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Pfalz A.I/E.III

Страна: Германия

Год: 1914

Fighter

Pega-Emich - Buteno monoplane - 1913 - Германия<– –>Pfalz - biplane - 1915 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"ПФАЛЬЦ" E.III / PFALZ E.III
  
  Основанная в 1913 году южногерманская фирма "Пфальц Флюгцойгверк" начала свою деятельность с лицензионного копирования французских двухместных аэропланов "Моран-Солнье" типов H (среднеплан) и L (моноплан-парасоль) с 80-сильными ротативными моторами "Оберурсель" U.O. Первый из них получил в Германии обозначение "Пфальц" E.I, а второй - "Пфальц" A.I. Те же машины, оснащенные 100-сильными двигателями "Оберурсель" U.I, назывались, соответственно, "Пфальц" E.II и А.II. Выпуск этих машин продолжался в 1914 и 1915 годах. На раннем этапе Мировой войны они применялись для разведки и аэрофотосъемки.
  Обозначение E.III носил оснащенный синхронным пулеметом парасоль A.II. Этот аппарат также строился малой серией и поступал в войска.


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Pfalz A I
  Used for reconnaissance purposes during the early months of the war, the parasol-winged Pfalz A I was no more than a copy of the Morane-Saulnier Type L, which had been manufactured under licence before the war. Of interest are the two celluloid panels in the fuselage sides to give added visibility from the cockpit. Engine, 80 h.p. Oberursel U O. Span, 11.2 m. (36 ft. 9 in.). Length, 6.9 m. (22 ft. 7 3/4 in.). Height, 3.4 m. (11 ft. 1 7/8 in.). Area, 18 sq.m. (194 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 365 kg. (803 lb.). Loaded 595 kg. (1,309 lb.). Speed, ca. 135 km.hr. (84.35 m.p.h.). Climb, 800 m. (2,624 ft.) in 6 min. Duration, 4 hr.
  N.B. A single aircraft, fitted with 100 h.p. Oberursel engine, was designated A II and was developed into E III.

Pfalz E III
  The Pfalz E III of 1915 was simply an armed, single-seat version of the A II, a Spandau gun being fitted to fire through the propeller. It is improbable that many were built. Engine, 100 h.p. Oberursel U I. Span, 11.2 m. (36 ft. 9 in.), length, 6.85 m. (22 ft. 5 3/4 in.). Height, 3.4 m. (11 ft. 1 7/8 in.). Area, 18 sq.m. (194 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 445 kg. (979 lb.). Loaded, 705 kg. (1,551 lb.). Speed, ca. 150 km.hr. (93.75 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 3 min. Armament, one fixed Spandau machine-gun.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


PFALZ E III Germany
  
  The Morane-Saulnier Type L parasol monoplane two-seater, for which the Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke acquired a manufacturing licence in 1914, was built primarily for the reconnaissance and training roles as the A I and A II with the 80 hp Oberursel U 0 and 100 hp Oberursel U I rotaries respectively, 60 being delivered during 1914-15. In 1915, the rear seat and gun mounting were removed, a single synchronised LMG 08/15 machine gun was mounted ahead of the cockpit, and, with the 100 hp U I engine, the modified aircraft was produced in small numbers as the E III fighter. Although having a rate of climb superior to that of the E II, the E III was considered as essentially an interim type and the largest number of these fighters at the Front at any one time was eight (June 1916).

Max speed, 95mph (153 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1000 m), 3.0 min.
Endurance, 2.0 hrs.
Empty weight, 981 lb (445 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,554 lb (705 kg).
Span, 36 ft 9 in (11,20 m).
Length, 22 ft 5 3/4 in (6,85m).
Height, 11 ft 1 7/8 in (3,40 m).
Wing area, 193.76 sq ft (18,00 m2).


J.Herris Pfalz Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 5)


Pfalz Parasol (Pfalz A.I & A.II)

  Pfalz wanted to built a better-performing aircraft than the Otto pusher, and in February 1914 obtained a license from the French Morane-Saulnier company to build their Type H and Type L monoplanes under license. The Morane-Saulnier Type H became the basis for the Pfalz E-type fighters, while the Type L was built as the Pfalz Parasol.
  When the war began production of approximately 20, later expanded to 60, Pfalz Parasols, exact copies of the Type L, was underway for the Bavarian air service. The first two were delivered in December 1914. Initially, the Pfalz Parasols were used for reconnaissance and occasional nuisance bombing with improvised weapons; when they became obsolete in that role, the remaining machines were used as trainers. These aircraft were given the Bavarian military serial numbers P1 to P61, except P59. P59 was a modified aircraft, the Halb-Parasol single-seater. Yet another was modified with biplane wings.
  Most Pfalz parasols were powered by a 7-cylinder, 80 hp Oberursel U.O rotary engine, but a few used the 9-cylinder, 100 hp Oberursel U.I engine. Later these types were retroactively designated Pfalz A.I and A.II, respectively.


Bombing the Italians in the Alps

  One notable exploit of the Pfalz parasol was its use in bombing Italian Alpine positions on July 31, 1915 - before Germany was formally at war with Italy! The aircraft involved were painted in simulated Austro-Hungarian markings to obscure their true identity. Ltn. Otto Kissenberth of Feldflieger-Abteilung 9b, later to become a noted fighter ace and winner of the Pour le Merite, was one pilot involved. For this action the observer was left behind to save weight and five 10 kg Carbonit bombs were carried instead. A good climb rate and ceiling were vital because the Italian troops, at elevations as high as 2,500m in the Alps, subjected the aircraft to intensive ground fire.
  

Pfalz P59 Halb Parasol

  The single-seat Pfalz P 59 Halb Parasol was an experimental type designed to achieve unrestricted visibility above and below the wing. It may have been intended as a single-seat fighter, but was not developed further. Perhaps the win, location, at eye level, was not popular with pilots. The Halb Parasol made use of some Pfalz E.II structural components which points to a construction date between late 1915 and early 1916.


Pfalz E.III

  Like the E.II, the Pfalz E.III was also powered by a 9-cylinder, 100 hp Oberursel U.I engine, but was an armed version of the Pfalz A.II (license-built Morane-Saulnier Type L) parasol. All the Pfalz E.III fighters may have been conversions of existing Pfalz A.II reconnaissance aircraft. Few Pfalz E.IIIs were converted; its speed matched the E.II but the climb was not as good as the E.I. Furthermore, since the E.III was a larger, heavier aircraft than the E.I or E.II, it was not as maneuverable. The maximum number of Pfalz E.IIIs at the front reached eight in June 1916.


Pfalz Parasol Production Orders
Order Date Quantity Serial Numbers
1914 61 P 1 to P61
  
Pfalz Parasol (A.I) Specifications
Engine: 80 hp Oberursel U.O
Wing: Span 11.20 m
Area 18 sq m
General: Length 6.90 m
Height 3.40 m
Empty Weight 365 kg
Loaded Weight 585 kg
Maximum Speed: 135 kmh
Climb: 2000m 15 min
3000m 30 min

Pfalz Parasol (A.II) Specifications
Engine: 100 hp Oberursel U.l
Wing: Span 11.20 m
Area 18 sq m
General: Length 6.90 m
Height 3.40 m
Empty Weight 420 kg
Loaded Weight 674 kg
Maximum Speed: 150 kmh
Climb: 2000m 12 min
3000m 25 min


Pfalz E.III Specifications
Engine: 100 hp Oberursel U.I
Wing: Span 11.20 m
Area 18.0 sq m
General: Length 6.85 m
Height 3.40 m
Empty Weight 445 kg
Loaded Weight 705 kg
Maximum Speed: 150 kmh
Climb: 1000m 3 min
2000m 11 min
3000m 23 min

J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Parasol serial P2 displays its designation on a white panel on the sides of the fuselage. This aircraft otherwise bore the usual factory finish of clear-doped linen with black borders, and black struts, pylon and metal areas.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Pfalz Parasol serial P23 bore uniquely colorful markings applied for a very special mission. Once Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on 23 May 1915, the German Kaiser sent the German Alpenkorps (Alpine Corps) to the Tyrol to help defend the southern flank of the Alps,- part of this Corps was the newly formed Bavarian Feldflieger-Abteilung 9b, equipped with four Otto-Werke-built LVG B.I biplanes and three Pfalz Parasols. The Parasols were found to be superior in their ability to operate in the rugged geography and mountain weather. Based at Toblach in the Puster Valley,
the unit was forbidden to cross the Italian border, as Germany and Italy would not be at war until August 1916. For a special bombing raid to Cortina d'Ampezzo (which was Austrian, but then Italian-occupied) three Parasols were equipped with bomb racks for five small bombs on each side of the cockpit. On 3 June 1915 the order was given to 'disguise' the nationality of the three Parasols by applying the red and white Austro-Hungarian colors to the fuselage and wings, as seen on P23. This machine was flown by Lt. Marz, who crashed fatally in it shortly after takeoff. The striking red and white markings were applied to the sides of the fuselage aft of the cockpit, and to the underside (but apparently not the upper surface) of the wing. Otherwise these aircraft bore the standard finish described above.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Pfalz Parasol, later designated Pfalz A.I, was assigned to Flieger Abteilung 9b in July 1915 and engaged in missions against Italy in the Alps despite the fact that Italy and Germany were not then at war! The red/white bands were to make the Italian think the aircraft was Austro-Hungarian. The crew was Lt. Marz and Lt. Wissel.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Parasol serial P43 displays the full black and white diagonal markings of Feldflieger Abteilung 9b as part of Armea-Abteilung-Gaede in late 1915; the black rudder was also applied to units in this formation. This aircraft otherwise bore the usual factory finish of clear-doped linen with black borders, and black struts, pylon and metal areas. The 'P43' number was marked on each elevator and on the side of the cockpit. The black and white fuselage sash was applied to the fuselage sides and upper decking, but apparently not on the underside of the aircraft.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz A.II serial P61, the prototype for the Pfalz E.III fighter, wears the usual factory finish of clear-doped linen with black borders, and black struts, pylon and metal areas.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Morane-Saulnier L, with transparent cockpit sides, was demonstrated at the Pfalz factory on 24 June 1914. This aircraft had an 80 hp Oberursel U.O engine.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A factory photograph of an early Pfalz-built parasol, possibly the first, powered by a French 80 hp Clerget engine.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Overhead view of a Pfalz Parasol; every available surface has an iron cross insignia to identify it as German, necessary because it was otherwise identical to the Morane-Saulnier L.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Parasol with later style German national insignia.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pilot Max Holtzem with a Pfalz Parasol; every available surface has an iron cross insignia to identify it as German. Holtzem had a long association with Pfalz aircraft, serving for a time as a factory pilot, serving a combat tour in Pfalz D.III fighters in Jasta 16b where he claimed two unconfirmed victories, and flying a Pfalz D.XV in postwar aerobatic exhibitions.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Pfalz Parasol was redesignated Pfalz A.I or A.II, depending on engine, in August 1915; this one is from Flieger-Abteilung 3b. Leutnant Hempel at left was the pilot; Oberleutnant Erhard Ergener at right was the observer. Hempel used the cloth tucked into a button hole on his flight suit to wipe engine oil from his flight goggles, a necessity for rotary-engine aircraft.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Parasol of Flieger Erzatz Abteilung 1b at Schleissheim, 1916. Turkish flying students flank their German instructor.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Parasol of Feldflieger-Abteilung 9b. From left: Carl Hailer, Hartl, Kiliani, Schmidt in cockpit, Biedermann, Paulin.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Group portrait of a Flieger-Abteilung between two Pfalz Parasols with early style German national insignia.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Parasol with early style German national insignia.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
One of the few Pfalz parasols with the Bavarian designation, P2, readily visible. Most parasols had small lettering stenciled on various aircraft components.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz parasol P12 in pristine condition. The stenciled designation P12 can be seen on the original photograph on the rudder and elevators.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
When the Bavarian aircraft were re-designated to conform to the Prussian system mandated by Idflieg, this parasol became Pfalz A.I 25/15. The number after the slash is the last two digits of the year in which the contract was made, in this case indicating 1915. The original Bavarian designation of this aircraft was Pfalz P25.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz A.I 25/15. Pfalz may have covered their Parasols with German insignia because they were license-built Morane-Saulnier designs and only the national insignia differentiated the German from the French airplanes.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Above: Crew entering a Pfalz Parasol. Pfalz Parasols were useful but not robust aircraft.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz parasol P43 is shown here in service with Feldflieger-Abteilung 9b. The black rudder is part of FFA 9b's unit markings, which were instituted after the Cortina raid and the red/white markings were abandoned. The sloping black/white fuselage bands are also part of Feldflieger-Abteilung 9b's markings.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Parasol from Flieger-Abteilung 5b. The propeller is enclosed by a protective cover with the Pfalz logo on it.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz E.II heads a lineup including two Fokker E.IIIs, a Pfalz A.II, and an Ago C.I (or C.II) of Feld-Flieger Abteilung 9b.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz A.I with seven-cylinder, 80 hp Oberursel U.O.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz parasol powered by the 100 hp Oberursel U.I engine. Under the Idflieg system this version was designated the Pfalz A.II.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz parasol of Feldflieger-Abteilung 9b at Toblach in the summer of 1915.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz parasols of Feldflieger-Abteilung 9b at Toblach in the summer of 1915. From here in the rugged Bavarian Alps the raids on northern Italy were made. The wooden bomb rack containing five 10 kg Carbonit bombs is clearly seen attached to the fuselage.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz parasols of Feldflieger-Abteilung 9b at Toblach in the summer of 1915.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Ltn. Otto Kissenberth of Feldflieger-Abteilung 9b in Pfalz P39 demonstrates his camera for photographing bomb damage after a raid.The bombs were 10 kg Carbonit types stored in a wooden box externally on the fuselage side; each box held five bombs. The cables trailing down the fuselage side are the bomb release cables.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz parasol of Feldflieger-Abteilung 9b starts its engine at Toblach in the summer of 1915.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz parasol of Feldflieger-Abteilung 9b takes off from Toblach in the summer of 1915.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz Parasol in flight.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Three views of Pfalz P 61, an A.II, armed with a single, synchronized Spandau LMG 08 machine gun. This aircraft was apparently a forerunner of the Pfalz E.III. Photographed in late 1915, the aircraft is still a two-seater and the observer's windscreen is still in place. All Pfalz E.IIIs may have been converted A.IIs.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The E III was considered an interim type and was evolved from the Morane-Saulnier Type L.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Pfalz E.III. appeared after the superior DH-2 and Nieuport 11 biplane fighters had arrived at the front, limiting its usefulness and production.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The single-seat Pfalz P59 Halb-Parasol was a modified parasol designed to improve visibility above and below the wing. It was powered by an 80 hp Oberursel U.O engine. The triple wing bracing wires indicate that it made use of the Pfalz E.II wing and likely other parts. The P59 may have been an unarmed fighter prototype.
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Pfalz wooden fuselage with steel-wire diagonal bracing (fabric covering removed).
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The interior of the Pfalz-built parasol shows the twin seats, rudimentary controls, and minimal instrumentation. The two fuel tanks carried fuel for a three hour flight.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz A.I (P23?) of Feldflieger-Abteilung 9b crashed at Toblach airfield, July 1915. The fuselage sides and underside of the wing were painted in red and white bands to simulate the Austro-Hungarian markings for bombing raids into Italy. Lt. Ferdinand Marz (inset) was mortally injured when this aircraft crashed on takeoff on 31 July 1915 on the Cortina raid.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz parasol of Feldflieger-Abteilung 9b overturned by the wind at Toblach in the summer of 1915.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Landing accidents were a relatively frequent during the war because of the poor field conditions and light aircraft easily affected by a gust of wind. Here the crew poses by their Pfalz Parasol for the obligatory accident photograph.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz A.I
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz A.I
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz A.I
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.III
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.III
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.III