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Журнал
Flight за 1909 г.
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Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.

"BLERIOT No. 11." - Rear view of the short-span Bleriot, showing the steering tips on the tail. The span of the wings is 7 metres, the area 15 square metres, the weight 230 kilogs., and the engine a 7-cyl, 25-h,p. R.E.P.
"BLERIOT No. 11." - Side view of the short-span Bleriot taken on Issy Parade Ground during the experiments.
M. Bleriot during his 36m. 55s. flight at Issy last Saturday on his monoplane "No. XI."
M. BLERIOT'S GREAT CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHT. - The start from Mondeslr, near Etampes. M. Bleriot is in the aviator's seat, and M. Anzani is just starting the motor of which he is the maker.
M. BLERIOT'S GREAT CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHT. - During his great flight from Etampes to Orleans, M. Bleriot passed over the railway line just before reaching Artenay at the same time as the Bordeaux express was on its way. This unique incident is seen above.
M. BLERIOT'S GREAT CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHT. - M. Bleriot In full flight on his long cross-country journey passing over the village of Monerville.
M. BLERIOT'S GREAT CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHT. - After covering the 25 miles across country, M. Bleriot alighted at the pre-arranged spot - La Croix-Biquet - about 15 kiloms. from Orleans. Immediately after his descent the whole machine was dismantled ready for transport back to its shed. The process of dismantling is seen above.
M. BLERIOT'S CHANNEL FLIGHT ON SUNDAY MORNING, JULY 25th, 1909. - The start for the crossing from Baraques.
M. Bleriot's sketch of his cross-Channel flight. - In the Daily Mail the above very interesting "chart" sketch by M. Bleriot on Sunday, was published on Monday. The explanation of the drawing is: - The lettering: "Louis Bleriot, arrived in England at 5.12, left France at 4.35." "Cal," in the bottom right-hand corner, means Calais. The black dot is the point of departure, and the line the line of flight. The significant "Rien" and the mark of interrogation indicate the point at which the aviator was for 10 mins. completely lost. " Vent " = wind, and "Fal." = falaise or cliff. "Dou." = Douvres, Dover - and the perpendicular line the lie of the coast. Note how the line of flight is well to the east of Dover and how M. Bleriot's chart illustrates the distance he had to beat westward against the wind before finding a place to land in the Northfall meadow.
AN HISTORICAL EVENT. - M. Bleriot and his monoplane flyer at the spot where he landed in the Northfall meadow, behind Dover Castle, on Sunday morning, 5.20 a.m. (English time 5.14 a.m.), July 25th, 1909, after flying the Channel, having left the French coast at Baraques at 4.40 a.m. (French time) the same morning. The constable on the right is P.C. Stanford, who is believed to be the only person who actually saw M. Bleriot alight on British soil. M. Bleriot himself is easily identified in front in his overalls and aviator's cap.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais, showing the "Stands of Honour." In the middle, immediately under the spherical gas-bag, is the famous Bleriot cross-Channel machine. To its right is the "Rep" monoplane, in the extreme right foreground is the Farman biplane, to the left a French-made Wright flyer, and continuing round to the left the machines are respectively an Antoinette, a Voisin, and another Bleriot. The decorated spherical balloon in the distance is the Montgolfier.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - View looking down the Grand Palais. The machines seen prominently in the stands are - on the right a Chauviere (makers of the famous propellers), a Vintlon helicoptere, and then two Bleriots; on the left side are a Dutheil-Chalmers biplane, a "W.L.D." monoplane, the Henriot monoplane, and two Antoinettes. Hanging from the roof is the gas-bag of one of the Zodiac dirigibles, and in the far distance the great yellow spherical balloon of the Continental Co.
Mr. G. W. Parkinson, of Gosforth, Northumberland, at the wheel of his Bleriot monoplane. Mr. Parkinson, as we recorded, made his initial flight at Newcastle three weeks ago.
DONCASTER FLYING WEEK. - M. Delagrange flies on his Bleriot machine to the spot where Mr. S. F. Cody came to grief in the sand-pit, to give "first-aid " to the plucky aviator.
M. Bleriot in full flight, on one of his monoplanes, past the grand stand at the Rheims Meeting.
AT PAU - M. Bleriot and some of his pupils. From right to left, MM. A. Leblanc, L. Bleriot, Claude Grahame White, and A. T. Milne-Wilson. On the left is a "snap" of M. Bleriot "planing" to earth with his motor stopped from a height of 75 metres on November 28th.
DONCASTER FLYING WEEK. - An incident. M. Roger Sommer, on his Farman biplane, flying over M. Molon's machine, which had been smashed, during the competition for the Bradford Cup.
DONCASTER AVIATION MEETING. - General view of the aeroplane sheds, with a Voisin machine and three Bleriot monoplanes in readiness for flying.
M. Bleriot on board his monoplane, and M. Anzani, the designer and constructor ol the motor used by M. Bleriot.
Diagrammatic sket;h illustrating the principal features of the Bleriot monoplane.
Sketch of the suspension on the Bleriot monoplane "No. 11," showing the elastic shock absorbers and the sliding collar.
Sketch showing how the main wings of the Bleriot monoplane "No. 11" are made detachable from the frame.
PARIS AERO SALON. - Front view of Ader's "Avion No. 3." The bird-like appearance of the machine is well shown, as also are the curious feather propellers.
PARIS AERO SALON. - General view of the principal part of the Aviation Section. In the foreground, a little to the left, is a back view of Ader's "Avion," to the right is the R.E.P. monoplane, and opposite to it is the Delagrange biplane. In mid-air is the "Ville de Bordeaux," and in the distance, down the Grande Nef, can be seen part of a spherical balloon.
"Mr. Guffroy's R.E.P. monoplane after its accident last week. When turning, during a flight of 800 metres at a speed of 80 kiloms. per hour, one of the wings struck the bank seen in the photograph, causing the machine to capsize and crash to earth in the position seen above. Only the propeller was damaged, and Mr. Guffroy escaped unhurt.
AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - The Rep Monoplane, seen from above, and showing the lacing of the wing surfaces to the main frame; the lacing is subsequently covered with fabric. The elevator, tail, rudder and rigid keel are very distinctly shown.
ONE OF THE METHODS ADOPTED AT THE RHEIMS AVIATION MEETING FOR TAKING THE MACHINES UP TO THE STARTING LINE. - The monoplane in our picture being hauled along is one of the R.E.P. flyers.
PARIS AERO SALON. - General view of the principal part of the Aviation Section. In the foreground, a little to the left, is a back view of Ader's "Avion," to the right is the R.E.P. monoplane, and opposite to it is the Delagrange biplane. In mid-air is the "Ville de Bordeaux," and in the distance, down the Grande Nef, can be seen part of a spherical balloon.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais, showing the "Stands of Honour." In the middle, immediately under the spherical gas-bag, is the famous Bleriot cross-Channel machine. To its right is the "Rep" monoplane, in the extreme right foreground is the Farman biplane, to the left a French-made Wright flyer, and continuing round to the left the machines are respectively an Antoinette, a Voisin, and another Bleriot. The decorated spherical balloon in the distance is the Montgolfier.
Great care is taken in the construction of the Rep monoplane to cover every inch of the exterior with surface fabric. Its large keel down the middle of the back is a characteristic feature of this flyer.
A detail on the Rep monoplane.
Side view of the Voisin-Delagrange biplane.
The Voisin-Delagrange biplane in full flight.
MARKING A NEW EPOCH IN THE PROGRESS OF FLIGHT. - M. Delagrange flying on his Voisin machine round the Juvisy Aerodrome last Sunday upon the occasion o! its inauguration. This is the first public aerodrome in the world.
PARIS AERO SALON. - Rear view of the Delagrange Aeroplane, built by Voisin. This illustration shows the box-kite tail and the rudder, which is not visible in the photograph of the Farman machine.
PARIS AERO SALON. - General view of the principal part of the Aviation Section. In the foreground, a little to the left, is a back view of Ader's "Avion," to the right is the R.E.P. monoplane, and opposite to it is the Delagrange biplane. In mid-air is the "Ville de Bordeaux," and in the distance, down the Grande Nef, can be seen part of a spherical balloon.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais, showing the "Stands of Honour." In the middle, immediately under the spherical gas-bag, is the famous Bleriot cross-Channel machine. To its right is the "Rep" monoplane, in the extreme right foreground is the Farman biplane, to the left a French-made Wright flyer, and continuing round to the left the machines are respectively an Antoinette, a Voisin, and another Bleriot. The decorated spherical balloon in the distance is the Montgolfier.
PARIS AERO SALON. - View of the Voisin Aeroplane, built on the lines of "Farman No. 1." The machine carries a dummy pilot, and is mounted as if about to fly off into the Grand Nef.
AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - General view of "Delagrange No. V," which is exhibited by Mass Cars. This flyer is of Voisln construction, but has no side-curtains between the main planes, which are themselves less far apart than on the latest Voisin machines.
Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon on his Voisin biplane, which has been fitted with an 8-cyl. 50-h.p. E.N.V. water-cooled motor.
Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon's "Bird of Passage" outside Short Brothers' factory at Shellbeach. The elevator in this view is shown tilted.
AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - Mr. Moore-Brabazon's "Bird of Passage," the actual Voisin flyer with which he has been making successful experiments in France. The engine now fitted on this machine is an 8-cylinder E.N.V.
Side view of the Voisin biplane, showing the relative position of the engine and the construction of the outrigger which carries the tail.
View of the Voisin biplane from behind, showing the relative size of the rudder and tail.
Detailed view of the tail on the Voisin biplane, showing method of mounting the rudder, and also the small wheels which support it on the ground.
General view of the central part of the Voisin biplane, showing its suspension on the chassis.
Detailed view of the elevator on the Voisin biplane, showing how it is mounted and stayed.
Two views of the engine on the Voisin biplane; also showing the pilot's seat and the control. In the right-hand view the seat itself, B, has been turned up into a vertical position. The timing and throttle-levers, A, and also the switch, A1are to be seen in the centre of the above illustration.
Detailed view of the chassis on the Voisin biplane, showing how the wheel axle is anchored to the chassis frame by springs.
AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - The Voisin machine, exhibited by Mr. F. R. Simms, seen from in front. This illustration gives an excellent view of the elevator, and of its interconnection with the controlling lever. The engine and propeller are not fitted.
The remarkable custom which pertains in France of invoking the blessing of the Church upon motor cars, aerodromes, flyers, and such like goods and chattels, was referred to in FLIGHT last week. A couple of interesting photographs are given above of the ceremony of blessing the new Aerodrome at Juvisy by the Archbishop of Parts, and incidentally of a couple of aeroplanes, respectively named "Ile de France" and "Alsace," - which were brought forward to receive a share of the Episcopal favour.
Voisin biplane upon which M. Paulhan effected his flights last week, showing at close quarters the elevators and the extra wheel which has been fitted to the nose of the machine. The motor employed by M. Paulhan is a 50-h.p. Gnome.
On Sunday last "De Rue" made some successful flights at Belfort on his Voisin biplane. It will be remembered that some time ago we mentioned the fact that "De Rue" was really the assumed name for the moment of a prominent leader in aeronautics. That leader, we are now at liberty to mention, is the well-known Capt. Ferber. He is at the wheel of his machine in our photograph.
VOISIN AIRCRAFT AT RHEIMS READY FOR THE STARTER. - The machines are: No. 5. Jean Gobron biplane (Gobron motor); No. 33. Henry Fournier's machine (Itala motor); No. 27. M. E. Bunau-Varilla's machine (E.N.V. motor); and the tail seen on the left is M. Sanchez Bensa's Voisin (Antoinette motor).
AT BRESCIA AVIATION MEETING. - A popular flyer - M. Anzani starting on his Voisin biplane. Note the trail of exhaust from the motor.
FLIGHT IN ENGLAND. - M. Rougier is seen on his Voisin machine, passing the aviators' sheds at Blackpool during the long-distance competition.
FLIGHT PHOTOGRAPHS. - Another example of a genuine enlarged photograph, with two machines in the air at a distance. This was "snapped" at Blackpool during the big meeting, and shows Paulhan on his Henry Farman machine, and Rougier behind on a Voisin biplane.
JUVISY AVIATION WEEK. - M. Paulhan, on his Voisin biplane, and Count de Lambert (nearest), on his Wright flyer, during the contests at Port Aviation, near Paris, at the end of last week. General view of the aerodrome taken from the top of the Grand Stand.
RHEIMS AVIATION MEETING. - A race in the air between M. Bunau Varilla on a Voisin biplane and, in the distance, M. Tissandier on one of his Wright ilyers.
Baroness de la Roche, the First "Aviatress" of the World. - Last week the Baroness flew on a Voisin biplane for 300 metres, and afterwards twice round the Chalons Camp-a distance of about four miles.
WHAT A WRECKED BIPLANE LOOKS LIKE. - Henri Fournie's Voisin machine after his first accident.
In the Voisin biplane the engine, the pilot's seat, and the elevator are earned in a girder frame of semi-elliptic form, which is attached direct to a tw0-wheeled chassis, and forms a unit with the machine. In the above drawing the relative position of the main decks, which are attached to the girder, is also indicated.
The Voisin type of biplane is characterised by the use of a tail which is carried at the extremity of an outrigger framework extending some distance to the rear of the machine.
Diagram showing the camber of the decks on the Voisin biplane.
Sketch of the two-bladed propeller on Mr. J. T. C. Moore - Brabazon's "Bird of Passage." The inset drawing shows how the blade is riveted to its arm.
Sketch of the steering wheel control on the Voisin biplane, showing the connection between the spindle and the elevator.
The entire weight of the main decks, engine and pilot oa the Voisin biplane, carried on a pair of helical springs abutting against manganese steel brackets, arranged as shown in the above sketch.
Diagram of the bracing of the main spars constituting the leading edges of the decks on the Voisin biplane. The square member in the centre is the girder which carries the engine and the pilot's seat.
Sketch showing the skeleton framework forming the deck of the Voisin biplane.
MR. J. T. C. MOORE-BRABAZON'S "BIRD OF PASSAGE." - The Voisin biplane, 1908-9 type.
PARIS AERO SALON. - General view of the Breguet Helicopter-Aeroplane. The large inclined screws are visible in this illustration, as also is the transverse arrangement of the engine; but the machine as a whole is so large and in such an awkward position that it is impossible to convey a comprehensive idea of its construction by means of a photograph.
The Wright Machine outside its shed.
Taking shelter under M. Lefebvre's Wright (No. 25) during a rainstorm at the Rheims Aviation Meeting.
Fig. 22. - Ready for the start Orville Wright and passenger, Fort Meyer, Va., September 12th, 1908.
WHY WOULDN'T SHE START? - Wilbur Wright tries the starting bogie along the rail to see if the ball-bearing wheels run free. On this occasion it was eventually found that the pulley-wheel at the top of the derrick had seized and jambed the rope. The group includes Orville Wright (extreme right) and the three pupils on the left.
TRYING' THE ENGINE. - Here you see Wilbur Wright, with his left-hand feeling the water-circulating pipe, and his right busy with an oil-can, Orville standing beside him suggesting and discussing in characteristic fashion. You may know the machine is not yet ready for flight because the starting weight has not been hauled up.
THE MOST TICKLISH PART OF THE BUSINESS. - Here is portrayed the final art of preparation, for the starting weight has just been hoisted, and Wilbur is about to climb out from under the machine, having fixed the rope catch. Once, in America, the catch went off unawares, and Orville had a narrow escape, his wracked shoulder being troublesome for months.
JUST OFF! - This snapshot was taken three seconds after Wilbur had polled the release catch. It shows you his "flying face" and characteristic crouch, with cap pulled well over the eyes, the gaze being fixed in the far distance. You see, too, how the front portion of the machine is slightly raised by the pull being nearly at the normal flying angle. As he reaches the end of the rail Wilbur will pull back the lever in his left hand with all his might to set the front planes at the maximum angle to the wind.
REMARKABLE PHOTOGRAPHS OF A WRIGHT FLYER TAKEN FROM A BALLOON. - In the lower picture the machine is ready at the derrick on the starting rail for the flight; and, in the upper photograph, the machine is in full flight, with!|two passengers on board. The majority of the watchers are military men, and, in the upper picture, in the distance, several visitors in their cars are noticeable watching the scene.
Mr. Frank K. McClean, a member of the Committee of the Aero Club, on his Short-Wright biplane just leaving the starting rail during one of bis recent successful flights at Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey.
Short-Wright biplane S.5 was the third of these built for F.K. McLean.
In England, six Wright Flyers were built under license by the Short brothers. Here, Mr. Francis Kennedy McClean takes off at Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey, in his Short-Wright Model A late in 1909. A distinctive feature of the Short-built machines was the small skid protruding forward at each wingtip. In 1910 this machine was fitted with wheels and a fixed tailplane.
BEGINNING TO HEEL OVER, BIRD FASHION, TO MAKE A TURN. - Orville will explain to you that the turning is done more by warping the planes in opposite directions in synchronism than with the rudder. The machine is shown about to begin a turn, which is often effected with the aeroplane heeling over at an angle of 45 degrees. The road and the spectators are shown in the background. This photograph was taken by Mr. Griffith Brewer, the well-known balloonist.
WRIGHT FLYER DEVELOPMENTS. - It is but a very short time ago - little more than a year - that Wilbur Wright first publicly demonstrated his remarkable flyer in France, that the above photograph is of historic interest in connection with the information recorded elsewhere regarding the commercial development of the Wright flyer in America. The above shows him during his flight of 1h. 9m. 45fs. with M. Painleve, on October 11th, 1908, at Auvours, the culmiaating test in the contract with the French syndicate.
Wilbur Wright flying at Pau, with a passenger, on Saturday last, before the King of Spain, who is towards the front of the group watching the flight.
Orville on the 1907 Flyer at Fort Myer, Virginia, in the USA, September 9th, 1908. Although a fatal crash marred these acceptance tests for the US Army, they were successfully resumed and completed on the Signal Corps Machine during June and July 1909.
Fig-s. 19, 20 and 21. - Wright Brothers' Flyer, Fort Meyer, Va., September 12th, 1908, during its flight of 1h. 14m. 20s.
Fig 23. - Orville Wright and passenger, Fort Meyer, Va., September 12th, 1908. Time of flight, 9 mins. 6 sees.
FIRST FLIGHT IN BERLIN. - Orville Wright, on his flyer, making his first flight at the Tempelhof Field midst the intense enthusiasm of the crowd.
A FLIGHT AT THE RHEIMS AERODROME BY M. LEFEBVRE, THE MOST POPULAR AVIATOR OF THE MEETING, ON HIS WRIGHT BIPLANE. - M. Lefebvre is just passing round the Judges' box and the telegraph installation.
Last week M. Lefebvre's (in his Wright flyer) sudden swoop down in passing under M. Paulhan's machine was recorded and the effect upon an enterprising Press photographer mentioned. In the above photograph the moment of this incident is depicted, as secured by the brother "photo-fiend."
RHEIMS AVIATION MEETING. - A race in the air between M. Bunau Varilla on a Volsln biplane and, in the distance, M. Tissandier on one of his Wright ilyers.
JUVISY AVIATION WEEK. - M. Paulhan, on his Voisin biplane, and Count de Lambert (nearest), on his Wright flyer, during the contests at Port Aviation, near Paris, at the end of last week. General view of the aerodrome taken from the top of the Grand Stand.
Count Lambert's historical flight las Monday evening from Juvisy, round the top of the Eiffel Tower, and back.
The large Aero Dock at Pont Long, showing the large doors drawn back preparatory to taking out the biplane. Wilbur Wright is in the act of passing into the shed. The snapshot gives an admirable notion of his energetic walk. On the left are seen the windows of the dwelling rooms. On the right is the workshop where the machine with which the demonstrations to be made in Rome is partly in process of erection. The car in front is the Hon. C. S. Rolls' Rolls-Royce.
THE WRIGHT FLYER. - Special method of joining up the main framework and stays of the flyer, enabling it to be easily dismantled for transport.
Figs. 14 and 15. - Showing details of construction in the Wright Brothers' Flyer.
WRIGHT'S FLYER. - Showing the motor, tank, radiator, &c. Particularly noticeable are the transmission chains, running through the tubing, to the propellers, that on the left being crossed in order that the propellers may revolve in opposite directions to neutralise their disturbing influence on the balance of the machine.
Fig. 16. - Details of rear view of Wright Brothers' Flyer.
The 32-h.p. 4-cyl. Engine of the Wright Flyers, weight 87 kilogs.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais, showing the "Stands of Honour." In the middle, immediately under the spherical gas-bag, is the famous Bleriot cross-Channel machine. To its right is the "Rep" monoplane, in the extreme right foreground is the Farman biplane, to the left a French-made Wright flyer, and continuing round to the left the machines are respectively an Antoinette, a Voisin, and another Bleriot. The decorated spherical balloon in the distance is the Montgolfier.
Interior of Short Brothers' principal erecting shop, where the British-built Wright flyers are in course of construction. Although hardly established three months in their new premises, Messrs. Short are already employing 80 men. The above shop is 140 ft. long by 45 ft. wide.
King Alfonso of Spain, last Saturday, in the passenger's seat of the Wright aeroplane, beside Wilbur Wright, the King of the Air, having tht whole art of flying the machine explained to him by Wright.
The most interesting model at the Show was that of the Wright Flyer, of which the above illustration shows two views. The model, which was constructed by Messrs. T. W. K. Clarke, also included the starting apparatus.
SIR, - I have pleasure in enclosing photo of a model Wright machine, with starting derrick, I have just made. The machine is complete with warping mechanism to planes, &c. Yours faithfully, C. H. CRITTENDEN.
Diagrammatic plan of Count Lambert's flight.
The new Wright elevator
PARIS AERO SALON. - Side view of the Bleriot Monoplane "No. 9." The central part of the body, which is black, is the flexible radiator.
"BLERIOT No. 9." - General view of the large Bleriot monoplane taken from behind, showing the tail, elevator, and rudder. The steering tips on the extremities ol the main wings are also clearly visible. The span is 10 metres, the surface is 25 square metres, the weight with pilot 560 kilogs., and the engine a 50-h.p. 16-cyl. Antoinette.
"BLERIOT No. 9." - View of the nose of the machine, showing the tractor-screw in front and the ladder-like radiators on either side of the box-girder frame which carries the engine. The torpedo-shaped petrol tank behind the wheels is another feature of the construction, as also are the elastic bands which supplement the spring suspension. The main wings are covered with a vellum-like paper.
BLERIOT'S BIPLANE. - General view of the central portion showing the radiators in place, the seats, steering wheel, propeller.
BLERIOT RADIATOR. - View of part of the Bleriot flexible radiator, showing three of the annular water rings - which are coupled up together by short rubber tubes. The hollow rings are fastened to sheet aluminium merely by the act of punching the perforations which will be noticed round them.
Vendome Monoplane at Paris Flight Show.
Sketch showing how the rudder is warped on the Vendome flyer.
Sketch showing the planes above the extremities of the wings of the Vendome flyer.
The Pischoff biplane is a tailed machine, and as such therefore belongs to the Voisin type, but it differs from the typical Voisin flyer both in appearance and construction. Its tail is not quite as far to the rear, and has a different normal level.
T-joint in Capt. Windham's Pischoff.
PARIS AERO SALON. - View, from beneath, of the Antoinette Monoplane, showing the lattice-girder frame, which carries the tubular condenser near the front end.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - In the above illustration of an early Antoinette monoplane the arrangement of the spars and ribs and the framework of the wing can be seen through the surface material. The above view also shows the lattice-girder main frame, which in the latest machines is covered in.
PARIS AERO SALON. - View of the Antoinette installation, showing part of the condenser used to convert into water any steam which is formed in the cylinder-jackets.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - View showing an 8-cyl. Antoinette engine installed in the bows of an early flyer. The construction of the main frame and attachment of the condenser are well illustrated, as also is the method of carrying the crank-chamber forward for the support of the propeller.
Antoinette Monoplane, showing the triangular elevator and the two triangular rudders in position for turning to the right and for ascending.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - In the above view of the tail the triangular horizontal plane which forms the elevator is shown depressed for descent, while the two triangular rudders are shown set over for turning to the right.
Captain Burgeat's new monoplane "Antoinette VI," with which he has successfully flown at Chalons, is equipped with an interesting under-chassis, which is very well illustrated by the above photograph. In order to keep the machine trimmed while at rest on the ground, a pair of steadying wheels are carried on an outrigger framework. There is also besides the main centre wheel a corresponding wheel jutting out in front, which serves to protect the tractor-screw in the event of the machine landing on the ground nose first.
ANTOINETTE MONOPLANE. - View, from behind, showing the propeller and the spring framework and wheels attached to the wings. These serve the double purpose of keeping the machine on the level keel when on the ground, and absorbing any shock when alighting after a flight.
ONE OF THE RACING EPISODES DURING THE RHEIMS AVIATION MEETING. - Farman, on his biplane, giving a good lead to Latham on his Antoinette monoplane.
Mr. Hubert Latham in full flight on his Antoinette monoplane on Saturday last at Chalons Camp, when he created a remarkable new record for this type of flyer by remaining in the air for 1h. 7m. 31s., maintaining a speed of about 50 miles per hour. Note the biplane on the ground, the occupants of which are carefully watching Mr. Latham's evolutions.
Mr. Hubert Latham flying with his Antoinette monoplane last Saturday at an altitude of about 100 ft., when he put up a new world's record.
HUBERT LATHAM AND THE CHANNEL FLIGHT. - View on Shakespeare's Cliff at Dover, showing some of the expectant visitors awaiting his arrival. Above, Mr. Latham is seen in full flight on his Antoinette monoplane.
Mr. Hubert Latham (on the left) and M. Levavasseur, the constructor of the Antoinette monoplane with which Mr. Latham has created such wonderful records, at Sangatte.
"ANTOINETTE IV." - The monoplane with which Mr. Hubert Latham contemplates flying the Channel, and with which he has already made such splendid records in France. In this view the entire general construction of the machine is well shown.
An enlarged view of the front portion of the Antoinette monoplane used by Mr. Hubert Latham, showing the details of construction of the nose, the disposition of the motor, the propellers, and the radiator, and the protecting support underneath the machine attached to the wheels and the lower part of the nose.
LATHAM'S CHANNEL FLIGHT. - The start from the French coast on Monday morning last.
LATHAM'S CHANNEL FLIGHT. - Hubert Latham and his machine immediately after falling into the sea. It will be noticed that Mr. Latham is standing up in the middle of the flyer, where he was quietly waiting for the French torpedo destroyer "Harpon" to take him on board, in the meantime calmly smoking a cigarette.
LATHAM'S CHANNEL FLIGHT. - The rescue of the Antoinette flyer by the French torpedo destroyer "Harpon." One of the French sailors hitching the hoisting tackle to the centre of the machine.
LATHAM'S CHANNEL FLIGHT. - Hubert Latham's return to Calais. The scene after his landing.
Mr. Hubert Latham at the wheel of his Antoinstte, after accomplishing his remarkable record flight on Saturday.
LATHAM AND FARMAN'S RECENT FLIGHTS AT RHEIMS GRAPHICALLY DEPICTED. - What their distance and height achievements are equal to if carried out on familiar ground in England. On the left the single flight of Farman is seen, reaching almost to Weymouth, whilst the three successive flights of Latham placed end on would have brought this remarkable flyer up to Lancaster and Morecambe Bay, beyond Blackpool, where the proposed Aviation Week is to take place next month. On the right the height event is seen, with St. Paul's Cathedral (to scale) as a guide for comparison.
M. Santos Dumont in full flight on his "Demoiselle," with which he has recently accomplished such sensational journeys.
From our picture above the size of M. Santos Dumont's "Demoiselle" can perhaps best be realised by our readers. After a flight, M. Dumont, If disinclined to return by the air, simply hoists his flyer into his car and returns home with his "accessory" by road, although hardly as rapidly as when in free air.
The Darracq flight engine and propeller used by M. Santos Dumont in his splendid flights across country.
In the "Demoiselle" the 30-h.p. horizontal-opposed two-cylinder engine is fixed centrally above the dihedral angie made by the two main planes. The propeller, carried direct on the front end of the crank-shaft, is some 6 ft. 6 in. in diameter, and constitutes the fly-wheel. In the above view, the very straggling multi-tubular radiators lying on either side of the motor and snugly stowed away beneath the main frames, are seen.
View from behind of the Darracq flight engine fitted to M. Dumont's "Demoiselle." In this the method of operating the valves is clearly seen, and also the arrangement of the magneto, driven by skew gearing.
In the above central view of the "Demoiselle" M. Santos Dumont is occupying the somewhat rough and ready canvas seat that is provided for the pilot. He has in his right hand the elevating lever, which moves the universally-jointed tail up or down; his left hand is grasping the small wheel which serves to steer the machine by moving the rudder sideways, and at his back is the lever that enables him to flex the wings by leaning his body over to one side or the other.
Santos Dumont's "La Demoiselle"
The above front elevation of the "Santos No. 20," shows the method of staying the main planes, and also of flexing them. The drawing indicates, moreover, the position occupied by the special radiators.
Front view of the "Demoiselle," showing the main stays for the leading edge of the wings as well as the warping wires passing from the seat.
View of the complete tail, which is moved bodily upwards and downwards as well as sideways, about the special swivel-joint shown in greater detail in the inset.
Tubular struts of oval section fit into sockets brased on to thin metal collars in order to stiffen the main girder-frame. As will be observed above, these collars are rendered rigid with the main bamboos by means of small clamping plates and screws.
In the above sketch is shown the lacing by means of which the rear edge of the main planes is held taut about a strong wire, which is itself clipped to the ends of the ribs. The surfaces of the wings are in this way stretched tightly.
M. Santos Dumont's "Demoiselle" Monoplane, No. 20.
Goupy Triplane, fiited with Anzani motor.
THE GOUPY TRIPLANE. - General view of the Goupy triplane from the rear, showing the longitudinal girder which carries the engine in front and the box-kite tail behind. The propeller is right in front, and the pilot sits behind the engine. The tail contains a rudder, and has small steering tips outside the curtains. The span of the main planes is 7 metres, their surface 60 square metres. The weight of the whole machine is 650 kilogs., and the engine is a 50-h.p. Antoinette.
BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - The new Army aeroplane constructed at Aldershot, en route between its shed and the trial ground at Farnborough on Saturday last, when Mr. Cody made a "flight" of about 20 yards at a height of about 10 feet. Mr. Cody, in a. cap and gaiters, is seen to the left in the photograph.
BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - Mr. Cody in flight on Saturday last at Farnborough on the new Army aeroplane. This flight was about 20 yards (by some it is stated to have been 50 yards) at a height of 10 feet.
BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - British Army aeroplane in full flight above Farnborough Common before the accident.
BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - View of the aeroplane after it had collapsed. The elevator and front steering tips are practically demolished, it will be noticed, but the main framework and surfaces are not so badly injured.
THE BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - In the above photographs the British Army aeroplane is seen leaving its shed at Aldershot, and being taken down to Laffan's Plain for a trial on Thursday, February 18th. The lower photograph gives a very good idea of the difficulties which have to be contended with in getting the aeroplane on to its trial ground.
THE BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - Hauling the machine on to Laffan's Plain. This view gives an excellent perspective of the front of the machine.
THE BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - View of the fore part of the machine, showing the elevator, front rudder, and machinery. The vertical tubes on the right form part of the condenser.
THE BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - View of the rear part of the machine, showing the tail and stern rudder. The two planes constituting the tail were formerly on either side of the elevator. At present this tail is fixed, but later experiments may be made with it moving in unison with the elevator.
THE BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - The above photograph was taken while the machine was in motion across the ground a few seconds after the start. Mr. Cody is at the wheel.
THE BRITISH ARMY AEROPLANE. - The end of a flight. Just before landing the aeroplane tilted over on one side, and the above photograph was secured at this critical moment.
Mr. Cody in full flight on his aeroplane last week at Laffan's Plain, when he made a record flight of a mile.
Mr. S. F. Cody, on Wednesday of this week, on his re-modelled biplane, made some splendid flights at Aldershot. Quite a sensation was created amongst the Territorials encamped on Laffan's Plain as Mr. Cody circled gracefully above them. Above is a photograph of Mr. Cody during one of these flights. His motor is an 8O-h.p. E.N.V., the total machine weighing nearly a ton.
FLIGHT PROGRESS IN ENGLAND. - Mr. S. F. Cody on Saturday last at the moment of crossing the Basingstoke Canal, during his 8 miles flight in 9 1/4 minutes, around Aldershot. In order to demonstrate the easy control of his flyer, Mr. Cody at times throws his hands up over his head, as, it will be noticed, he was doing when our photograph was secured.
The soft sand-pit "death-trap" at Doncastet Aviation Meeting where Mr. S. F. Cody came to grief when alighting. Note how the front wheel has ploughed into the sand, causing the main part of the flyer to turn over, fortunately without serious mishap to Mr. Cody.
Mrs. Cody in the passenger's seat of her husband's flyer last Saturday, just before the start for one of the splendid flights which Mr. Cody accomplished on that day.
Mr. S. F. Cody latest flyer. (This drawing is diagrammatic only.)
BRUSSELS MOTOR SHOW. - General view of the flight section. In the foreground is M. Jean de Crawhez's aeroplane, and immediately behind is the orthoptere of M. de la Hault, both Belgian machines.
THE OBRE BIPLANE. - Front view of the Obre aeroplane, which came to grief in its early trials, as recorded last week. Although essentially of the biplane type, this machine has a very small expanse of upper deck. It has a light monoplane tail and rudder behind, which are invisible in the above view. The span of the lower deck is 10 metres; the engine is a 50-h.p. 3-cyl. Anzani.
THE MAURICE FARMAN AEROPLANE. - Side view showing the double decks, the elevator in front, and the single rudder between the double-deck tail behind. The spread of the main wings is 10 metres, and the total weight 450 kilogs. The engine at present installed is a 50-60-b.p. Renault. The propeller is not shown.
THE WITZIG-LIORE-DUTILLEUL AEROPLANE. - This view of the Witzig machine, which is taken from behind, gives an excellent idea of the en escalier arrangement of the main planes. It is a little difficult to classify this particular aeroplane under any of the accepted types.
Front view of the American Aerial Experiment Association's "Silver Dart," which achieved some fine flights in Nova Scotia last week.
THE WINNER OF THE "SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN" TROPHY. - In the above photo the successful American aeroplane, "Silver Dart," is seen just preparing for a flight. Last week, by circling twice over an 8-mile course in this machine, Mr. McCurdy secured the "Scientific American" Trophy.
The Pilot of the "Silver Dart." - Mr. J. A. D. McCurdy, who has made the successful flights in this biplane, at the wheel of the flyer.
AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - The Short flyer seen from one side, showing the skeleton framework. One of the four rudders has alone been covered with Continental fabric, the remainder of the machine being quite unfinished. The flexing of the righting tips is well shown on the extreme right, and in front, on the left of the photograph, the biplane elevator can be seen.
THE PRINCE OF WALES' VISIT TO THE AERO'SHOW AT OLYMPIA LAST WEEK. - His Royal Highness is seen in our photograph examining the exhibits on Messrs. Short Bros.' stand.
The Short biplane, like the Wright flyer, is a tailless machine, and it represents a type of its own in having no outrigger framework for carrying the rudder.
AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - The Howard-Wright biplane, seen from behind. The entire framework is made of steel, and another special feature is the use of tandem propellers revolving in opposite directions. The righting tips let into the rear edges of the main planes are clearly indicated in this view.
Welded joint on Howard-Wright biplane.
AERO SHOW AT OLYMPIA. - The Breguet Biplane, seen from behind. Tubular steel of large diameter is used throughout in its construction, and knuckle-joints are introduced to enable the planes to fold back out of the way. The forward planes are pivoted for elevating. The machine is unfinished.
WHAT A WRECKED BIPLANE LOOKS LIKE. - M. L. Breguet's Breguet machine after his smash-up in front of the Grand Stand on Sunday.
On the Breguet machine the main planes are pivoted to serve the purpose of an elevator, the tail is exceptionally large, and the propeller is placed in front, which is an unusual position on biplanes.
The De la Hault orthopter, which is designed to rise in the air by beating its wings. The wing stroke, although apparently of a rowing nature, gives no propulsive effort. The engine is an 8-cylinder Miesse.
BRUSSELS MOTOR SHOW. - General view of the flight section. In the foreground is M. Jean de Crawhez's aeroplane, and immediately behind is the orthoptere of M. de la Hault, both Belgian machines.
AERO SHOW. - The Weiss Monoplane, seen from in front. This is a full-sized model built by the inventor himself, and is mainly constructed of cane. The use of two propellers on a monoplane is an uncommon feature.
The Weiss Flyer, like most monoplanes, has arched wings, and somewhat resembles a bird in appearance. An unusual detail is the use of two propellers.
AERO SHOW. - The Lamplough Orthopter Biplane, seen from behind. The central planes, which run longitudinally, sway to and fro with a lifting effect, while the lateral biplanes on either side are rigid in the usual way. At the extreme rear is a biplane elevator containing a rudder, and in front there is a precisely similar structure. The machine is unfinished.
AERO SHOW.-The Lamplough Orthopter Biplane, front elevation, showing the cranks which sway the lifters and the link motion which reverses their angle of inclination so that each stroke is effective. The dotted lines indicate the limiting positions of the lifters in each direction.
The Lamplough machine has been designed to lift itself direct from the ground by the aid of waving aeroplanes. It has stationary aeroplanes for gliding.
THE GRAHAM-BELL TETRAHEDRAL AEROPLANE. - We reproduce above, from the "Scientific American," two views of the extraordinary aeroplane with which Dr. Graham Bell has been experimenting at Baddeck, N.S. On the left the apparatus is seen from the front, the vertical and horizontal rudders being prominent; while, on the right, the rear view of the machine shows the large wooden propeller, which is driven by an 8-cyl Curtiss motor.
First Indian Flyer, after a flight at Asansol, March 1st, 1909.
The Bates Aeroplane and a motor car lined up on Daytona Beach for the start of a "race" between them. No details as to the result have, as yet, come to hand.
Henry Farman's biplane "No. 3," on which the hinged flaps, hanging down, from the main planes are specially noticeable, as also the runners between the set of four wheels, the inner two of which are of smaller diameter than the two outer wheels.
The Farman Biplane, with Mr. Henry Farman at the wheel.
In the above picture Henry Farman is seen in flight on his biplane "No. 3." It will be noticed that the hinged flaps on the main planes have swung into their normal "in flight" position.
Mr. Mortimer Singer is one of the latest members of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom to make a number of successful long flights. Our photograph shows Mr. Singer, on his Henry Farman machine, in full flight at Chalons.
Mr. G. B. Cockburn is the British representative of the Aero Club of the U.K. at Rheims Aviation Meeting, and we wish him every success in upholding the British end of the art of flying'. He has already, as our readers are aware, made some extended flights, and above he is seen practising on his Farman biplane.
M. Sommer's record (unofficial) flight on a Farman biplane of 2h. 27m. 15s. at Chalons last Saturday. - M. Sommer is just flying over the timekeeper's pitch on his tenth circuit, the figures below the flag denoting this alike to the aviator and the attendant public.
During the "Passenger Contest" at Rheims on Sunday last, Henry Farman, in addition to his other triumphs, carried two passengers, besides himself, for one of the circuits of the course. Our photograph shows him in full flight under these conditions.
FLIGHT MEETING AT BLACKPOOL. - Mr. Henry Farman, who made the first flight at the Blackpool Meeting, rounding the west pylone during the long-distance event. In the background are the grand stands, &c.
FLIGHT IN ENGLAND. - M. Paulhan on his Farman biplane, flying high past the grand stands at Blackpoor on the opening day.
BLACKPOOL FLIGHT MEETING. - View of the aerodrome, showing Henry Farman in full flight on his first round. In the distance is seen the Judges' box and the signalling apparatus. On the right is one of the pylones marking the corners of the course.
THE FLIGHT EXHIBITIONS FOR LONDONERS. - Paulhan is seen flying down the straight at Brooklands over the motorists and their cars.
Remarkable Photograph of Paulhan Flying at Dusk on Saturday last over Brooklands Racing Track. - This snap was secured just as there was a reflection of the setting sun through the clouds silhouetting Paulhan's flyer against the brilliant patch of light.
FLIGHT PHOTOGRAPHS. - Another genuine photograph of an aeroplane when flying over water, showing the reflection in the lake. Our picture is of Paulhan at Brooklands, during one of his splendid exhibition flights on his Henry Farman machine. A comparison of this picture with the many published "faked" photographs of reflected machines is of considerable interest.
DONCASTER FLYING WEEK. - An incident. M. Roger Sommer, on his Farman biplane, flying over M. Molon's machine, which had been smashed, during the competition for the Bradford Cup.
ONE OF THE RACING EPISODES DURING THE RHEIMS AVIATION MEETING. - Farman, on his biplane, giving a good lead to Latham on his Antoinette monoplane.
FLIGHT PHOTOGRAPHS. - Another example of a genuine enlarged photograph, with two machines in the air at a distance. This was "snapped" at Blackpool during the big meeting, and shows Paulhan on his Henry Farman machine, and Rougier behind on a Voisin biplane.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais, showing the "Stands of Honour." In the middle, immediately under the spherical gas-bag, is the famous Bleriot cross-Channel machine. To its right is the "Rep" monoplane, in the extreme right foreground is the Farman biplane, to the left a French-made Wright flyer, and continuing round to the left the machines are respectively an Antoinette, a Voisin, and another Bleriot. The decorated spherical balloon in the distance is the Montgolfier.
DONCASTER AVIATION MEETING. - General view of the aeroplane sheds, with a Voisin machine and three Bleriot monoplanes in readiness for flying.
Henry Farman in the aviator's seat of his "No. 3." Note the bicycle handle control which has supplanted the hitherto orthodox steering-wheel,
Mr. G. B. Cockburn, the aviator who, as a member of the Aero Club of the U.K., will fly on behalf of Great Britain at the Rheims Flight Meeting next week.
M. Sommer, who, last week, at Chalons, on a Farman biplane, beat the French duration record by flying for 1 hour 50 minutes, the next day making a cross-country (tight to Suippes, a distance of 9 miles.
LATHAM AND FARMAN'S RECENT FLIGHTS AT RHEIMS GRAPHICALLY DEPICTED. - What their distance and height achievements are equal to if carried out on familiar ground in England. On the left the single flight of Farman is seen, reaching almost to Weymouth, whilst the three successive flights of Latham placed end on would have brought this remarkable flyer up to Lancaster and Morecambe Bay, beyond Blackpool, where the proposed Aviation Week is to take place next month. On the right the height event is seen, with St. Paul's Cathedral (to scale) as a guide for comparison.
THE FARMAN FLYER. - Sketch showing how the bearers for the engine and pilot's seat are fastened to the transverse spars of the main frame by U bolts. The inset sketch shows the universal attachment of the control lever to the side of the footrest.
THE FARMAN FLYER. - Sketch of the tail, showing the arrangement of the double rudder, and the method of bracing the rudder-planes.
THE FARMAN FLYER. - Sketch showing one of the four hinged flaps, A, which are let into the trailing edge at the extremities of each main deck. They serve as balancing planes, and are controlled by a lever. Normally they are. free to adjust themselves to the air stream lines.
THE FARMAN FLYER. - Sketch showing how the wheels are strapped to the ski by elastic bands.
The Farman Flyer, 1908 type.
Over sixty years ago Henson and Stringfellow constructed the model monoplane, of which the above is a copy, belonging to the Aero Club. The original is in the South Kensington Museum.
Fig. 25. - "June Bug" Aeroplane. Hammondsport, N.Y., Aerial Experiment Association.
In order to secure the flyer against the wind, an open-air "hangar" was constructed of poles and ropes. The above is a side view of the machine, showing the tandem arrangement of the biplanes.
Corner pieces hinged to the main planes diagonally were provided as a means of controlling lateral stability. The photograph shows the pair on the right dipped, while those on the left are tilted.
Two wooden propellers were arranged to be driven by one continuous chain, so that if the chain broke both would be disabled.
The pilot, in this case Mr. H. H. Franklin, sits in the wire-suspended "chair" marked "Tea," and controls the lateral stability of the machine by the vertical pole held at the moment by Mr. A. E. Lowy, co-designer and builder.
Mr. A. V. Roe's British-built triplane, minus its rudder, which is undergoing tests on Lea Marshes. - It is fitted with a 6-h.p. Jap motor, has 9-ft. propellers, weight, light, 200 lbs.; plane surface, 350 sq. ft.
AVRO (1907). Tractor triplane of only 9 h.p. This flew in Lea Marshes--the lowest horse power yet flown in Europe to the present day.
Latest form of the Robart biplane which is fitted with an 8'cyl. 5O.h,p, Antoinette motor, chain transmission and two propellers. It has a span of 12 metres, and a plane surface of 52 sq. metres. The feature of this aeroplane is the pronounced curvature of the lower plane.
THE GOUPY AEROPLANE. - The biplane, of somewhat unusual design, with which M. Goupy is now experimenting at Buc. It will be seen that the upper planes are a little in advance of the lower one, and that the aviator sits behind the front planes. The biplane, which has been built by M. Bleriot, has a lifting surface of 26 sq. metres, the main planes having a spread of 6 metres, and being 1.6 metres across, while the length of the machine is 7 metres. A 29-h.p, R.E.P. motor drives the four-bladed traetor-screw, and the complete machine weighs 290 kilogs.
THE COLLOMB FLAPPING FLIGHT MACHINE. - General view, showing the inner ends of the planes approaching their lowest position. The motion of the planes is derived by the direct attachment of wooden connecting-rods to long chains, which are driven by the engine.
Latest Bleriot Monoplane, which is fitted with a 35-h.p. 8-cyl. E.N.V. Motor. - This new flyer differs, it will be noted, in several respects from previous designs, especially in the tail.
View of the new Bleriot Monoplane, showing the disposition of aviator, motor, &c, and the curvature and struts of the main frame.
COMING OF THE MONOPLANE. - M. Bleriot, on his No. 12 machine, flying 6 kiloms. at Issy on June 12th, with a passenger on board.
ANOTHER METHOD OF BRINGING A FLYER TO THE STARTING POINT. - M. Bleriot's No. XII passenger-carrying monoplane is the machine in the photograph.
AT PAU. - On the left, arrival of Mr. Claude Grahame White's two-seated, type XII, Bleriot monoplane, fitted with a 60-80-h.p. E.N.V. engine, at Pau Aerodrome on November 24th last. On the right, starting for a trial run on November 28th, on Mr. Grahame White's "White Eagle." On this occasion an officially-timed circular flight of 6 kiloms., at a record speed of 96 k.p.h., with a passenger up, was made.
Viewing the still smouldering remains of the Bleriot monoplane (No. 22 in the Rheims contests) after the fire on Sunday last, which resulted from the ignition of the burst petrol-tank.
The Pilcher Glider, in which Mr. Pilcher, on September 30th, 1899, met with his death, after having been successiul in his early efforts at flying. In the photograph on the right Mrs. Tidswell, Mr. Pilcher's sister, who helped him considerably in his work, is standing by the tail of his machine. For these pictures and the accompanying information we are indebted to Mr. T. O'Brien Hubbard, the Assistant Secretary of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain.
KIMBALL BIPLANE. - Multiple propellers between the planes, and the steering tips at both ends of the main planes, are the notable features of this American machine.
THE CURTISS BIPLANE. - General view of the machine on terra firma, showing the elevator in front of the main decks. The camber of the decks is particularly well shown in this view, which should be compared with the drawing.
THE CURTISS BIPLANE IN FLIGHT. - Snapshot taken during one of the successful trial flights which Mr.Curtiss himself made at Hammondsport before handing his machine over to the Aeronautic Society at Morris Park. The photograph shows the flyer at a height of 100 feet above the ground.
THE CURTISS AERO-MOTOR. - General view of the 4-cyl. Curtiss engine used on the Curtiss biplane. The cylinders are 5/32 in. thick, and have copper jackets. The weight, without magneto, is 85 lbs.
CURTISS BIPLANE. - Elevation and plan showing the leading constructional features and dimensions of the Curtiss biplane, which has been made in America by Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss in conjunction with Mr. A. M. Herring. It should be noted that the weight of the machine mounted is only 550 lbs., and that it is fitted with a particularly light engine. Instead of warping the main decks as on the Wright machine, lateral control is obtained by independent balancing planes.
The scene at Morris Park Race Track, New York, during the aeronautical experiments arranged under the auspices of the American Aeronautic Society. The machine seen in the picture is the Martin glider.
One of the events in connection with the American Aeronautic Society's experiments was the testing of the Martin glider by towing it into action behind a motor car. The machine came to grief, and our picture shows the glider at the critical moment.
A low glide on the 1901 model. Often the machine was only a few inches from the ground.
A high glide with the 1901 model, which had neither tail nor rudder, steering being effected by warping the wings.
Testing a Glider by Soaring. - The above view shows the glider soaring stationary in the wind. The machine shown is the early 1902 model, with the fixed double tail before it was converted into a rudder.
Launching the 1902 glider on 10 October. Orville is piloting, and Wilbur is at the starboard wingtip. Note the single, fixed vertical rear rudder.
Turning to the right. A view from behind of the later 1902 model after it had its rear tail converted into a rudder.
At close range, showing very clearly the exact position occupied by Wilbur Wright in gliding. The machine illustrated is the 1902 model fitted with a rudder.
A BRITISH-BUILT AND DESIGNED GLIDER. - The machine which has been invented by Lieuts. Porte and Pirie, two young naval officers attached to the submarine depot at Haslar. In the top picture bluejackets and villagers are hauling up the glider to the summit of Portsdown Hill, overlooking Portsmouth, preparatory to the gliding experiments; and in the lower photo Lieuts. Porte and Pirie are in their glider at the top of the hill ready for being launched for a flight. Although the experiments resulted in a smash, defects are to be remedied, and successful progress may be safely looked for with such a businesslike machine.
Fig. 1. - Mr. C. H. Parkes mounted on the experimental biplane which was built by him upon a bicycle, and had its propeller coupled up to the pedals.
Fig. 2. - The improved biplane built by Mr. Parkes was equipped with a twin-cylinder air-cooled engine of 4-h.p.; and with this machine he was able to accomplish "jumps" of from 10 to 40 ft.
Fig. 3. - In the above photograph may be seen the position of the 4-h.p. motor and of the three supporting wheels on Mr. Parkes' later biplane, which weighed 350 lbs. with himself seated upon it.
Clement-Bayard Biplane at Paris Flight Show.
The Clement-Bayard aeroplane, which is now being experimented with by M. Maurice Clement.
Sketch showing the gear-drive for the propeller on the Clement-Bayard flyer.
Penteado Machine at Paris Flight Show.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - View looking down the Grand Palais. The machines seen prominently in the stands are - on the right a Chauviere (makers of the famous propellers), a Vintlon helicoptere, and then two Bleriots; on the left side are a Dutheil-Chalmers biplane, a "W.L.D." monoplane, the Henriot monoplane, and two Antoinettes. Hanging from the roof is the gas-bag of one of the Zodiac dirigibles, and in the far distance the great yellow spherical balloon of the Continental Co.
Dutheil-Chalmers Biplane at Paris Flight Show.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - View looking down the Grand Palais. The machines seen prominently in the stands are - on the right a Chauviere (makers of the famous propellers), a Vintlon helicoptere, and then two Bleriots; on the left side are a Dutheil-Chalmers biplane, a "W.L.D." monoplane, the Henriot monoplane, and two Antoinettes. Hanging from the roof is the gas-bag of one of the Zodiac dirigibles, and in the far distance the great yellow spherical balloon of the Continental Co.
Liore (W.L.D.) Monoplane at Paris Flight Show.
Liore (W.L.D.) Monoplane at Paris Flight Show, showing the clutch and gearing,
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - View looking down the Grand Palais. The machines seen prominently in the stands are - on the right a Chauviere (makers of the famous propellers), a Vintlon helicoptere, and then two Bleriots; on the left side are a Dutheil-Chalmers biplane, a "W.L.D." monoplane, the Henriot monoplane, and two Antoinettes. Hanging from the roof is the gas-bag of one of the Zodiac dirigibles, and in the far distance the great yellow spherical balloon of the Continental Co.
Sketch showing the manner in which the trailing plane on the Liore flyer is held in a cage.
Herr Grade, the German aviator, who has been flying on his monoplane at the Mars Aerodrome, near Bork, for the Lanz prize.
The First All-German Flyer. - Herr Grade is seen in the above view on his monoplane during the flight on Saturday last at Bork, which secured for him the L2,000 prize offered by Herr Lanz for the first German to describe a figure "8" round two posts placed a kilometre apart.
THE GRADE MONOPLANE. - Front elevation.
THE GRADE MONOPLANE. - Side Elevation and Plan to scale.
Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon in flight last week, at the Aero Club's Shellbeach Aerodrome, on his new all-British biplane, constructed by Messrs. Short Brothers.
Mr. Moore-Brabazon flying at Shellbeach on the Short biplane on which he won the "Daily Mall" L1,000 Prize on Saturday last.
Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon's new biplane, designed and constructed by Messrs. Short Bros., with which he has been making his flights at Shellbeach, being brought up to the starting rail after a flight.
Three-quarter view, from the back, of the Short biplane, constructed for Mr. Moore-Brabazon.
Getting Mr. Moore-Brabazon's Short biplane in place on to the starting rail. The Short No.2, fitted with, a Green engine, with which J. T. C. .Moore-Brabazon won the L 1,000 Daily Mail prize for a circular flight of one mile.
Short S.2 on which Moore-Brabazon won the Daily Mail prize for a circular flight of one mile in October 1909.
Salmson "Autoplane" at Paris Flight Show.
Gregoire-Gyp Monoplane at Paris Flight Show.
The wings on the Gregoire-Gyp monoplane are warped by means of movable main spars connected through bevel gear to the steering-wheel, as shown above.
Fernandez Biplane at Paris Flight Show.
Steering and balancing is effected on the Fernandez biplane by the use of two hand levers mounted on a vertical frame, which is itself pivoted for the purpose of operating the elevator.
Avla Monoplane at Paris Flight Show.
Sketch showing the universal control employed on the Avia flyer.
Vuitton-Huber Helicopter at Paris Flight Show.
THE MILLS-FULFORD MONOPLANE. - In the above photographs are shown a monoplane very much on the lines of Santos Dumont's "Demoiselle," the chief differences being that this machine has an elevator in front, while the propeller is driven by a chain from a little 4-cyl. F.N. engine.
Koechlin Monoplane at Paris Flight Show.
Koechlin in full flight at Port Aviation on his monoplane, which is fitted with a 4-cyl, 25-h.p. Gregoirc engine.
Sketch showing the details of the tail of the Koechlin flyer, illustrating a method of flexing the elevator.
Sketch showing the attachment of the engine to the watertight hull of the Koechlin flyer.
Sketch showing how the wings are warped on the Koechlin flyer.
THE NEW VOISIN BIPLANE. - We recently gave particulars of the important alterations made in the latest Voisin models, and the above photograph clearly shows these new departures,
Another view of the new Voisin biplane, showing details of the tail of the latest model.
An Italian Monoplane - the Miller Aerocurve - built at Turin. - Inset is the machine as seen when in flight.
A NEW BIPLANE - The above photograph depicts an original biplane, which is the production of a new French firm, the Societe Rossel-Peugeot, M. Frederic Rossel, the favourite assistant of Ader, having joined MM. Peugeot Freres. The machine has many distinguishing features, notably, the absence of a front elevator, the driving of the propellers, and the arrangement of the twin rudders between the planes of the tail. The propellers are driven through bevel gearing from a transverse-shaft, which, in its turn, is driven by a chain from the twin-cylinder engine. The framework of the aeroplane, it will be noticed, is of bamboo.
Gratze monoplane was at the Blackpool Meeting of October 1909 in this form.
A small monoplane, one of his latest models, constructed by Mr. Howard T. Wright, of 110, High Street, Marylebone. It has a total width of 27 ft., length 28 ft., area of plane 160 sq. ft., weight without motor 350 lbs., in running order 500 lbs. It is fitted with 30-h.p. air-cooled motor and single propeller running at 1,200 r.p,m. Two of these machines have already been made for customers, and a third is now in course of construction, and will be ready in about 14 days.
A SHORT FLIGHT AT ISSY WITH THE LATEST ODIER-VENDOME BIPLANE. - The curved camber of the main planes is the chief feature of this machine which is fitted with a 4-bladed propeller. In the front, on the bottom main plane, at each end is a small steering tip which can be operated for turning and for braking by the pilot. A plentiful supply of spring skids are noticeable for taking any shocks in descent.
Hanriot Monoplane at Paris Flight Show.
Model Aeroplane constructed by Messrs. Mortimer and Vaughan to illustrate a full-sized flyer which they are building.
The Etrich monoplane on which Herr Etrich recently flew at Vienna for 4 1/2 kiloms. at a speed of 70 kiloms. per hour.
HUBERT LATHAM'S SECOND CHANNEL ATTEMPT. - The aviator overtaking the French torpedo-destroyer "Escopette" soon after leaving the French coast, which can be discerned dimly in the distance.
THE END OF LATHAM'S SECOND CHANNEL ATTEMPT. - Arrival of the steam pinnace from the British battleship "Russell" at the scene of the "finish," within about two miles of the English coast at Dover. Mr. Latham will be noticed standing up on his machine waiting for the pinnace to rescue him.
HUBERT LATHAM'S SECOND CHANNEL ATTEMPT. - Scene after the rescue of the aviator by the steam pinnace from the battleship M Russell, the tug standing-by for rescuing the derelict machine.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - View of the latest Antoinette monoplane at the Paris Salon. The above view illustrates very clearly the trussing of the spars in the wings.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - View of the latest model, showing the cedar hull. The framework under the surface is illustrated in another view, showing an earlier type.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais, showing the "Stands of Honour." In the middle, immediately under the spherical gas-bag, is the famous Bleriot cross-Channel machine. To its right is the "Rep" monoplane, in the extreme right foreground is the Farman biplane, to the left a French-made Wright flyer, and continuing round to the left the machines are respectively an Antoinette, a Voisin, and another Bleriot. The decorated spherical balloon in the distance is the Montgolfier.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - View looking down the Grand Palais. The machines seen prominently in the stands are - on the right a Chauviere (makers of the famous propellers), a Vintlon helicoptere, and then two Bleriots; on the left side are a Duthell-Chalmers biplane, a "W.L.D." monoplane, the Henriot monoplane, and two Antoinettes. Hanging from the roof is the gas-bag of one of the Zodiac dirigibles, and in the far distance the great yellow spherical balloon of the Continental Co.
LATHAM'S GREAT FLIGHT IN A HALF GALE AT BLACKPOOL LAST WEEK. - Note the beading trees from the high wind in the distance.
Latham "crossing" the wind at Blackpool Meeting last Friday week on his Antoinette monoplane, during his flight through the half gale.
The Antoinette Flyer. - Sketch showing how the main spars in the wings are trussed by hollow posts and diagonal wires.
The Antoinette Flyer. - Sketch showing the attachment of the axle-strut to the sliding-guide on the vertical pillar. The strut is of hollow wood, and has a steel end-piece.
The Antoinette Flyer. - Sketch showing how the stay-wires for the wings are attached to the mast.
The Antoinette Flyer. - Sketch showing bow the rear spars in the wings are pivoted to the frame to facilitate warping.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - Sketch showing how the control wheel on the left of the pilot's seat is coupled up to the cog-wheel which warps the wings, as shown in another illustration.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - Sketch showing how the hand wheel on the right of the pilot's seat is coupled up to the elevator. The use of pulleys on the elevator cross-bar should be noted.
THE ANTOINETTE FLYER. - Sketch showing the arrangement of the control of the wires used for warping the wings by means of a cog-wheel and chain.
Sketch of a bracket for joints of framework of aeroplanes which is being manufactured by the Aerial Manufacturing Company of Great Britain and Ireland, of Upper Charles Street, Finsbury. Great rigidity and lightness are claimed for these, whilst the price is quite small, we understand. The sketch shows a single bracket, and also one each side of a joint, making a very rigid fixture, with wiring connection included.
General view, from in front, of the complete Wright-Clarke glider. Light bow-skids are fitted under the extremities of the lower deck, as shown above.
In this view, as seen from behind, the glider is shown mounted on a specially-designed two-wheeled hand-cart, by means of which the whole machine can be easily wheeled about by one man.
The outrigger construction and relative position of the elevator are clearly indicated above.
Detailed view of the elevator, showing its attachment to vertical continuations of the runners, and the stationary cutwater or prow of semicircular form situated between the two planes.
MR. OGILVIE AT WORK ON THE WRIGHT-CLARKE GLIDER. - On the left Mr. Ogilvie is just rising from the starting rail after the release of the derrick weight seen in the background; and on the right the glider is being, with the help of a Shetland pony, brought back up the practise hill after a glide of some three or four hundred yards.
MR. OGILVIE IN FULL FLIGHT ON HIS NEW GLIDER. - Note the starting derrick in the background, giving a good idea of the distance travelled. On the right the glider is just leaving a 1 in 7 gradient on the hill, and passing over the 1 in 5 gradient, which naturally results in a distinctly increased height above the ground being attained, since otherwise a rapid acceleration of speed would be inevitable.
Mr. T. W. K. Clarke, at whose aero works the glider has been constructed, occupying the aviator's seat. This photograph also shows the two small grooved wheels mounted between the runners, one under the main deck, and the other a little in front, which support the machine on the launching rail preparatory to flight.
Diagrammatic sketch of main planes, showing the arrangement of warping-wires (in dotted line), and the manner in which the rear edges of the planes are flexed. It is important to note that the front or entering edges are unaffected by this movement, remaining always perfectly straight.
Sketch of the flexible-joint connecting the vertical struts to the main decks. A slight notch is made at the lower end of the U bolt to keep the eye of the strut central.
Instead of pulleys where the warping-wires leave the decks, short lengths of Bowden wire sheath are used clamped to the rear spars, as shown above.
The Wrights' patent flexing elevator is so arranged that a movement of the operating-rod, besides altering the angle made by the planes with the horizontal, varies their camber or curvature.
The above diagram, of which the small rectangle at the centre represents the right-hand controllever, shows in plan how the two movements capable of being given to this lever result in a third oblique line of movement, along which the aviator's hand passes to and fro to preserve lateral equilibrium during flight.
Central portion of lower deck, showing aviator's seat and the levercontrol system of the glider. It will be observed that the right-hand lever can be moved sideways as well as forwards and backwards.
Plan and Elevation to Scale of the Wright Glider as made by Clarke.
Preliminary to his recent successful flights on his Short-Wright flyer, the Hon. C. S. Rolls obtained considerable proficiency in soaring with a man-carrying glider, also built by Messrs. Short Bros., by special permission of the Wright Bros., early last year. This was the first made with proper seat for the operator to sit in an upright position, and levers working like the full-size power machines, in fact a miniature reproduction minus the power plant. Mr. Rolls has sent us a couple of unpublished "snaps" of his glider practice which helped him so much in manipulating the full-sized machine.