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Wright Glider

Страна: США

Год: 1900

Планер

Wittemann-Lewis - T-T - 1917 - США<– –>Wright - Flier - 1903 - США


Журнал Flight


Flight, July 5, 1913.

THE PIONEERS.

  THIS is the tenth anniversary of the conquest of the air by the aeroplane, and it is appropriate that our special number should be made to commemorate the work of the pioneers, as well as other incidental facts, such as, for example, that FLIGHT itself is already in its fifth year of publication.
  It was on December 17th, 1903, that the Wrights first achieved power-driven flight with their aeroplane (the first account of which in any English newspaper appeared in FLIGHT'S parent journal - the AUTO.), and prior to that day no man could claim properly to have flown at all. The most important work preceding this accomplishment of the Wrights was, unquestionably, the gliding experiments practised by themselves and by others, commencing with Lilienthal.
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  It was while reading the simple notice of Lilienthal's fatal accident that Wilbur Wright received his inspiration to study this branch of practical science, and from the first he obtained the whole-hearted co-operation of his brother, Orville. The story of their work has been told too often to need repeating. Lilienthal died in 1896, and thereupon the Wrights commenced their studies. They built their first glider in 1900; it was a biplane, constructed on the trussed-bridge principle introduced by Chanute, but it differed from the Chanute machine in several important respects. Among other things, it embodied the famous wing-warping control, and the pilot, being thereby relieved of the necessity for balancing the aeroplane by gymnastic exercise, was able to lie prone on the lower plane, and so reduce the resistance of his body to a minimum.
  For three years the Wright brothers' experiments continued, sometimes in the open and sometimes in the laboratory. The longest glide that they made at any time measured 622 1/2 ft., and lasted 26 secs. The amount of time that they actually put in at this work was extraordinary: in a good season they were able to make between 700 and 1,000 flights, and once they made more than 375 flights in less than a week.
  When at last they had brought their gliding experiments to such a pitch of perfection that they could not very well hope to gain much more experience along these lines, they decided to take the next and most important step of all, which was to build an engine-driven machine that would make them independent of the winds and of the contour of the ground.
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P.Jarrett - Pioneer Aircraft: Early Aviation Before 1914 /Putnam/
The Wright's 1900 glider being flown as a kite at Kitty Hawk.
P.Jarrett - Pioneer Aircraft: Early Aviation Before 1914 /Putnam/
Wilbur (left) and Orville fly the 1901 glider as a kite. This machine failed to come up to expectations.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
A low glide on the 1901 model. Often the machine was only a few inches from the ground.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
A high glide with the 1901 model, which had neither tail nor rudder, steering being effected by warping the wings.
P.Jarrett - Pioneer Aircraft: Early Aviation Before 1914 /Putnam/
Wilbur Wright aloft in the 1901 glider. The problem they encountered with this glider led the Wrights to undertake their unprecedented programme of windtunnel tests.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
Testing a Glider by Soaring. - The above view shows the glider soaring stationary in the wind. The machine shown is the early 1902 model, with the fixed double tail before it was converted into a rudder.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
Launching the 1902 glider on 10 October. Orville is piloting, and Wilbur is at the starboard wingtip. Note the single, fixed vertical rear rudder.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
Turning to the right. A view from behind of the later 1902 model after it had its rear tail converted into a rudder.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
At close range, showing very clearly the exact position occupied by Wilbur Wright in gliding. The machine illustrated is the 1902 model fitted with a rudder.
P.Jarrett - Pioneer Aircraft: Early Aviation Before 1914 /Putnam/
A successful practice glide in the 1902 glider in October 1903, after it had been fitted with twin moveable rear rudders. The Wrights' basic living accomodation and hangar are visible below.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
THE WRIGHT GLIDER IN OPERATION BY ORVILLE WRIGHT AT KILL DEVIL HILL, NORTH CALIFORNIA. - The photograph was taken from beneath, during the time when the glider was stationary in the air.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Sketch from a photograph of a Wright glider in ilight. - The first of these machines was built in 1900, and it had wing warping control. When first used the vertical rear plane was fixed, but later it became a pivoted rudder, and then the power-driven aeroplane was arranged for convenient simultaneous control with the warp.