting factor.
The production Viking Mk IVs embodied further improvements from their experimental predecessors. The nose was made even more blunt, the beam of the hull was increased by one foot and the rear step was moved back also by one foot. The wheels were fitted with brakes and the tailskid cum water-rudder assembly again modified. The span was increased by 4 ft to 50 ft overall, and the loaded weight went up from the 4,500 lb of the Mk III to nearly 6,000 lb. Some Mk IVs retained the 46-ft span.
To promote quick take-off from restricted water areas a new high-lift wing-section, the T64, was made optional, in place of the Royal Aircraft Factory 15 standard wing-section. This new high-lift section had been developed from propeller design and had a flat undersurface similar to that later known as Clark Y. It had one drawback, a vicious tip stall. This, combined with the couple caused by the high thrust-line and the low drag component of the hull, made the Viking IV with the T64 wing-section a specialist type to fly. With the engine on, it was nose heavy; with the engine off, it was tail heavy. To inexperienced pilots, especially those accustomed to landplanes, the Viking presented quite a problem in avoiding the flat spin which was the bugbear of aircraft of comparatively slow speed. In addition, handling on or near the water in halation approach conditions on a mirror surface sea was then a little-practised technique (when actual height and horizon were difficult for positional assessment by the pilot).
In spite of all these difficulties, the Viking in production form rendered good service throughout the world in greatly differing operating conditions. Twenty-six examples of the Mk IV were sold. The first was the Vickers Type 54 for the French Navy, a commercial version with enclosed cabin but with provision for conversion for military duties 'with minimum of inconvenience', to quote the contract. It bore the French registration F-ADBL and was delivered on 27 September, 1921.
During 1922 the Viking production line was busy with orders for the Dutch Forces in the East Indies (10), the Imperial Japanese Navy (2), the Russian Trade Delegation (1) and Laurentide Air Services (Canada) (1). One was used for demonstration in Spain and registered G-EBED. It was subsequently sold to Capt Leslie Hamilton, who used it on charter to Capt Lowenstein, and also as an air taxi operating from the St Moritz winter sports centre in Switzerland, where it landed in soft snow on the hull and took-off from hard snow or ice with the wheeled undercarriage.
The Dutch Vikings were non-folders with Raf 15 section wings and Consuta-covered hulls. High-compression Napier Lion engines were fitted which ran on a benzol mixture, but reports indicate that some difficulty was experienced in starting, from which peculiarity German high-compression aero engines had also suffered. This was a matter for experienced ground engineering, while the sensitive fore-and-aft trim was a matter for experienced piloting. One of the two crashes of Vikings in Java was attributable to the fact that the pilot had never flown a flying-boat, while the other was caused by faulty maintenance in tropical sea conditions resulting in loss of rigging efficiency in the airframe and corrosion in the metal fittings. With long-range tanks, the range of the Dutch Vikings could be increased to 925 miles.
The Japanese Vikings were test flown by Maj H. G. Brackley off the carrier Hosho in March 1933 on acceptance trials. They were ordered as fleet spotters with T64-section wings, but the proposal to fit a 37-mm cannon for anti-submarine patrol was not proceeded with. In this connection both the Swedish and Italian navies considered slinging an 18-in-diameter torpedo aboard the Viking, but this proposal also was not pressed to a decision or an order. The Laurentide Viking for Canada was fitted with a Rolls-Royce Eagle IX and was rather underpowered. It was used for most of its time in Eastern Canada.
The Viking IV for the USSR was delivered in September 1922 and on arrival was sent for service in the Leningrad region. It was one of the first with a hull planked in SCT plywood made by the Tucker Armoured Plywood Company of Crayford. The initials SCT stood for 'securely cemented together', and the material consisted of two layers of Honduras mahogany board glued diagonally at right angles to each other; whether this produced any technical advantage over the Consuta planking does not seem to have been recorded. G-EBED, the Viking IV bought by Leslie Hamilton, also had the SCT-planked hull and wing-tip floats.
A special Viking IV registered G-EBBZ was prepared for Sir Ross Smith, commander of the Australian Vimy flight of late 1919, for a round-the-world attempt in 1922. It was a non-folder of the commercial version but with open cockpits. Various detail modifications were made, including some non-corrosive fittings, such as stainless-steel exhaust manifolds, and passenger space was taken up by stores and long-range tanks. After a preliminary test flight by Cockerell, at Brooklands on 13 April, Sir Ross Smith, with his mechanic of the Australian flight, Sgt Bennett, himself took the Viking up. At about 2,000 ft he stalled during a sharp turn and a fiat spin developed. Ross Smith opened the engine up and this action seemed to correct the spin. The engine was again shut down and the spin restarted at too low a height to be corrected a second time. The aeroplane crashed into the back of the Byfleet banking of the motor track near the River Wey and both occupants were killed. Sir Keith Smith, who had been delayed on his train journey from London and had intended to participate in the flight with his brother, was an eye-witness of the accident. The cause was thought to be the pilot's unfamiliarity with the aeroplane, particularly in regard to the engine on/off condition, and the tendency of the T64-section wing to tip stall.
Further orders for Viking IVs were received in 1923. This type of aeroplane seems to have been one of the first, certainly of Vickers design, to which the practice now called custom-built was applied. For example, one fleet spotter, ordered for the United States Navy in 1922 and delivered in February 1923, had the T64 wing section with the original span wing of 46 ft. A Lion engine was fitted in the American Viking, but the two Vikings delivered a week later to the River Plate Aviation Company, Argentina, were powered with the Rolls-Royce Eagle IX and were of the commercial type, with 50-ft span wings and the gap between the upper and lower wings increased by one foot, as well as having the Raf 15 wing section. One had an enclosed cabin and the other had open cockpits; both were fitted with large service fuel tanks mounted on the top wings. These two Argentine Vikings operated a regular service between Buenos Aires and Montevideo, and the service was so popular that it was difficult for intending passengers to get a seat. A high load factor was therefore obtained, but in spite of this the service had to be subsidised, and eventually the Vikings were withdrawn when financial support from the Argentine Government was cancelled. The only criticisms of the aircraft were that take-off was difficult in calm water conditions and that the wheels and tyres did not stand up to heavy duty. The Viking IV was undoubtedly underpowered with the 360 hp Eagle when loaded to nearly 6,000 lb.
The four Vikings delivered to the Argentine Navy in May 1923 were Lion-powered with full-span T64-section folding wings and were serialled R3, R4, R5 and R6. At the same time the Royal Canadian Air Force took delivery of two Viking IVs with Rolls-Royce Eagles, mainly to be used for starting a forestry fire patrol service and for survey work. Skis were fitted during winter operation. A proposal to fit Leitner-Watts metal propellers to these Vikings was not pursued. As a result of the successful introduction of Vikings for special service in Canada, a batch was made at the Canadian Vickers works in Montreal, and further specialist designs emanated from that source in their own right (see page 489). Canadian Vickers thus became one of the pioneer organisations in aircraft manu-facture in Canada.
Two other Vikings were delivered in April 1922. These were to an Air Ministry requirement but with the special equipment used in RAF operation, and to comply with conditions laid down in the specification they were classified as Mk Vs. They were given the serial numbers N156 and N157, and were attached to 70 Squadron in Iraq, more or less in an exploratory exercise to determine the utility of amphibian aircraft in areas like the Middle East. Several discoveries were made. One was the frailty of aero wheels and tyres at that time in tropical conditions, although the RAF Viking Vs had oleo-sprung undercarriages, an innovation in the Viking amphibian. A hulled aeroplane with its short undercarriage was found difficult to operate off irregular desert surfaces because of insufficient clearance between the bottom of the hull and the ground, a penalty imposed by the amphibian configuration. In spite of these limitations, the Viking Vs fulfilled their purpose in adding to the experience being built up by the engineering branch of the Royal Air Force overseas. Particularly there was an awareness of the need for metal-framed aeroplanes to avoid loss of rigging truth inherent in wooden aircraft operating under tropical conditions, a factor encountered already with other Vickers wooden aircraft.
The Viking never seemed to suffer unduly from water soakage in its wooden hull, probably because on the average it spent half its life out of the water, thus allowing the intake of moisture to dry out. This was an unsuspected bonus of the amphibian configuration as compared with the wooden-hulled sea-going flying-boat operated only from marine bases. The design fully justified the ideas which had led to the formation of the original project. Its varied service in many parts of the world was a vindication of its name, Viking.
Mk I Mk III Mk IV Mk IV
(G-EAOV) (G-EAUK) Type 55 Type 69
Engine: One 270 hp One 450 hp One 450 hp One 360 hp
Rolls-Royce Napier Lion Napier Lion Rolls-Royce
Falcon III Eagle IX
Span: 37 ft 46 ft 50 ft 50 ft
Length: 30 ft 32 ft 34 ft 2 in 34 ft
Height: 13 ft 13 ft 14 ft 14 ft 2 in
Wing Area: 368 sq ft 585 sq ft 635 sq ft 635 sq ft
Empty Weight: 2,030 lb 2,740 lb 4,040 lb 4,020 lb
Gross Weight: 3,600 lb 4,545 lb 5,790 lb 5,650 lb
Max Speed at sea level: 104 mph 110 mph 113 mph 100 mph
Climb to: 6,000 ft/12 min 6,000 ft/5.2 min 3,000 ft/3.2 min 5,000 ft/15 min
Range: 340 miles 420 miles 925 miles with -
at 85 mph at 90 mph long-range tanks
L.Andersson Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 (Putnam)
Vickers 64 Viking IV
The Vickers Viking amphibian could be fitted with an enclosed cabin for eight passengers or as an open four-seater for reconnaissance and bombing. It was a single-engined pusher biplane with biplane horizontal tail surfaces. The mainwheels could be folded forwards against the hull. Argentina, Canada, France, Japan (two only), the Netherlands East Indies and the USA (one only) ordered Vikings for their air forces and navies.
One example furnished as a six-seat passenger transport (c/n 16) was ordered under contract LK220S by the Russian Trade Delegation at Reval and delivered on 8 September 1922 to Leningrad. It was assembled and test flown in October. After a short period with the 1st Razvedivatel'nyi gidroaviaotryad in Leningrad the Viking was transferred to the 4th Razvedivatel'nyi gidroaviaotryad (later 4th Otdel'nyi morskoi razvedivatel'nyi aviaotryad) at Sevastopol by L I Giksa in May 1923 and two years later to the 2nd Otdel'nyi morskoi istrebitel'nyi aviaotryad at Odessa. It was then used by the 1st Morskava minonosnaya eskadril'ya at Sevastopol for a short time before being destroyed in a crash when flown by P P Sorokin late in 1926.
450hp Napier Lion II
Span 15.24m; length 10.36m; height 4.32; wing area 60 nv
Empty weight 1.850kg; loaded weight 2,630kg
Maximum speed 170km/h; ceiling 4,300m; endurance 4hr; range 650km
Flight, December 25, 1919.
The Paris Aero Show 1919
Vickers. - At the time of writing, the Vickers Viking is fog-bound at Brooklands, and the only exhibits on this stand are a Vickers Vimy-Commercial cabin, a number of B.L.I.C. magnetos and a series of scale models of Vickers aeroplanes and airships.