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Dorand AR.1/AR.2

Страна: Франция

Год: 1916

Фронтовой самолет

Dorand - biplane - 1914 - Франция<– –>Doutre - biplane - 1912 - Франция


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


ДОРАН AR.1/AR.2 / DORAND AR.1/AR.2

  Цельнодеревянный двухстоечный биплан с полотняной обшивкой. Фюзеляж приподнят на стойках над нижним крылом. Между ними установлен водорадиатор (иногда ставили лобовой радиатор перед двигателем). Верхнее крыло с обратным выносом для улучшения обзора пилоту.
  Спроектирован полковником Морисом Дораном по заданию французского Директората аэронавтики (министерства авиации) для замены морально устаревших и не отвечавших более требованиям фронтовой обстановки "Фарманов" и "Вуазенов" с толкающими винтами.
  Самолет впервые поднялся в воздух в сентябре 1916 года. В апреле 1917-го начал поступать на фронт. "Доран" строился серийно в двух модификациях, различавшихся двигателями, на государственном авиапредприятии Section Technique de I'Aeronautique (S.T.Ae) в Шале-Медоне. Некоторое количество машин, получивших обозначение ARL.1 и ARL.2, выпустила фирма Леторд.
  Поначалу "Доран" считался совсем неплохим аппаратом, и по словам своего создателя "он был хорош ровно настолько, насколько это позволяли установленные на нем моторы".
  В 1917 году на западном фронте этими машинами были оснащены 18 эскадрилий французских ВВС. Но во времена первой мировой авиатехника устаревала чрезвычайно быстро. Уже весной 1918-го французы начали перевооружаться на более новые машины. Тогда же 22 AR.1 и 120 AR.2 были переданы американскому экспедиционному корпусу в Европе, применявшему их до конца войны.

  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ
  
  На AR.1 был установлен двухрядный V-образный "Рено" в 190 л.с., а на AR.2 - "Рено" в 200 л.с. или 240-сильный "Лоррен-Дитрих".
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  1 синхр. "Виккерс" и спарка "Льюисов" на турели, 80 кг бомб.


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


Доран AR.1 1917 г.

  Эта машина, также участвовавшая в конкурсе на одномоторный разведчик, совершила первый вылет в сентябре 1916 года, а производство машин началось в апреле следующего года. Первоначально самолет выпускался с двигателем "Рено" (190 л. с.).
  Было построено 22 машины, получившие у военных обозначение AR.1 A2. Позднее на самолет установили более мощный двигатель "Лоррен-Дитрих" мощностью 238 л. с. Этих машин, обозначенных АR.2 A2, было выпущено 120 штук. Это был двухместный двухстоечный биплан. Фюзеляж прямоугольного сечения, имел обычную для самолетов того времени конструкцию. Для обеспечения обзора пилоту верхнее крыло имело отрицательный вынос. Другой особенностью машины был поднятый над нижним крылом фюзеляж, что позволило использовать более короткие стойки шасси. Крыло двухлонжеронное, цельнодеревянной конструкции, оборудовалось элеронами. Стойки бипланной коробки - стальные трубы в деревянных обтекателях. Оперение без стабилизатора и киля, деревянной конструкции. Управление тросовое. Вооружение состояло из синхронного 7,71-мм пулемета "Виккерс" и двух пулеметов "Льюис" на турели. Радиаторы размещались между фюзеляжем и нижним крылом.
  Машина обладала неплохими летными данными, но на вооружение приняли более надежный Бреге Вre.14, поэтому почти все построенные машины передали Американскому экспедиционному корпусу. Некоторое количество машин попало на итальянский фронт и на средиземноморский ТВД.

  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   Доран AR.1 А2 Доран AR.2 А2
   1917г. 1917г.
  Размах, м 13,28 13,28
  Длина, м 9,15 9,27
  Высота, м 3,30 3,10
  Сухой вес, кг 810 760
  Взлетный вес, кг 1247
  Двигатель: "Рено" "Лоррен-Дитрих"
   мощность, л. с. 190 245
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 150 170
  Время набора высоты, м/мин 3000/20
  Дальность полета, км 400 450
  Потолок, м 5500 5800
  Экипаж, чел. 2 2
  Вооружение 2-3 пулемета 2-3 пулемета
   80 кг бомб 80 кг бомб


Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919


THE DORAND RECONNAISSANCE BIPLANE.
  
  
  
  "Flugsport" for Aug. 14th describes the Dorand biplane, explaining that this machine is known as " A.R." or " A.L.D." according to its equipment with a Renault or a Lorraine-Dietrich engine. The machine described, naturally one captured from the French, bears the description, " A.R.," and the number 309. The letter "A" indicates that it is a Reconnaissance machine.
  The empty weight of the aircraft is 890 kilos. A note on the rudder gives the weight of the fuel (poids combustible) as 140 kg. and that of useful load (poids utile) at 300 kg., the total load working thus out at 1,330 kg. As the planes have an area of 1330 50.30 square metres, the loading of the planes is thus 1330/50.36 = 26.40 kg. per sq. m., and the engine performance 1330/190.36 = 7 kg. per h.p.
  The main object of the design seems to have been the production of a light aeroplane with fairly high wing loading. The construction of component parts, such as stampings, has, therefore, been kept simple and light.
  
  
  
Type of machine Two-seater Reconnaissance Biplane.
Name or type number of machine A.R.
Purpose for which intended Reconnaissance.
Span 13.3 metres.
Gap, maximum and minimum 2 m. to 1.825 m.
Overall length 8.225 m.
Total surface of wings 50.36 sq. meters.
Engine type and H.P. 8 cyl. Renault, 190 h.p
Weight of machine empty 890 kgs.
Load per sq. metre 7 kgs.
Tank capacity in litres 170.
Disposable load apart from fuel 300 kgs.
Total weight of machine loaded 1330 kgs.
  
Weights. Kg.
  Engine 245
  Cooling water 25
  Airscrew 22
  One main petrol tank 22.5
  One auxiliary petrol tank 2
  One oil tank 2
  Engine equipment,
   exhaust collector body
   with tools 244.5
  Landing gear 60
  Control arrangement 6
  Planes 234.5
  Rudder and elevator 26.5
   ---
  Empty load 890
  Total weight 1330
  
Load (Approximately). Kg.
  Pilot and observer 150
  Armament 75
  4 bombs @ 12 kg. 48
  Wireless and
   photography equipment 27
  182 lit. petrol; 7 lit. oil 140
   ---
   440
Note painted on the rudder:
  "Useful load" 300 kg.
  Fuel 140 kg.
Average useful loading of the planes: 4.65 kg. sq. m.


Журнал Flight


Flight, September 19, 1918.

THE FRENCH A.R. BIPLANE,
WITH 190 H.P. RENAULT MOTOR.

[The following illustrated description of the French "A.R." machine has been translated from a German contemporary, and should be of considerable interest, inasmuch as one is not permitted to refer in detail to the modern aeroplanes of the Allies until the enemy has issued a report. - ED.]

  THIS machine, designed by Dorand, is designated as A.R., or A.L.D., according to whether it is fitted with a Renault or with a Lorraine-Dietrich engine. The particular machine under review is marked A.R., Type 1, and the number is 309. The machine is a two-strutter biplane of 13.30 m. span, and has its fuselage supported between the planes on ash struts. Sweep-back and dihedral angle are only present in the lower plane. The former amounts to 1 deg., while the dihedral angle is 2 deg. The top plane is staggered backwards 0.5 m. The gap is 1.825 and 2 m. respectively, that is to say in the centre it is 0.945 of the chord. The angle of incidence of the upper plane is 2.5 deg., that of the lower plane 3 deg.
  The halves of the wings are screwed together in the centre of the machine. The wing spars appear to be of I section, covered on both sides with three-ply. Between every two ribs, whose spacing is 300 to 340 mm., is a short false rib on the top surface only, running from the leading edge to the front spar. The wing fabric, which is of a cream colour, is sewn to the ribs. In front of the trailing edge, which is formed by a wire, as in all French machines, eyelets are incorporated.
  The plane struts, which, with the exception of those secured to the body, are of hollow section, are of stream-line form. In order to prevent lateral bending the outer plane-struts are provided with a peculiar bracing. In addition the middle of the struts are braced to one another and to the bottom of the body struts. (See illustrations.) The strut fittings are of a very simple type, as shown in one of the illustrations. Strut sockets of sheet steel are secured -to the spars by U bolts, the two shanks of which pass through the spar and are secured by nuts on the other side. The flying wires and landing wires are anchored to the corners of these U bolts, while the incidence wires are secured to lugs projecting from and forming part of the steel plate bottom of the strut sockets. This bottom is simply resting inside the socket and is not secured in any other way.
  The wing bracing consists of solid wires throughout, which are connected to the fittings and turnbuckles in the usual way by bending them over and sliding a ferrule of spiral wire over the free end. The flying wires are in duplicate and lie one behind the other. The space between them is filled with a strip of wood. The external drift wire running to the nose of the body is wrapped with thin cord to prevent it becoming entangled in the propeller in case of breakage. Between the fuselage and the lower plane there is diagonal bracing in the plane of each spar. As. however, there is no corresponding bracing above the fuselage, the upper ends of the top plane body struts are allowed a considerable amount of play.
  Non-balanced ailerons, positively operated, are hinged direct to the rear spar of the top plane only. The aileron control cables are in the form of simple cables running from the sprocket wheel on the control column, around pulleys in the lower plane, along the lower side of the lower plane and under another pair of pulleys. From this point on they are in the form of solid wires of 2 mm. diameter running to the aileron crank levers, which are in the form of quadrants. The upper cranks of the ailerons are connected by cables and wires running across from side to side, along the upper surface of the top plane.
  At the stern of the fuselage is fixed a small tail plane to which is pivotted the balanced trapezoidal elevator. The rudder is also balanced. The rudder post is braced to the elevator, and this in turn to the body, by stream-line steel tube struts. The ends of these struts are flattened oat and bolted to the various fittings. There is no vertical fin. The rudder is controlled by plain wires of 2.5 mm. diameter. Only where they pass over pulleys have cables been substituted for the wire's.
  The undercarriage struts are secured to the spars of the lower plane at the points where occur the attachments for the struts running to the body. The short body struts are braced by stream-line tubes fore and aft to the body. The one-piece axle rests between two cross struts of steel, tube. The travel of the axle is not restricted. The undercarriage is braced diagonally in the plane of both pairs of struts.
  The longerons and struts of the fuselage, which is fabric covered, are made of ash up to the observer's seat. From there they are made of spruce. The struts of the rear poition of the fuselage rest on the longerons without any attachment, and are held in place by the bracing only. To prevent them from sliding along the longerons the ends of the struts are notched to correspond with the shape of the wiring lugs, which surround the longerons. (See illustration.)
  The 8-cylinder, Vee type Renault motor develops, according to a plate in the pilot's cockpit, 190 h.p. at 1,550 to 1,600 r.p.m. The radiator is placed between the body and the lower plane. There is a shutter arrangement for varying the cooling. A water collector or tank is placed above the port row of cylinders. The exhaust gases are carried outwards to each side through short collectors. With the older motors the exhaust from both rows of cylinders was carried inwards to a common collector carrying it up above the top plane, an arrangement which greatly hampered the view of the pilot. In these machines the radiator was in the nose of the body. An auxiliary radiator was placed below the fuselage.
  The motor is bolted to two channel section steel bearers, which rest on strong sheet steel cradles. Immediately behind the engine is placed transversely the oil tank, which has a capacity of 7 litres. The main petrol tank, which has a capacity of 170 litres, is divided into three compartments, and is placed behind the pilot's seat. From here the petrol is pumped into a small gravity tank holding 12 litres and placed behind the engine. For this is employed either a pump driven by the engine or a hand pump to the right of the pilot. If too much petrol is pumped through it is returned to the main tank via an overflow.
  The pilot sits in a line with the leading edge of the top plane. Here he has a very good view forward, but the view in a rearward and upward direction is very restricted.
  On the instrument board in front of the pilot are the following instruments: A cooling water thermometer, ignition control, compass, petrol cock and revolutions indicator. To the right, at the side of the seat, is the petrol hand pump with a three-way cock as well as the trimming gear for the elevator. On the left are the levers for advancing or retarding the ignition, the petrol and air levers, the radiator shutter control and the oil cock. In the floor of the fuselage, in front of the rudder bar, there are small windows.
  In the observer's cockpit there are two folding seats, one in front and one at the rear. In front, behind the petrol tank, there are on each side racks for four bombs. Between these racks, through an opening in the floor, the photographic camera can be inserted. A shelf for plate holders is placed behind the port bomb racks. On the starboard inner wall of the observer's seat are aluminium plates for the switches and keys of the wireless. The other instruments of the wireless are placed aft of the seat.
  The pilot is armed with a fixed machine gun placed on the right hand side above the body, and is operated from the left cam shaft. Firing is accomplished by Bowden control from the control wheel. The observer has two movable machine guns, coupled together and mounted on a gun ring with elevating arrangements.
  The weight of the machine, empty, was ascertained to be 890 kg. An inscription on the rudder states that the weight of the fuel (poids combustible) is 140 kg., and that the useful load (poids utile) is 300 kg. This gives a total weight of 1,330 kg. As the area is 50.36 sq. m. the loading is 1,330 : 50.36 = 26.40 kg./sq. m. The loading per h.p. is 1,330 : 190-36 = 7.0 kg./h.p.
  The chief aim of the designer appears to have been to provide a light machine with low wing loading. The construction of the details such as fittings, wiring, lugs, &c. has therefore been kept very light and simple.
  Item weights. - Motor, 245 kg.; cooling water, 25 kg.; air screw, 22 kg.; one petrol main tank, 22.5 kg.; one petrol gravity tank, 2 kg.; one oil tank, 2 kg.; motor-accessories, exhaust collector, body, &c, 244.5 kg.; undercarriage, 60 kg.; controls, 6 kg.; wings, 234.5 kg.; bracing, 26.5 kg.; weight empty, 890 kg.; total weight, 1,330 kg.
  Loads. - Pilot and observer, 150 kg.; armament, 75 kg.; four bombs at 12 kg., 48 kg.; wireless and camera, 27 kg.; 182 litres petrol and 7 litres oil, 140 kg.; total, 440 kg.
  Weight of wings. - 4.65 kg./sq. m.

А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Разведчик/легкий бомбардировщик Доран Ar.1 A2 (1916г.)
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Dorand AR.2, эскадрилья AR258 ВВС Франции, 1917г.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Four views of the French, A.R. biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Some aeroplanes of the Fifth Army of France: AR (Dorand).
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Дораны" AR.2 французских ВВС на западном фронте, 1918 год
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Three-quarter Front View of the Dorand Biplane, type A.R., with 200 h.p. Renault engine (running).
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Side View of the Dorand Biplane, type A.R., with 200 h.p. Renault engine. The group in front include, from left to right, Commandant Maurer, Colonel Dorand, and Commandant Lepere (all wearing caps).
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Although somewhat uglier in appearance, the two-seat Dorand AR I reconnaissance type of mid-1916 bore an uncanny configurational resemblance to its near contemporary Bristol F2A. Top level speed of the Dorand was 93.2mph at 4.920 feet, considerably less than that of the F2A, despite the Dorand's 200hp Renault producing 10hp more than the F2A's Rolls-Royce Falcon. The AR I entered limited operational use as an artillery spotter in April 1917. Its 303-inch armament consisted of a fixed, forward-firing Vickers for the pilot, coupled with either one or two flexibly mounted Lewis guns in the rear cockpit.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Petrol system of the A.R. biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
General arrangement, and some details, of the French A.R. biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Plan and elevation of the body of the French A.R. biplane.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Sectional Plan and Side Elevation of the Fuselage of the Dorand Biplane. (Taken from the German paper "Flugsport.")
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Dorand AR.2