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Caproni Ca.5 (Ca.44 - Ca.47)

Страна: Италия

Год: 1917

Бомбардировщик

Caproni - Ca.4 (Ca.40 - Ca.43) - 1916 - Италия<– –>Caproni - Ca.53 - 1917 - Италия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


КАПРОНИ Ca.5 / CAPRONI Ca.5

   Одновременно с работами над Ca.4 Джанни Капрони продолжал совершенствовать свои предыдущие самолеты бипланной схемы. Итогом этих работ стал тип Ca.5 - несколько увеличенный в размерах Ca.3 с улучшенной аэродинамикой и более мощными двигателями. Летные данные машины заметно повысились, и в 1917 году Ca.5 приняли на вооружение.
   До конца войны "пятерки" постепенно заменили во фронтовых эскадрильях самолеты более ранних модификаций. Под общим армейским индексом Ca.5 строилось несколько версий машины: Ca.44, Ca.45, Ca.46 и Ca.47 с незначительными конструктивными различиями. В Италии было выпущено 255 экземпляров Ca.5. Кроме того, самолет строили по лицензии в США и во Франции.

  
ДВИГАТЕЛИ
  
   3 "Фиата" по 300 л.с.
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
   Кольцевая турель с одним или двумя пулеметами "Ревелли" в носовой части гондолы и вторая такая же турель на специальном помосте над задним двигателем.
   Ca.5 поднимал 530 кг бомб.
  
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
Ca-5, 1917г.
  
   Размах, м 23,0
   Длина, м 12,40
   Высота, м 4,47
   Площадь крыла, кв.м 150,0
   Сухой вес, кг 3005
   Взлетный вес, кг 5312
   Двигатель: "Фиат"
   число х мощность, л. с. 3x300
   Скорость максимальная, км/ч 152
   Дальность полета, км 450
   Продолжительность полета, час, мин 4,0
   Потолок, м 4500
   Экипаж, чел. 3-4
   Вооружение 2-4 пулемета
   533 кг бомб


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


Ca-5 1917 г.

   Опыт создания и эксплуатации Ca-4 показал, что увеличение несущей поверхности крыла за счет увеличения размаха и количества плоскостей для бомбардировочной авиации неэффективно. Обеспечение необходимой прочности и жесткости крыльев ведет к значительному росту массы конструкции. К тому же, возрастает риск разрушения крыла очень большого удлинения от ударов о поверхность летного поля при взлете и посадке, когда машина раскачивается на неровностях почвы. Поэтому, создавая следующий тяжелый бомбардировщик, фирма "Капрони" пошла на увеличение поверхности крыла путем увеличения хорды. Новая машина Ca-5, имевшая схему своего предшественника Ca-33, получила более совершенную конструкцию. Гондола имела аэродинамически чистую форму. В конструкции крыла, оперения и фюзеляжа стали применяться металлические профили и трубы. На самолете установили двигатели "Фиат" мощностью по 360 л. с. Вместо трубчатых радиаторов установили лобовые сотовые, имевшие меньшее сопротивление.
   Конструкция шасси и схема установки вооружения остались прежними, как на Ca-33, но на машину установили колеса большего диаметра, что улучшило проходимость самолета по грунтовым аэродромам. Носовую стойку убрали.
   Значительно возросли скорость, потолок и дальность полета при той же боевой нагрузке, что и у Ca-33. Самолет мог преодолевать горные хребты Альп и наносить удары по целям на территории Австрии, а также современных Хорватии, Сербии и Албании. Проводились опыты по переоборудованию Ca-5 в торпедоносец. Для этой цели изменили конструкцию крепления шасси и оборудовали днище кронштейнами для подвески и сброса торпеды. Но практически испытание торпедоносца было осуществлено уже после окончания войны.
   Машина в середине 1917 года была запущена в серийное производство и находилась на вооружении ВВС и ВМС до середины 1920-х годов. Снятые с вооружения машины эксплуатировались как грузовые и почтовые.


R.Abate,G.Alegi,G.Apostolo Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983


March 1917 saw the first flight of the Ca.600 hp (or Ca.5), which maintained the Ca.3 formula with increased wingspan and chord and somewhat improved streamlining. A new plant was built at Taliedo, on the outskirts of Milan, with increased floor space and the world’s first concrete runway. At the same time, the sudden availability of a thousand 200 hp Fiat A.12 engines and the interest shown abroad, the Direzione Tecnica dell’Aviazione Militare issued a production plan calling for 150 Ca.600 in 1917, followed by a thousand in 1918, eventually' increased to 4015. Orders were placed with a consortium including Breda, Miani & Silvestri, San Giorgio, Piaggio, Reggiane, Savigliano, Bastianelli. In February 1918 other Ca.5, powered with Liberty engines, were ordered by the US government to the Standard Aircraft Corp., Curtiss and the Fisher Body Co. Difficulties in administering this huge contract - for which workers had to be trained and materials found - limited actual deliveries before the war’s end to about 700 aircraft. In operational service, the aircraft’s overall positive behaviour was negatively affected by the Fiat engine’s notorious habit of catching fire in flight.


G.Swanborough, P.Bowers United States Military Aircraft Since 1909 (Putnam)


STANDARD/CAPRONI

   In addition to French and British designs, the unique twin-fuselage trimotor Italian Caproni biplane and triplane bombers were also selected for production in America in 1917/1918, by the Standard Aircraft Corp. of Elizabeth, N.J., and the Fisher Body Works of Cleveland, Ohio. By war’s end, only two Capronis had been built by Standard (40070, 40071) and one (42119), which was not accepted, by Fisher. Two Italian-built samples were sent to America, and the U.S. Forces in France obtained at least one other from the French.
   Span, 76 ft. 10 in.; length, 41 ft. 2 in.; wing area, 1,420 sq. ft.; empty weight, 7,700 lb.; gross weight, 12,350 lb.; high speed, 103 m.p.h.


G.Swanborough, P.Bowers United States Navy Aircraft Since 1911 (Putnam)


CAPRONI Ca-44

In 1918 the Navy procured 19 Italian-built Caproni Ca-44 bombers for use by the Northern Bombing Group. This organization had been trained by the British, and its members had obtained operational experience in British squadrons. The first independent action of the group was with Capronis on August 15, 1918, when they were used against German installations at Ostend. The unique twin-fuselage Caproni was typical of several similar models then in production, but the Ca-44 was powered with six-cylinder Fiat engines that proved to be especially troublesome and seriously handicapped operations. Span, 76 ft 10 in; length, 41ft 2 in; gross weight, 12,350 lb; max speed, 103mph.


J.Davilla Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 74)


Caproni Ca. 5

  The need for an updated Caproni bomber was obvious. The Caproni Squadriglias were suffering poor availability due to airframe and engine breakdowns. The failure of the Ca.4 only exacerbated the sense of urgency.
  The availability of the 200-hp Fiat A.12 engine would enable Caproni to equip frontline units with a new 600-hp bomber, a third more power than available in the Ca.3.
  Studies on the new design took place between the end of 1916 and the start of 1917. Caproni took the easy route and initially modified a Ca.3 with the new engines. The wings were enlarged (both in span and chord), the crew nacelle was given a more aerodynamic ovoid shape, and radiators were fitted into the modified twin booms underneath the engines. The nose gear was also removed; the new bomber would be a tail-sitter.

Testing

  At Taliedo on 30 January a Ca.3 modified to a 600-hp variant was flight tested.
  On 7 February static destruction tests were performed on an airframe, and it proved to have the coefficient of 5. As coefficient 6 had been requested, Caproni then decided to add bracing wires (steel wiring that interconnected the struts at mid-height).
  The new Caproni Ca.5 underwent two subsequent evaluations by the military, who requested important modifications accepted by the company (not without some resistance) and only partially introduced. In fact, if the aircraft was able to carry 18 162-mm and 4 260-mm grenades, or an equivalent load of only 260-mm grenades, it was never equipped to carry 190-mm armor piercing grenades, although this had been a requirement. The cockpit was not modified to have a ventral defensive position to cover under the tail. This was the case of an aviation firm designing aircraft they thought would be easier to manufacture and not showing undue concern for the needs of the military.
  Armament was only one aspect of the troubled story of Ca.5. The difficult adaptation of the Fiat A.12 bis engines to the airframe and their unreliability, deriving from cooling and power problems, ended up delaying the program and imposing the need for a stop gap solution to keep the Ca.3 in service. In April, in the face of complaints from the Comando supremo that Caproni had stopped development of the “450” too early, an appeal was to made to Caproni that it was no longer possible to continue using Ca.3. The Ca.5 was needed urgently at the front as production of the Ca.3s had been halted and the airframes were becoming exhausted and were destined to be sent to training units after being withdrawn from the first line service.

Production

  Initially, production was planned to be in the 200 range, but eventually grew to 1,700 aircraft.
  Breda, Miani & Silvestri, Pasotti, and Reggiane would all be involved in production which was expected to be close to 100 aircraft a month.
  The trials of the 600-hp (Ca.5) were conducted in March 1917, and in April Caproni received confirmation that 200 examples would be required. France, the United Kingdom and the United States expressed interest in acquiring examples and even the possibility of license production. In the case of the U.S., this would come to fruition.
  France on many occasions requested a third of the Italian production, the United States tried to acquire factories in Italy to produce the Ca.5 to meet their requirements, while Great Britain continued to occasionally manifest interest in the aircraft. All this was for an aircraft that had was based at that time on one modified Ca.3.
  By early February, planned production of the Ca.5 had reached 3,900 aircraft, later reduced to 3,650, with production divided between:
  Societa Caproni - 800
  Officine Breda - 600
  Zust, Miani & Silvestri - 900
  Off.na Sangiorgio - 250
  Piaggio- 200
  Off.na Mecc. Ital. - 300
  Bastianelli - 600
  These companies began to send teams to the Caproni factory for periods of one to two months to undergo thorough instruction in the construction and the assembly, of the aircraft. Each team conducted an experimental assembly of one or two aircraft in the workshops under the surveillance of Caproni technicians. This experience would assist in assembly, but the main obstruction for mass production would be supply of raw material from the subcontractors, with the result that production in the various license holders workshops was the subject of notable delays.
  In April 1918 construction of the Ca.5 was under way with Caproni, Breda, Miani & Silvestri, Reggiane, Piaggio, San Giorgio, Savigliano, and Bastianelli. Production was terminated in 1921, with the completion of 552 aircraft (beside the prototype) by the Caproni factory and another 102 at the Breda facility; another 5 examples were completed by Miani & Silvestri in 1919.
  On 30 April 30 1918, Caproni’s company warned the Commissariat that production of the Ca.5 was slower than expected. By that date it should have already delivered 115 planes, while in reality not one was ready for service!
  By 31 October, a few days before the signing of the armistice, only 190 planes had been completed - compared to the 2,916 that, according to the contract, were expected by that date. Of these 190 aircraft just 57 were with frontline units.
  The Commissariat, however, gave Caproni a pass. The Parliamentary Inquiry Commission noted the facts that the lack of production was actually a production delay “due to a plurality of economic causes: the difficulty in supplies, the continuous variations in the designs and materials to be used following the results of the first tests.”

Variants

  Ca.44 - version with Fiat A.12 200-250-hp or Fiat A.12 bis 300-HP engines.
  Ca.45 - version with Isotta Fraschini V.6 250-hp engines.
  Ca.46 - version with Liberty 350-400-hp engines.
  Ca.47 - In August 1917 at Venezia the first Caproni 600-hp seaplane was assembled; unfortunately, it never flew as it was destroyed by an incendiary bomb the evening prior to its flight test.
  Caproni considered building a series of 600-hp torpedo bombers. Comandante Pacchierotti inspected the prototype, which was tested at Sesto Calende on 26 February, 1918. In reality, only one example of the type was produced - plus 10 production aircraft (Piaggio-manufactured) after the Armistice. These were simply converted from standard Ca.5s powered by Fiat A.12s. They had twin floats and could carry a naval torpedo under the centre section of the lower wing between the two floats, with a release mechanism linked to the cockpit. Known at the time as the I.Ca. (Idro Caproni), the seaplane was later re-designated as the Ca.47.
  Ca.48 - Ca.40 adapted as an airliner. The central nacelle was replaced by an enlarged, overhanging, enclosed cabin for passengers placed below the wing. It was designed to carry 17 people, plus mail and freight. Only the single example was built.
  Ca.50 - ambulance version with Fiat A.12 engines.
  Ca. 57 - After the end of the war, Ca.5s were transformed into a passenger aircraft by installing an enclosed cabin with eight seats; one or two people could still be housed behind the pilot, but were still exposed to the elements. There was, furthermore, space for mail and newspapers. An initial flight with a cabin-equipped Caproni 600-hp was performed in January 1919.
  Another transport version carried 15 passengers from Milano to Torino and back (300 km) in 2 hours.
  Two conversions were created by Ing. Tommaso Sarri: one was based on a Ca.5 with Isotta Fraschini V.6 engines and the other on a Ca.5 with Fiat A.12 bis. The modifications to the two aircraft involved the removal of the rear engine, structural reinforcement, the relocation of the horizontal tail, and the creation of a comfortable cabin for five passengers in the first aircraft (named Sarri 1 Italia) and for 10 passengers in the second (Sarri 2 Italia). The first conversion was completed between the end on 1920 and early 1921, while the second was finished in the first half of March 1921.
  In the Breda workshops at Bresso, a third aircraft was similarly modified (I-BAGM), rebaptised Italia 3 and, later as the Breda B.1. These potentially interesting projects were not pursued, principally due to the official disinterest in civil aviation at the time.
  The designation Ca.57 served later used to collectively identify the various civilian conversions of the Ca.5.

Operational Service

  The Ca.5 arrived on the front line, but, as with all new designs, there were problems. Not surprisingly, the Fiat A.12 engines caused the worst problems. Back firing from the carburetor often resulted a fire. The alternative engine, the Isotta Fraschini V.6, fitted to a few examples as an alternative, proved just as unreliable.
  It is not possible to give a detailed account of Ca.5 operations due to the fact that there weren’t any. A handful were sent to frontline Caproni units for evaluation and on rare occasions participated in combat sorties.

5a Squadriglia
  On June 19, 1918 a new Ca.5, 11537, was sent 5a Squadriglia unit but it was only used only for test flights and, given the generally poor showing of the example received, it was little used.

6a Squadriglia
  On August 13 1918 6a Squadriglia personnel went to collect at Taliedo a new Ca.5 600 hp.
  On October 4, three new Ca.5 11647, 11664 ed 11671 arrived from Taliedo.
  During the final battle of Vittorio Veneto the Squadriglia, participated in actions.

14a Squadriglia
  On June 10 14a Squadriglia returned from XVIII Gruppo in France to the Centro Formazione Squadriglie at Riva di Chieri, to convert to the new Ca.5s.
  With eight new Caproni Ca.5s, the Squadriglia was sent back to France on 20 October, to the airfield at Longvic. After five days the Squadriglia flew to Chermisey, where it remained until the end of hostilities. 14a did not fly any operational sorties after its return to France.
  14th Squadriglia returned to Italy in early 1919. It was disbanded on 17 November, 1919.

15a Squadriglia
  On 14 October 15a Squadriglia, while leaving some men on the French front, left XVIII Gruppo and flew back to Italy to re-equip with Caproni Ca.5s, at the Centro Formazione Squadriglie at Ghedi. They were still in the process of transition to the new planes when the Armistice was signed.


Regia Marina

  In an attempt to develop its own heavy bomber, the Regia Marina ordered a strategic bomber of its own. After the failures of the Bossi, SVAN (a shipyard in Venice) (never built) and Bresciani seaplane bombers, the Navy was forced to purchase Army Capronis in an attempt to develop a means of attacking the Austrian fleet at Pola and the distant submarine bases.
  According to Gentilli, a three engine 600-hp Caproni bomber (possibly the prototype of the Ca.5) was tested by the Regia Marina. It was destroyed shortly after it had arrived in a Austro-Hungarian air raid on 7 September 1917. The Navy hoped to purchase hundreds of Ca.5s and ordered shelters be built to hold almost 500 bombers. They would use Ca.4s (rejected by the Army) in the meantime.
  Ever-present production delays resulted in the Regia Marina possessing only a handful of Ca.5s as the war ended. Eleven were to undergo testing by 203a Squadriglia at Poggio Renatico. The newly-formed 204 Squadriglia at Valona had only five Ca.5s.
  In the end, no Regia Marina Ca.5s saw combat.
  Postwar, 15a Squadriglia was formed in 1919 with eight Ca.5s.
  Gentilli believes that it is unlikely that any of the seven Ca.5 Idro (Floatplane) variants received at Spezia and Livorno in the 1920s ever flew.
  The handful of Ca.5s assigned to D’Annunzio’s Squadra Aerea San Marco, with the 1st Stormo Caproni Squadriglia S.A.(formerly 201a Squadriglia Caproni di Marcon) had been intended to make torpedo attack on battleships in Pola. Neither they, nor the rest of the unit’s aircraft, were operational before the Armistice.


Postwar

  Postwar use of the Ca.5 was surprisingly limited. According to the official history, no Ca.5s were sent to Libya to participate in the policing operations there.


Foreign Service

  Brazil - A single Caproni 45 was acquired for evaluation in 1920. It was given serial 12038 (the c/n) and was a gift from the Italian Governor to the Av.Mil.

  Peru - a Caproni Ca.5 became the first bombing aircraft of Peruvian military aviation. It was acquired through donation made by the departments of Cusco, Puno, and the province of Pisco in May 1921. The Ca.5 was assembled and tested at the Maranga airfield.
  In July 1921 the aviators of the Military Aviation Service arrived in the town of Camana aboard a huge Caproni Ca.5 bomber.
  The aircraft, however, had a short operational life since, due the limited number of hangars in Maranga, it had to remain for long periods of time outdoors, irreversibly damaging its structure due to the humidity of the area.

  Turkey - in May 1923 a Caproni Ca.5 bomber converted to Breda B.1 standard landed near Edirne in European Turkey. On June 7,1923 pilot Vecihi fixed the aircraft in a few days and flew it to Izmir. The aircraft was named Vecihi but was soon grounded due to a lack of spares. It was never taken into the inventory.
  Source: personal communication with Ole Nikolajsen
United States

Army Air Service
  Colonel Bolling had recommended the U.S. purchase the Ca.5 since he had learned of the project in July 1917. He was particularly interested in obtaining license production rights for the type. He had the enthusiastic backing of the charismatic and influential Captain Fiorello La Guardia. The main obstacle to obtaining Ca.5s was the simultaneous availability of the Handley Page O/100.
  To help influence the U.S. decision in September 1917 two Ca.5 with Fiat engines were sent to America. In January 1918 a second mission arrived in America led by capitano ingegner D’Annunzio.
  In February 1918 an order was placed for 50 Caproni from Standard Aircraft Corp, of Elizabeth, New Jersey, and in the following July further contracts were completed with Curtiss in Buffalo and Fisher Body Corporation of Cleveland, Ohio, for the production of 500 Caproni each powered by Liberty engine. It is interesting to note that Standard was also given a contract for 500 Handley Page O/400 (the majority of which would have been sent from Britain for final assembly).
  In the Standard facilities at Elizabeth construction commenced of an initial series of four Liberty-engined Ca.5 under the direction of capitano D’Annunzio. The first assembled example was transported to the airfield at Mineola, where a successful first flight was made on 4 July 1918, piloted by sergente Gino and the capitano D’Annunzio. On its third flight the Caproni-Liberty performed various maneuvers and tests of maximum and minimum speeds just a few feet above the ground, concluding its presentation with a perfect landing, all in front of a large and enthusiastic audience including military men.
  The military authorities were convinced that the Caproni-Liberty would require extensive static load tests and flight trials. All this happened in the shadow of Handley Page who aggressively attempted to convince the Americans to buy O/400.
  In early September the O/400 comparative flight trials with the Caproni-Liberty, showed that the Italian machine was clearly inferior. That same month, 74 Squadron had been formed for training on the Ca.5. On 21 September the Caproni-Liberty climbed 4,000 metres in 46 minutes while carrying three people plus the pilot, 640 kg of weight made up from lead and sand, 1,500 litres of fuel, 210 litres of oil, and with two machine guns in the rear and two in the forward turret and two in the forward circle. Even with this weight, the Ca.5 was able to reach 167 km/h.
  Testing of the Caproni-Liberty revealed a maximum altitude of 5,500 metres; endurance of five and one half hours; climb to 14,000 feet in 46 minutes with a payload of 2,300 kg; and a maximum speed of 170 km/h.
  By the end of the war, only five Caproni-Liberty had been completed versus seven Handley Page O/400s.
  Of the five Ca.5s, two had been completed by Standard, with final assembly at Mineola; one had an oval section nacelle, the nacelle of the other machine had parallel sides. The remaining three machines were produced by Fisher Body, one of which was completed with the parallel sided central nacelle. A fourth machine was in an advanced stage of manufacture at Fisher, but was never completed.

U.S. Navy
  The ambitious plan to bomb the German submarine bases at Ostend, Zeebrugge and Bruges led to the creation of the Northern Bombing Group. This was to be accomplished by a force of six night bomber squadrons (each with ten Ca.5s or Handley Page O/400 ), and another six day bomber squadrons (18 DH-4s each).The Italian government agreed to supply 30 Ca.5s in June and July 1918, followed by 80 in August. In the end, only nine were delivered in June and the same number in July. Furthermore, the Ca.5s needed extensive modifications before they could become operational.
  On 11 August, the first Ca.5 was prepared for operations by installing of a bomb release mechanism, relocating of the control wires, installation fitting navigation lights, instrumentation, and defensive armament. The first independent action conducted by the Ca.5 squadron took place on 15 August 1918, when the German submarine base at Ostend was attacked. Subsequent operations were seriously hindered by the Fiat A.12 engines which caused multiple problems.
  After the first combat flight on 15 August, due to manufacturing and assembly defects, not a single Fiat A.12 could meet the four hour engine run required for combat operations. The aircraft were withdrawn from operations until a satisfactory four hour engine flight test could be completed.
  The Isotta Fraschini V6 was considered as an alternative, and the Italian government agreed to supply them to the U.S. Navy. The first Caproni fitted with Isotta Fraschini engines arrived at Eastleigh in England around 8 November, too late to see combat use. Given the history of the Ca.5 equipped with Isotta Fraschini engines in the U.S. postwar, this was fortunate.

Caproni Ca 5 U.S. Navy serials
  B-2 (MM 11577) - 27.07.18. Crash landing, due to a fuel flow issue, at Sens, SE Paris, en-route Milan to Paris.
  B-3 (MM 11598) - 24.08.18. Arrived St Inglevert 11.11.18.
  B-4 (MM 11587) - 24.08.18. Crashed at Orly without casualties.
  B-5 (MM 11562) - 22.08.18. Crashed near Dunquerque 23.08.18.
  B-6 (MM 11590) - 01.08.18. Crashed Mirafiori, Italy. (24.08.18). No casualties.
  B-7 (MM 11607) - 24.08.18. Arrived St Inglevert, 11.11.18
  B-8 (MM 11591) - 24.08.18. Force landed at Turin due to a fire. It was seriously damaged.
  B-9 (MM 11560)- 11.08.18. Crashed at Brioude, France due to fuel shortage after pilot became lost.
  B-10 (MM 11592) - Wrecked Taliedo, Italy.
  B-11 (MM 11595) -15.09.18. Landed at St Inglevert. Pilot turned sharply to return to hangar, forcing the aircraft to nose over. It caught fire and was destroyed.
  B-12 (MM 11599) - Arrived St Inglevert 22.12.18. Arrived Issodunne safely. 1st Ca.5 to be delivered.
  B-13 (MM11523) - 17.08.18. crashed at Mirafiori,Turin, Italy, shortly after takeoff. Both pilots killed, mechanic died following day.
  B-14 (MM 11561) - 11.11.18. At St Inglevert.
  B-15 (MM 11524) - 11.11.18. At Orly.
  B-16 (MM 11570) - 11.11.18. At St Inglevert.
  B-17 (MM 11594) - 11.11.18. At St Inglevert.
  B-18 (MM 11593) - 11.11.18. At Eastleigh.
  B-19 (MM 11589) - 02.09.18. Crashed at Dijon, France.
  Source: U.S. Navy Aircraft Record Cards and Colin Owers

  The Caproni Ca.5 had consumed a considerable amount of Italy’s resources devoted to aircraft production. As with the Ca.4, Caproni and their subcontractors were unable to deliver promised aircraft to frontline units. Even when the airframes were satisfactory, the Fiat A.12 engines proved to by unreliable. As a result, many brave pilots were forced to fly obsolescent aircraft into combat.
  Postwar, foreign interest in producing the type quickly waned, and they were quickly removed from frontline units. None of this means that the Ca.5 was not an effective warplane, simply that it had arrived too late to be of value.


Caproni 5 Bomber with three 300-hp Fiat A12 bis engines
  Wingspan 23.40 m; length 12.61 m; height 4.48 m;
  Empty weight 3,300 kg; loaded weight 5,300 kg
  Maximum speed 160 km/h; climb to 2,000 m in 14 minutes; ceiling 4,600 m; endurance 5 hours
  Armament two machine guns and 540 kg of bombs.


Журнал Flight


Flight, August 28, 1919.

THE E.L.T.A. SHOW

Italy's Representative

   At the actual exhibition Italy is represented by two machines only. One is the large Fiat biplane, on which recently Lieut. Brack-Papa flew from Italy to England, and which was not crashed in France on the return journey as stated in the daily press, and the other is a Caproni three-engined machine, turned into a commercial aeroplane by adding a cabin to the fuselage. A third Italian machine is, however, flying at the E.L.T.A. aerodrome - the little S.V.A. biplane with Warren girder wing bracing.

THE CAPRONI BIPLANE

   Another Italian machine which arrived at Amsterdam by air was the Caproni three-engined biplane, which made its first appearance above Amsterdam on August 7, when, after circling over the town for about an hour, it landed on the E.L.T.A. aerodrome, fortunately without coming to grief. The machine cannot by any stretch of imagination be termed a pretty one, the twin fuselages and straight, square-tipped wings giving it a somewhat ungraceful appearance. But it seems to fly very well, and does some fairly sharp banked turns, although at times it was observed to do flat turns which one usually associates with tendencies to spin. However, the Caproni does not appear to be troubled by flat turn, and at times they appeared to be chosen deliberately by the pilot when he wanted to turn quickly.
   The three engines of the Caproni are Isotta-Frachinis, the two outer ones being placed in the nose of the twin fuselages, while the third is installed in the rear of the central nacelle, where it drives a pusher airscrew. The front portion of the nacelle projects far out in front, and here are arranged two cockpits in tandem. Slightly further aft a superstructure has been added which extends up to the top plane, and forms a cabin for the passengers. The machine carries 10 persons, and flies fairly fast with its three engines developing a total of a little over 700 h.p. The general arrangement of the Caproni will be clear from one of the accompanying photographs. Like the Fiat, the Caproni was also put into the exhibition building shortly after its arrival, and may now be examined on the Caproni stand.

J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Caproni Ca.5, 6a Squadriglia, Autumn 1918
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Caproni Ca-5, ВВС Италии, 1918г.
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Тяжелый бомбардировщик Капрони Ca-5 (1918г.)
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Caproni Ca.5 prototype.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Капрони" Са.5 над Венецией.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Having exhausted the original trimotor’s potential with the Ca.450, during the 1916-17 winter Caproni studied a more powerful derivative. The aircraft which emerged, called Ca.5 by the Italian Army, shared its predecessor’s general layout but differed in every detail. Wing span and chord were increased; the radiators were placed in the nose and tail booms; the nose wheel suppressed. The basic type, indicated as Ca.44 in the postwar system, was powered by three 200 hp Fiat A.12 engines, large quantities of which had been made available by the cancelling of orders for obsolete SP and SIA 14B biplanes.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Caproni Ca.5 on a barge for maritime operations.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Caproni Ca.5 #12050.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The Ca.5 was also flown with 250 hp Isotta Fraschini V.6 engines, obtaining the version later identified as Ca.45. This group photo, in which Gianni Caproni is the sixth from the left, is taken in front of an aircraft built at Vizzola Ticino. The bomber appears to be painted green overall and has unusual underwing roundels.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
While the four man, biplane Caproni Ca 46 may have been the last of the company's illustrious line of World War I bombers, it was also the machine to be built in the greatest numbers by far, with 255 built in Italy by the parent company and sub-contractors, and more had been built in France by REP, plus five of the 1,000 ordered from Standard of the 400hp Liberty-engined version for use by American forces. Developed from the Ca 44 of early 1917, the Ca 46 was powered by three 300hp Fiat A 12s, giving it a top level speed of 95mph at 6.560 feet. Capable of carrying a bomb load of 1,300lb over a range of 760 miles, the machine had an operational ceiling of 15.000 feet.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Caproni Ca.5.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Caproni Ca.5 #12222 (on the other side it was mistakenly written as 1222) in which Liberty engines have been installed as a prototype for its production in Italy. Also, American production was considered.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Caproni Ca.5 of 6a Squadriglia.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE ITALIAN REPRESENTATIVES AT THE E.L.T.A.: 3. The Caproni three-engined biplane
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
A US Navy Caproni Ca-44 serving with the Northern Bombing Group Night Wing at Orly.
Caproni Ca.5 with USN serial B-15 photographed at the US Army airfield at Orly, France, for evaluation. Armament has not been installed but American markings have been applied.
G.Swanborough, P.Bowers - United States Military Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
STANDARD/CAPRONI
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Caproni Ca.5 42118 at Hazelhurst Field, US, in September 1918.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Ca.5 SC 42119 is one of three Liberty powered aircraft delivered by Fisher Body to the United States Signal Corps in 1918. The rampant ram and excellent finish are clearly evident.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The Ca.5’s internal radiators were beset with cooling problems. Although the new position cut drag somewhat, cooling was also reduced. One the various modifications attempted to correct the problem is seen on this American aircraft at Mineola: the fuselage lines are noticeably altered.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Another view of the Liberty-equipped Ca.5 with its boxy nacelle, side mounted radiators and clear observation panels on the nose.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Caproni Ca.5 42118 at Hazelhurst Field, US, in September 1918.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
An American officer, easily recognized by the headgear, stands in front of Ca.5 12222. The Liberty engine's greater size is clearly evident.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Italian Aviators and Civilian Aviators with an Italian Service machine.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The American pilots James Bahl, at left, and DeWitt Coleman, at right, standing by their Ca.5. Shot down during an operational sortie they were awarded respectively a medaglia d'oro and a medaglia d'argento.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
LaGuardia at Taliedo, taking delivery of a Ca.5 for the US Army. A strong opponent of the SIA 7, whose dangerous unreliability the Americans had experienced first hand, LaGuardia became instead an ardent supporter of the Caproni bombers.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Some Ca.5 were also completed as torpedo bombers. Ca.11610, here pictured on Taliedo’s concrete runway, carries the insignia of the Prima Squadriglia Siluranti Aeree (First Airborne Torpedo Squadron) “San Marco”, formed under D’Annunzio’s command at Venice’s San Nicolo airfield in March 1918.
J.Herris - Weird Wings of WWI /Centennial Perspective/ (70)
The Caproni biplane was widely used and was fairly successful. Its twin-boom configuration enabled fitting of three engines, a tractor at the front of each boom and a pusher in the central nacelle. Normally fitted with wheels, a few were used as floatplanes as shown here.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
From the basic Ca.5 design maggiore Alessandro Guidoni derived the Idrovolante Caproni (I.Ca., retroactively known as Ca.47 postwar) by replacing the undercarriage with two Zari floats, connected to the fuselage with elastic mounts. The first machine was sent to Venice for testing August 1917 but was unfortunately destroyed by an incendiary bomb before any tests were carried out. A second machine, readied and proposed to the Navy as torpedo bomber, was also lost during a ferry flight between Sesto Calende and La Spezia.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The second I.Ca taxying at Sesto Calende. After the war Piaggio completed ten by converting a batch of Ca.5 landplanes.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Caproni’s first attempt at producing an aircraft that would carry badly wounded soldiers to properly equipped hospitals dates to the First World War, when a Ca.5 biplane bomber was modified by installing two stretchers on the top of its twin tail booms. To provide a measure of protection from weather and propwash, the stretchers were partially faired. Also known as Ca.45, the aircraft could also carry two lightly wounded men in the main nacelle.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
In the early part of the war aircraft had been ordered piecemeal in small batches. The policy changed when the Republican member of Parliament Eugenio Chiesa was appointed commissioner of aeronautics. Among the types selected for mass production was the Ca.5, a dedicated Caproni Aircraft Production Office being established in Milan. The office, run first by capitano Oscar Sinigaglia and later by capitano Odiemo, placed orders for 4,015 aircraft with eight Italian companies. Output was negatively affected by the difficulty of introducing aircraft manufacturing techniques in non-aviation firms. Thus in 1918, while Caproni completed 359 bombers, the performance of other program participants was negligible. The photo show Ca.5 production.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
Ca.5 production.
R.Abate, G.Alegi, G.Apostolo - Aeroplani Caproni: Gianni Caproni and His Aircraft, 1910-1983
The Americans took an active interest in the Ca.5, ordering 1,050 aircraft from Standard Aircraft, Curtiss and Fisher Body. Equipped with three 450 hp Liberty engines, this version was referred to postwar as Ca.46. A comparison with the Handley-Page O/400, also selected for production in the United States, showed the Caproni to be 15 kilometers per hour faster, to climb almost twice as fast, to have one-third more range, and to cost 29,850 dollars instead of 57,900. The Handley-Page could carry a 900 kg payload - 300 more than the Caproni. On the photo, Standard Aircraft’s assembly hall in Elizabeth, New Jersey.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Капрони" Са.5
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Caproni Ca.5
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Caproni Ca.5
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Caproni Ca.5
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Caproni Ca.5