Самолеты (сортировка по:)
Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Rumpler D.I

Страна: Германия

Год: 1917

Fighter

Rumpler - C.VIII - 1917 - Германия<– –>Rumpler - C.X - 1918 - Германия


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Rumpler 7D 1
  This aircraft was the first of a series of experimental single-seat fighters which led eventually to the D I in 1918. The wooden, multi-stringered, streamlined fuselage was ply-skinned, then wrapped with doped fabric. The wings were orthodox, the upper wing being of parallel chord, the lower with a curved (dragonfly profile) trailing-edge. The engine was neatly cowled and combined with an extrusion of the fuselage to support the upper wing, which was not "gulled" as has been reported in the past. A flush radiator was mounted in the upper wing to port of the centre-line. Wide chord interplane struts of I-section braced the wing cellule. Engine, 160 h.p. Mercedes D III.

Rumpler 7D 2
  Another prototype in the Rumpler D 1 evolution, the 7D 2 had the fuselage ply-skinned only fore and aft, the centre portion being simply fabric covered. It was also made deeper, and the lower wings built into it with smaller fairings. The upper wing, now with centrally mounted radiator, was supported on a more orthodox centre-section, found necessary to improve view from the cockpit. For this reason too the wide I-struts were replaced by more conventional twin struts. Engine, 160 h.p. Mercedes.

Rumpler 7D 4
  Next development in this prototype series was the replacement of the twin interplane struts with single struts of "C" section in an endeavour to reduce drag. The radiators were now of the frontal "ear" type, placed low on the fuselage sides adjacent to the leading edge of the lower wings. They undoubtedly negatived any drag saving that had been effected by the revised wing-bracing system. Engine, 160 h.p. Mercedes. As far as can be ascertained, the 7D 5 did not differ visibly from the 7D 4.

Rumpler 7D 7
  The Rumpler 7D 7, which followed a quadruplane project (7D 6), appeared to differ very little from the 7D 4, the only apparent variation being the encasement of the bracing cables in streamline casings. Engine fitted was now the more powerful 180 h.p. Mercedes D IIIa. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.

Rumpler D I (8D 1)
  As may be seen, the eventual Rumpler D I did not differ markedly from its immediate prototypes. The introduction of balanced, overhung, ailerons may be noted; also the modification of the vertical tail surfaces to an exact triangular profile. The machine was said to have good flight characteristics except for sharp turns, when it too easily went into a spin. Two of these machines, 1552/18 and 1553/18, participated in the mid-summer D types Competition. Another, re-engined with the 185 h.p. B.M.W., took part in the third Competition in the autumn of 1918. Engine, 180 h.p. Mercedes IIIa. Span, 8.42 m. (27 ft. 7 1/2 in.). Length, 5.75 m. (18 ft. 10 3/8 in.). Height, 2.56 m. (8 ft. 4 3/4 in.). Area, 16 sq.m. (173 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 615 kg. (1,353 lb.). Loaded, 805 kg. (1,771 lb.). Speed, 180 km.hr. (112.5 m.p.h.) at 5,000 m. (16,400 ft.). Climb, 5,000 m. (16,400 ft.) in 26.5 min. and in 17.2 min. when fitted with high-compression engine. Duration, ca. 2 hr. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


RUMPLER 7D 1 Germany

  Evolved in parallel with the two-seat 7C 1 and embodying similar aerodynamic and structural features, the 7D 1 single-seat fighter was the recipient of an Idflieg (Inspectorate of Flying Troops) contract for three prototypes, flight testing commencing in the spring of 1917. The Idflieg requirement called for a speed of 103 mph (165 km/h) at 16,405 ft (5 000 m), that altitude being attained in 31.5 minutes, and an endurance of 1.5 hrs. An armament of two synchronised 7,9-mm LMG 08/15 machine guns was specified and provision for oxygen breathing apparatus requested. A second identical prototype was designated 7D 2. Flight testing revealed that the pilot’s field of vision was seriously impaired by the broad-chord interplane struts and there were aerodynamic problems associated with the upper wing/fuselage junction. Furthermore, there were servicing difficulties related to the engine installation. In consequence, the 7D1 and 2 were abandoned in favour of a more conventional fighter, the 7D 3.

Max speed, 109 mph (175 km/h).
Service ceiling, 22,965 ft (7 000 m).
Span, 26 ft 10 3/4 in (8,20 m).
Length, 19 ft 4 1/4 in (5,90 m).
Height, 8 ft 6 1/3 in (2,60 m).


RUMPLER 7D 3 Germany

  The shortcomings displayed by the 7D 1 and 2 led the Rumpler team to evolve a more conventional derivative fighter retaining the same structural precepts. This, the 7D 3, retained the Mercedes D III engine, but a more orthodox installation was adopted, the flush radiator being centrally mounted in the wing centre section which was raised above the forward fuselage decking by means of a cabane structure. The broad-chord I-type interplane struts were discarded in favour of more conventional twin struts. The 7D 3 was tested during the summer of 1917, but it may be presumed that results were not entirely satisfactory, as, by the late autumn, work had begun on an entirely new aircraft, the 7D 4, intended to participate in the first D-type contest that was to take place at Adlershof early in the following year. No further details of the 7D 3 are available.


RUMPLER 7D 4 Germany

  To compete in the first D-type contest (20 January - 12 February 1918), intended to select single-seat fighters for service introduction in mid-1918, Rumpler built two prototypes of the 7D 4. One prototype was completed with a conventional twin-strut cellule and the other with a cellule employing "reverse-C” interplane struts braced by fabric-wrapped triple cables. The fuselage structure remained unchanged, but in an attempt to eradicate some torsional problems experienced earlier with this type of construction, a thin plywood veneer skinning was applied to the nose and tail sections to increase rigidity. Again, the Mercedes D III engine was retained and specified armament was two 7,9-mm LMG 08/15 synchronised guns. Flight testing of the 7D 4 had commenced by October 1917, and during the D-type contest the example fitted with "reverse-C” interplane struts attained an altitude of 16,405 ft (5 000 m) within 23.8 min. This prototype was considered to afford excellent visibility from the cockpit, but was, by consensus, somewhat temperamental in handling and difficult to land. Nevertheless, it appeared to possess sufficient promise to warrant an order for a pre-series of 50 examples of a developed version (7D 7) for further investigation and possible operational evaluation. Another prototype was completed as the 7D 5, this differing essentially in having an automobile-style frontal radiator. No specification for the 7D 4 is available.


RUMPLER 7D 7 Germany

  Too late to participate officially in the first D-type contest, the 7D 7 was an improved derivative of the 7D 4 with the "reverse-C” type interplane struts. A new Gottingen aerofoil was employed for the wing, which had control surfaces of marginally reduced area, the cockpit was smaller and was moved forward 13 4/5 in (35 cm), and the buried wing radiator gave place to ear-type radiators mounted immediately above the lower wing roots. Flight testing proved the 7D 7 faster than the 7D 4, and an unofficial climb to 16,405 ft (5 000 m) within 18 min was reported. The 7D 7 was powered by the 160 hp Mercedes D III engine and possessed an armament of two synchronised 7,9-mm LMG 08/15 machine guns, static load testing and flight evaluation occupying the period 22 February to 1 May 1918. Some disconcerting twisting of the tail was encountered during certain manoeuvres, calling for structural reinforcement, the Idflieg reporting in May 1918 that the 7D 7 was "unacceptable for the Front and would be rebuilt.”


RUMPLER 8D 1 (D I) Germany

  To overcome the lack of rear fuselage rigidity experienced during testing of the 7D 7, the fabric-wrapped, multi-stringered fuselage structure first featured by the 7C 1 and 7D 1 was finally and reluctantly abandoned in favour of a stronger, more conventional semi-monocoque of diagonally-wrapped strips of glued plywood. The wing cellule was reinforced, balanced ailerons were fitted, and the fin and rudder were redesigned and enlarged. Designated 8D 1, this revised fighter provided the standard for the 50 pre-series aircraft previously ordered from Rumpler as D Is. Three pre-series D Is powered by the 160 hp Mercedes D IIIa engine and one powered by the 180 hp D IIIau high-compression engine participated in the second D-type contest (27 May - 28 June 1918), the last-mentioned attaining an altitude of 16,405 ft (5 000 m) in 18.7 min compared with 27 min required by the D IIIa-engined D I. Excellent climb and altitude capabilities notwithstanding, the evaluation pilots’ consensus of the D I was unfavourable, particularly criticised being aileron response - which was considered slow and erratic - the gliding and landing characteristics, and the level of vibration. One D I powered by a 185 hp BMW ma engine participated in the third D-type contest (10-22 October 1918), being the only contender to attain an altitude of 26,900 ft (8 200 m), but the fighter was deemed of ‘‘limited usefulness” in close-in combat. Military acceptance testing of the Rumpler fighter had still to be completed at the time the conflict terminated when 22 had been built. Another 27 were completed after the Armistice. The following data relate to the standard D IIIa-powered D I.

Max speed, 112 mph (180 km/h) at 16,405 ft (5000 m).
Time to 16,405 ft (5000 m), 23.75 min.
Endurance, 1.5 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,356 lb (615 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,775 lb (805 kg).
Span, 27 ft 7 1/2 in (8,42 m).
Length, 18 ft 10 2/5 in (5,75 m).
Height, 8 ft 4 3/4 in (2,56 m).
Wing area, 179.33 sq ft (16,66 m2).


J.Herris Rumpler Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 11)


Rumpler D.I

  The story of the prolonged development of Rumpler's only production land-based fighter, the D.I, and all the prototypes that led up to it is a story of great vision and innovative engineering that ultimately failed to produce a practical fighter despite intensive effort.
  Design studies for the Rumpler single-seat fighter began in early 1916 in parallel with its two-seat, high-altitude reconnaissance counterpart, the 7C1. Like the 7C1 the fighter prototype, known internally as the 7D1, was based on extensive investigation into new aerodynamic features supported by new structural techniques. To achieve the desired climb, ceiling, and speed at altitude the aircraft had to be very light and streamlined. As a result the 7C1 and 7D1 prototypes resembled aircraft designed for breaking speed and altitude records and did not have the flying qualities and robust structures needed for practical combat aircraft.
  By November 1916 Rumpler was able to build a mock-up of the 7D1 and the next month Idflieg ordered three prototypes of the fighter. Like the 7C1, these were powered by the 160 hp Mercedes D.III, then the best available fighter engine. Idflieg required a climb to 5000 m in 33 minutes and a maximum speed of 165 km/h at that altitude, and also required installation of supplementary oxygen for the pilot, proof that exceptional climb and ceiling were planned.
  Rumpler completed the 7D1 prototype (and an 'identical' 7D2 which is otherwise unknown) in spring 1917. The 7D1 was a highly-streamlined biplane with top wing supported by the engine cowling. It was built with a series of light-weight fuselage stringers covered with doped fabric for streamlining and light weight. Single I-struts on each side braced the wings and only two bracing wires were used for each bay.
  Flight test were disappointing. Not only did the engine cowling obscure the pilot's forward vision, a serious problem for any aircraft and especially for a fighter, but the airflow interference between the propeller and the cowling and upper wing structure prevented the engine from developing its full RPM and thus its full power. Moreover, the buried engine was virtually inaccessible for maintenance.
  As a result, Rumpler designed a revised prototype with conventional center-section, the 7D3 (according to chief test pilot Friedrich Budig). The 7D3 was probably not successful because little is known about it, and the following 7D4 prototypes were much more widely tested. The first 7D4 prototype, powered by a 160 hp Mercedes D.III, was flight-tested in October 1917 and demonstrated a climb to 5,200 m in 20 minutes, an exceptional rate of climb for a fighter powered by a water-cooled, in-line engine.
  Two different 7D4 prototypes competed at the First Fighter Competition in January 1918, two years after start of development. The U-strut 7D4 prototype climbed to 5,000 m in 23.8 minutes, and the parallel-strut 7D4 climbed to the same altitude in 28.0 minutes. The significantly slower climb of the parallel-strut 7D4 motivated the development team to focus on the U-strut configuration for the production fighter. By this time Idflieg had designated the Rumpler fighter as the Rumpler D.I regardless of the details of internal company designations. Pilots at the competition were impressed by the Rumpler fighter's climb but reported it was excessively touchy and difficult to fly.
  According to engineer Theo Rockenfeller the Rumpler 7D5 was a fighter fitted with an automobile-type radiator in the nose that was built and tested; unfortunately, nothing else is known about it. The 7D6 was a cantilever quadraplane fighter design of late 1917 that fortunately was not built. The next Rumpler prototype fighter to fly was thus the 7D7, which appeared too late to compete at the First Fighter Competition.
  The 7D7 design was modified from the U-strut 7D4 by using a new airfoil and smaller control surfaces. The smaller cockpit was moved forward 35 cm and the inefficient airfoil radiator used in the 7D4 prototypes was replaced by a pair of ear radiators attached to the fuselage above the lower wing. The new radiators initially were not effective and significant engineering work had to be done to fix the problem. The improved 170 hp Mercedes D.IIIa engine was used, and flight tests showed the 7D7 was faster than the 7D4 and demonstrated a climb to 5,000 m in 18 minutes, a significant improvement over an already impressive climb rate.
  The Fokker D.VII won the First Fighter Competition and went on to win fame over the Western Front. The Rumpler D.I, now based on the 7D7 prototype, was viewed as promising enough that Idflieg ordered an evaluation batch of 50 aircraft, something that was also done for the Roland D.VI and SSW D.III. The Rumpler D.I production batch was given serials D.1550/18 to D.1599/18.
  The D.I, based on the 7D7, underwent Idflieg’s standard test and evaluations procedures starting in February 1918. Load tests lasted from February 22 to May 1 with a number of failures and fixes during that time. The summary report of May 18 called for additional reinforcement of various items, indicating that the Rumpler team had left little margin for error when designing the aircraft for minimum weight. The light-weight fuselage of the 7D7 twisted during flight maneuvers, and flight tests in April 1918 revealed problematic flight characteristics. Idflieg stated that the type was "unacceptable for the front and would be rebuilt."
  To solve the fuselage twisting problem and improve flight characteristics, a completely new, stronger fuselage design had to be used for the production fighters. The revised design, based on a fuselage wrapped diagonally with strips of plywood similar to the Wimpelrumpf technique developed by LFG Roland, was known internally as the 8D1, and it became the basis for the production Rumpler D.I.
  Three Rumpler D.I production fighters based on the 8D1 design competed at the Second Fighter Competition in May-June 1918. Two of these, D.1552/18 and D.1553/18, were powered by the overcompressed 180 hp Mercedes D.IIIau high-altitude engine. Flown by Gustav Basser, these climbed to 5,000 m in 18.7 minutes, an excellent performance. Despite the excellent climb rate, the front-line pilots who tested the Rumpler D.I agreed that it was wholly unsuitable for combat use; it did not glide well, oscillated in flight, and the flying surfaces vibrated and made the pilots feel insecure about the aircraft's structural strength.
  The aileron control came in for particular criticism. In the D.I the linkage between the pilot's stick and the ailerons was a worm-gear transmission that turned control rods in the wing. It was light and created no drag, but the resulting aileron control was slow and erratic. Such a control system might be acceptable in a racing or record-breaking aircraft but not in a fighter; fast, consistent roll control is essential to a fighter in combat. Disappointed, Idflieg decided that testing and evaluation should continue but mass production was out of the question until the aircraft was improved.
  A parallel Idflieg flight evaluation on production airframe D.1550/18 was summarized on September 9, 1918 and stated that the D.I fitted with aerodynamically-balanced ailerons (the 8D1) flew much better than its predecessor (7D7) with unbalanced ailerons. Maneuverability was very good and most in-flight vibrations were eradicated, but the aircraft was not easy to land and roll-rate was still slow.
  Moreover, Idflieg identified 42 installation faults with the prototype! While most were not serious and fairly easy to remedy, the great number of defects calls the competency of the Rumpler design team, and especially its management, into question. What had the design team been doing since the start of type-testing in February?
  During load testing between September 16 and October 2 on production airframe D.1550/18 the airframe failed the vertical nose dive requirement and a 4 mm drag cable had to be installed between the U-strut and the nose to pass the test. But the aileron control mechanism failed again, a critical deficiency in a fighter.
  Rumpler D.I 1581/18, powered by a 185 hp BMW.IIIa over-compressed engine, was entered and flown at the Third Fighter Competition. This was the only D.I powered by a BMW engine, which was fitted especially for the Third Fighter Competition that specified use of the BMW. The aircraft reached 7,000 m in 26.9 minutes, 8,000 m in 53.3 minutes, and was the only fighter in the competition to reach 8,200 m. The climb and ceiling were clearly superior and flying qualities were reported as good, and the Rumpler D.I was declared one of the two winners of the competition (the other winner was the Fokker V29 parasol monoplane derivative of the Fokker D.VII). However, the D.I was appraised as of limited use in a dogfight against other fighters because it lost height in turns and spun easily, and the short fuselage limited rudder effectiveness.

In Retrospect

  Although the D.I had potential as an interceptor, by the Armistice only 22 production aircraft had been built and the type had still not passed military acceptance requirements! Extolled as a 'super plane' by the postwar German aeronautical press, the D.I was never a practical front-line fighter. The basic design was too extreme and despite great effort and the investment of tremendous engineering resources, Rumpler was simply unable to develop the aircraft into an effective, combat-worthy fighter.


Rumpler 7D7 Specifications
Engine: 170 hp Mercedes D.IIIa
Wing: Span Upper 8.42 m
Span Lower 7.38 m
Chord Upper 1.32 m
Chord Lower 1.09 m
Gap 1.365 m
Area 16.66 m2
General: Length 5.75 m
Height 2.56 m
Empty Weight 615 kg
Loaded Weight 805 kg
Maximum Speed (at 5000 m): 180 km/h
Climb: 5000m 23.7 min


Rumpler D.I (8D1) Specifications
Engine: 185 hp BMW.IIIa
Wing: Span Upper 8.42 m
Span Lower 7.38 m
Chord Upper 1.32 m
Chord Lower 1.09 m
Gap 1.365 m
Area 16.66 m2
General: Length 5.75 m
Height 2.56 m
Empty Weight 615 kg
Loaded Weight 805 kg
Maximum Speed (at 5000 m): 180 km/h
Climb: 5000m 13.2 min
6000m 17.8 min
7000m 26.9 min
8000m 53.3 min
Ceiling: 8200m

J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler 7D7 during its type testing at Adlershof, Feb. 1918.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler 7D7 work number 4299, April 1918.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler D.I 1553/18 competed the Second Fighter Competition.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler D.I 1581/18, the only D.I to use a BMW.IIIa engine, was co-winner of the Third Fighter Competition.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler D.I D-288 flown postwar by Robert Ritter von Greim.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler D.I D-289 flown postwar by Ernst Udet.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Rumpler 7D1 prototype at Johannisthal in the spring of 1917 shows great attention to streamlining. Unfortunately, the engine cowling not only obscured the pilot's forward vision, it also interfered with the airflow from the propeller, preventing the engine from achieving its full RPM and thus its full power.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Seen being exhibited at Breslau in December 1918, the Rumpler 7D 3 flew in the summer of 1917.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Rumpler 7D3 prototype was photographed in December 1918 at the Breslau Industrial Fair, for which it was repainted. Built in mid-1917, it had a conventional center section and parallel interplane struts.The cut-away skin on the fuselage reveals the original construction method was retained.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Rumpler 7D 4 with a twin-strut cellule which entered flight test in October 1917.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Two Rumpler 7D4 fighter prototypes were tested at the First Fighter Competition; the parallel strut version shown. Both were powered by the Mercedes D.IIIa engine. Based on further research applied to the Rumpler C.IV, these had no propeller spinner. The nose and tail of these aircraft are now covered in thin plywood for increased strength. The photo was taken 24 January 1918 at the start of the First Fighter Competition.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Two more views of the Rumpler 7D4 fighter prototypes that were tested at the First Fighter Competition. The parallel strut version is shown here. Both were powered by the Mercedes D.IIIa engine. The U-strut version was selected for further development. The 7D4 prototypes had an aerodynamic balance for the rudder. (Photo from The Peter M. Bowers Collection/The Museum of Flight)
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Two Rumpler 7D4 fighter prototypes were tested at the First Fighter Competition; the U-strut version shown. Both were powered by the Mercedes D.IIIa engine. Based on further research applied to the Rumpler C.IV, these had no propeller spinner. The nose and tail of these aircraft are now covered in thin plywood for increased strength. (Photo from The Peter M. Bowers Collection/The Museum of Flight)
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The U-strut version of the Rumpler 7D4 fighter prototype at the First Fighter Competition. Oblt. Hermann Goring is thought to be the pilot in the cockpit.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Two more views of the Rumpler 7D4 fighter prototypes that were tested at the First Fighter Competition. The U-strut version is shown here. Both were powered by the Mercedes D.IIIa engine. The U-strut version was selected for further development. The 7D4 prototypes had an aerodynamic balance for the rudder.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Rumpler 7D 4 in its original form with a cellule employing "reverse-C" interplane struts.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Rumpler 7D7 fighter prototype was developed from the U-strut version of the 7D4. The rudder now has no aerodynamic balance.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Rumpler 7D7 prototype was powered by a 170 hp Mercedes D.IIIa engine. None of its controls were aerodynamically balanced. Production D.I fighters normally had horn aerodynamic balances.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
These front views show the ear radiators mounted above the lower wing on the Rumpler 7D7 prototype to advantage. The earlier 7D4 prototypes had airfoil radiators that were not satisfactory.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Rumpler 7D7 prototype with anemometer airspeed indicator mounted on the left interplane strut. The 7D7 retained the innovative Rumpler wrapped fuselage which proved insufficiently robust during flight evaluations.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Rumpler 7D7 prototype was powered by a 170 hp Mercedes D.IIIa engine. None of its controls were aerodynamically balanced. Production D.I fighters normally had horn aerodynamic balances.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Rumpler 7D 7
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Rumpler 7D 7
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler D.I 1553/18 (w/n 4402, factory designation 8D1) competed in the Second Fighter Competition. Powered by a 170 hp Mercedes D.IIIa engine, it lacked the aerodynamic balances on the ailerons seen on other production D.I fighters. With the 8D1 Rumpler finally abandoned the wrapped fuselage construction it had developed in favor of a stronger, but heavier, fuselage with the fabric replaced by plywood to eliminate tail twisting in flight.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler D.I 1553/18 (w/n 4402, factory designation 8D1) competed in the Second Fighter Competition. Powered by a 170 hp Mercedes D.IIIa engine, it lacked the aerodynamic balances on the ailerons seen on other production D.I fighters. With the 8D1 Rumpler finally abandoned the wrapped fuselage construction it had developed in favor of a stronger, but heavier, fuselage with the fabric replaced by plywood to eliminate tail twisting in flight.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Two Rumpler D.I fighter prototypes were entered in the Second Fighter Competition. Both were powered by the Mercedes D.IIIa engine. D.I 1589/18 here was photographed postwar so the guns have been removed.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler D.I 1581/18 (w/n 4430) was the Rumpler entry in the Third Fighter Competition. To compete in the competition, which was for fighters powered by the BMW.IIIa engine, it was fitted with a BMW engine. All other Rumpler fighters were fitted with Mercedes engines. The bump under the fuselage may have covered a liquid-oxygen breathing system.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Rumpler D I (8D 1)
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Ernst Udet (left) and Edmund Rumpler in front of Rumpler D.I 1589/18 postwar
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Perhaps the best fighter Germany never had in 1918 was the 1917 Rumpler D I. With a top level speed of 112mph at 16,400 feet, along with an ability to reach 26,300 feet, the Rumpler D I had an unmatched performance at altitude and could more than hold its own in terms of speed and agility lower down. Rumpler entered two D Is in the second 1918 fighter trial, both reportedly using the 180hp Mercedes DIIIa. Perhaps fortunately for the Allies, the D I appears to have been difficult to build as there is no indication of deliveries being made to the front, even though an order for 50 had been placed immediately following the May-June trials. A third D I, equipped with a 185 BMW IIIa took part in the October 1918 fighter trials. The two men seen here with Rumpler D I, 1589/18, at the second Aldershof trials are Ernst Udet on the left and Herr Rumpler himself.
One of the two winners of the Third Fighter Competition was the Rumpler D.I, which offered exceptional ceiling and high-altutide performance. Rumpler struggled for a long time with its prolonged development; it might have gained an excellent reputation had it arrived in time for combat. It used the 185 hp BMW.IIIa engine for high-altitude performance. Here is is seen post-war with Ernst Udet at left; with 62 victories Udet was the highest-scoring German ace to survive the war and was second only to the Red Baron's score of 80.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler D.I D-289 photographed in March 1919 at Munich while being flown in an airshow by Ernst Udet, a famous Pour le Merite ace credited with 62 victories. Rumpler had given D.I fighters to 28-victory ace Robert Ritter von Greim and Ernst Udet after the war for flight demonstrations. Udet's D.I was all red with "Rumpler" on the fuselage, probably in black. The "D" on the rudder was black, with "289" a lighter color. (The Peter M. Bowers Collection/The Museum of Flight)
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Rumpler D.I
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Had the war continued, the Rumpler D.I might have been produced in quantity in 1919 for the German Air Service as a high-altitude fighter - if Rumpler could ever manage to get it to meet acceptance requirements. This aircraft, civil registration D-109, was owned by the Bayerische Rumpler Werke.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Rumpler D.I went through a lengthy development process and never made it to the front despite having a favorable performance. That didn’t stop a number of Germany’s top pilots from flying it in the postwar era in mock dogfights and other competitions. Here Oblt. Robert Ritter von Greim readies for a flight. Another ace who flew it regularly in the postwar era was Ltn. Ernst Udet, who flew dazzling aerobatic displays.
Robert Ritter von Greim is shown here in his personal Rumpler D.I, civil registration D-288, in which he gave flight demonstrations postwar. The fuselage was silver with two red stripes, the colors he used on his fighters during the war, and the word "Rumpler" was apparently in black.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Mockup of the forward fuselage section of the Rumpler 7D1 in November 1916 shows the interesting structure and integration of the engine into the cabane structure. The difficult engine installation and restricted maintenance access are evident.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Fuselage construction of the Rumpler 7D1 on February 6, 1917. The stringers were covered with two layers of fabric strips applied diagonally in opposite directions after being soaked in aircraft dope. This method was patented by Rumpler in 1915 and was an attempt to blend strength with minimum weight.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Factory drawing of the Rumpler D.I fuselage structure.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A formal aircraft identification chart was created for the Rumpler D.I fighter, a clear indication that operational service was intended. The chart shows the 7D7 prototype because all control surfaces are unbalanced; the production Rumpler D.I (factory designation 8D1) had horn-balanced ailerons.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Rumpler 7D 1 single-seat fighter.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Rumpler 7D 4 with a twin-strut cellule which entered flight test in October 1917.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Rumpler 7D 7 with new Gottingen aerofoil.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The pre-series D I, the Rumpler 8D 1, which participated in two D-type contests.
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler D.I
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler D.I
J.Herris - Rumpler Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rumpler D.I