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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Farman Farman-III

Страна: Франция

Год: 1909

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Farman - Farman-II - 1909 - Франция<– –>Farman - Coupe Michelin - 1910 - Франция


Farman-III


После удачных полетов самолетов "Ваузен Фарман-1" и "Ваузен Фарман-II", построенных на заводе братьев Ваузен, братья Анри и Морис Фарман организовали собственную фабрику по строительству самолетов. Первой машиной стал трехстоечный бесфюзеляжный фирменный биплан "Фарман-III", взлетевший впервые в конце августа 1909 г.

Модификации
  "Фарман-III" - предшественник "Фарман-IV", отличался удлиненными полозами шасси, дополнительной стойкой ферм и конструкцией вертикального оперения. Двигатель "Гном" (50л. с.).


  Показатель "Фарман-III"
   1910г.
  Размеры, м
   длина 12,0
   размах крыльев 10,5/7,0
  Площадь крыла, м2 38,00
  Вес, кг
   максимальный взлетный 580
   пустого 400
  Двигатель "Гном"
   мощность, л. с. 50
  Скорость, км/ч 65
  Экипаж, чел 2


В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.


"Фарман-III". Отличался от общеизвестного типа самолета "Фарман-IV" лишь вертикальным оперением, сильно удлиненными назад полозами шасси и иногда увеличенным за счет консолей рулем высоты. В России было несколько его экземпляров.


Самолет <Фарман- III>

Год выпуска||1910
Двигатель, марка||<Гном>
   Мощность||50
Длина самолета, м||Около 12
Размах крыла, м||10,5/7,0
Площадь крыла, м2||38
Масса пустого, кг||400
Масса топлива+ масла, кг||30
Масса полной нагрузки, кг||180
Полетная масса, кг||580
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2||15
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс||11,5
Весовая отдача, %||30
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч||65
Скорость посадочная, км/ч||60


L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


Журнал Flight


Flight, April 24, 1909.

Henry Farman's "No. 3 " Biplane.

  AT Chalons, Mr. Farman has been trying his new machine, and appears to be well satisfied with the results of several flights ranging from 300 to 1,200 metres. Both greater stability and speed have been obtained with the new model.
  Henry Farman's biplane "No. 3" is fitted with a much more elaborate underchassis than previous machines. Not only does it now possess a set of four wheels under the main plane, but it also includes a pair of skis which are mounted between each pair of wheels, as seen in our illustrations. Wheels and skis alike rise with the machine when in flight. The usual pair of small wheels are fitted to protect the tail. Close inspection of the photographs will show that the inner wheels of the front quartette are smaller in diameter than those on the outside. An interesting detail, well illustrated in our photographs, is the hinged flaps attached to the extreme rear edges of the main planes. These flaps, when set in position, normally lie in the stream lines of the main planes, so that by flexing them up or down, as the case may be, the machine can be righted and steered. In his latest experiments Farman has abandoned the vertical rudder which formerly occupied a position inside the tail.
  Henry Farman has also abandoned the steering wheel in favour of the simple bicycle handle control seen in one of our photographs, and with the absence of any boatlike car on his present flyer, he is left quite free of any entanglement in the event of an accident. It has often been suggested that it is by no means wise for an aviator to sit in front of a horizontal steering column when learning to fly in view of the frequency with which bodily damage has been caused by this member in motor car accidents.
  The flyer is fitted with a 50-h.p. Vivinus engine driving a two-bladed wooden propeller of 2.3 metres diameter. The span of the main planes is 10 1/2 metres, and the overall length of the machine is 13 metres.



Flight, August 7, 1909.

SOMMER THE RECORD-BREAKER.

  ONCE again the French record for duration of flight was beaten by Roger Sommer, flying a Farman biplane (Voisin type), at Chalons, on Sunday, August 1st, with a flight of 1h. 50m. 30s. Sommer, who, as our readers know, has only been flying for about two months, now stands second only to Wilbur Wright in respect of time. The distance travelled upon this occasion is estimated at 70 miles, and the average altitude about 80 feet. The start took place at 4.48 p.m. Henry Farman's longest flight, which took place on July 19th of this year, lasted 1 hr. 23 mins., to be beaten last week by Sommer with half a minute to the good, and on Sunday again with 27 mins. to spare.
  There are still two recorded flights which are better than those of M. Sommer, namely, the two attempts made by Wilbur Wright last December for the Michelin Cup. The flight on December 18th, 1908, was 1 hr. 54 mins. 43 secs., while his best effort on the last day of the year was 2 hrs. 20 mins. 23 secs. The next best to M. Sommer's record was Wilbur Wright's flight of 1 hr. 31 mins. 25 secs, on September 21st, 1908.
  On Monday last M. Sommer made a 9 mile cross-country journey from Bouy, occupying about 12 mins., which landed him at the village of Suippes, where the Mayor and Council had to stop their harvesting in order to officially welcome their strangely-arrived guest. M. Sommer chose an unconventionally early hour for his call, for he settled down at Suippes at 4.20 in the morning. Giving a couple of demonstration flights in the neighbourhood, Sommer restarted for home at ten o'clock in the morning, lost his way in a fog, and eventually reached his shed at a quarter past six in the evening.
  The next day, after a new petrol tank had been fitted to the machine, M. Sommer made a flight lasting 18 mins.


Flight, August 14, 1909.

M. ROGER SOMMER'S RECORD.

  CONTINUING to better his performances every time, M. Sommer, who only a few weeks ago was unknown as an aviator, succeeded in placing himself at the head of the list of successful flyers on Saturday last. Starting at a quarter past three in the morning, he continued flying until he had been aloft for 2h. 27m. 15s., thus easily beating Wilbur Wright's record of 2h. 20m. 23s. Unfortunately, this fine effort of Sommer was not officially timed, and so it will not rank as a world's record, but that does not detract from the merit of the performance.
  When one considers that it was only a little over a month ago, on July 4th, to be exact, that M. Sommer took possession of his machine, it speaks volumes for the great advances which have been made during the past few months. Last December the magnificent flight of Wilbur Wright placed the American type of biplane in the forefront. This position it has held for some time, although the French monoplanes have repeatedly threatened their supremacy, and Bleriot's cross-Channel flight may be said to have given them the place. Now, however, the French biplane school are in front.
  As we have stated above, M. Sommer for his long flight made an early start, just as dawn was breaking, in fact, and so there were not many people present at the commencement. For the first half-hour everything seemed to go well, but after then it was noticed that the speed had slackened. It was noticed that part of the fabric of the lower plane had come adrift, apparently owing to the damp, and was flapping in the wind. M. Sommer momentarily thought he would have to descend, in order to rectify this. The propeller, however, solved the difficulty, as, catching the loose fabric, it tore it away. Thus relieved, the aeroplane regained its former speed, and flew on and on in wide circles over Chalons Camp. After M. Sommer had been aloft an hour the news quickly spread, and so the crowd of onlookers quickly grew. At the end of the second hour the anxiety was intense, as it was realized that M. Sommer had every chance of beating Wright's record, and so placing the duration record to the credit of France. The minutes slowly crept by, and the aeroplane kept circling steadily on until the record time had been passed. At this point the enthusiasm of the assembled spectators was boundless, but just to make certain of the time M. Sommer continued and made one more circle over the Camp. Then his petrol tank being almost dry, he thought it wise to come down, when he was surrounded by the crowd and carried in triumph to his shed, where his health was vociferously drunk in champagne.
  The next day M. Sommer intended to repeat this flight in the presence of Aero Club officials. He started off about 7 o'clock in the evening, but, such is the luck of flying, engine troubles began to make themselves apparent. After the aeroplane had been in the air for a few minutes, the motor suddenly stopped, and the flyer dropped suddenly to the ground from a height of about 25 feet, sustaining a good deal of damage.
  On the Wednesday previous M. Sommer came very near beating Wright's record, and only failed because his petrol supply gave out. Unlike his successful effort last Saturday, this flight was made in the evening. Commencing at 7.34 p.m. he flew in wide circles over Chalons Camp at a speed of about 40 miles an hour, and darkness coming on, torches and motor car lamps were placed around the ground to guide him in his flight, which lasted for 2 hrs. 10 mins.

M. Sommer's Progress.

  IN view of this latest feat of M. Sommer, our readers may be interested in the following diary of his progress as an aviator : -
   July 4th.-Took delivery of his Farman aeroplane and flew for 6 kiloms. at 10 metres altitude.
   July 5th.-Flew for half-an-hour.
   July 14th.-Flew from Chalons to Savenay and back.
   July 17th.-Flew for half-an-hour at a height of 30 metres.
   July 18th.-Flew for 1h. 4m. and had to stop owing to darkness.
   July 28th.-Flew for 1h. 23 1/2 m.
   August 1st.-Flew for 1h. 50m., officially beating French record.
   August 2nd. -Flew from Buoy to Suippes and back.
   August 4th.-Flew for 2h. 10m.
   August 7th.-Flew for 2h. 27m. 15s.

Sommer Gets a Medal.

  As a momento of his cross-country trip from Buoy to Suippes, M. Sommer was on Monday presented with a gold medal by the Mayor of Suippes, in the presence of a large crowd, who enthusiastically cheered the successful aviator. On returning to Chalons he made several short flights, and at the end of one, when endeavouring to glide to earth, he apparently came down too sharply, slightly damaging the chassis of his machine.


Flight, October 16, 1909

THE FARMAN BIPLANE.

  ONE of the most successful pioneers in the practical side of aviation - winner of the historic Deutsch-Archdeacon prize by the accomplishment of the first circular kilom., and hero of the first cross-country flight - Henry Farman has only latterly taken up the design and construction of the machines which bear his name. In his early work he used a Voisin flyer, and throughout the many succeeding experiments, in which one modification or another was made in respect to detail, the machine still retained most of what are, after all, the essential characteristics of the Voisin type.
  The Farman flyer of to-day is a biplane; it has a biplane tail, carried on a rearwardly projecting outrigger, and it has a monoplane elevator in front. Where the Farman design differs materially from the Voisin system, however, is that the machine is totally devoid of vertical panels, either between the main decks or the supporting members of the tail. There is, of course, a rudder, or to be more precise two rudders which work in unison, but there is no prow, not even so much as exists on the Voisin flyer, where the covering in of the elevator outrigger serves this purpose to a certain extent.
  One very natural consequence of the absence of this vertical surfacing in the Farman machine, is that it has a much lighter appearance, for there is nothing so well calculated to make a flyer look heavy as to box it in with side curtains. Another important feature of the Farman flyer, and one which originated on this machine, is the combination wheel-and-ski chassis. Being designed for launching by running along the ground, wheels are essential in the construction, but Mr. Farman was one of the first to appreciate the advantages of the ski on the Wright machine when it came to landing after a flight. A suspension which is in every way satisfactory for running about over smooth ground, preparatory to the start, is by no means necessarily adequate to meet the very severe shocks which are apt to be associated with descents on ground which has not exactly been chosen for the purpose. Here the advantages of skis assert themselves, the extent of their tread and of their strength to resist impact being particularly valuable under such circumstances.

The Main Decks.

  The main decks have a span of 32 ft. 6 ins., and measure 6 ft. 4 ins. on the chord; their aspect ratio is thus 5.1. The framework of the decks consists of two parallel transverse main spars, which pass from one extremity of the span to the other and lie parallel about 4 ft. 9 ins. apart. Across these spars are fastened curved ribs which overlap the rear spar by a distance of 1 ft. 7 ins.; the ribs are flush with the front spar which forms the leading edge of the deck.
  The decks are single-surfaced with ordinary fine canvas, but the spars and the ribs are nevertheless enclosed in pockets of the same material. This is done in order to avoid sharp angles. The strips of fabric forming pockets for the ribs are sewn on to the upper surface. The pocket for the front spar is formed by turning back the main sheet of fabric, the edge of which is then stuck down on to the under surface. The pocket for the rear spar is formed by similarly attaching another strip of fabric to the under surface of the deck.
  That part of the deck formed by the projection of the ribs beyond the rear spar constitutes a flexible trailing edge. It is not, however, continuous either in the top deck or the bottom deck, owing to the provision of hinged balancing flaps and the necessity for accommodating the propeller. The hinged balancing planes are constituted by those portions of the trailing edge lying between the last pair of main struts at each end of the span. The accommodation of the propeller involves the cutting away of the trailing edge of the lower deck only between the main spars of the outrigger frame.
  The main decks are separated by vertical ash struts, 6 ft. 4 ins. in height. The section of the struts forms a pointed oval. Diagonal wire ties crossing between the extremities of the struts brace the whole structure into a lattice girder.

The Framework.

  In addition to the framework of the main decks, the complete machine includes two outriggers for the elevator and tail respectively, and a chassis for the support of the machine upon the ground. All of these members are constructed of timber and wire, ash being the principal wood used.
  The tail outrigger is built up of four longitudinal ash spars, having a rectangular section. These are braced by vertical ash struts set in flanged aluminium sockets, and lugs attached to these sockets afford an anchorage for the adjustable diagonal tie-wires. There are no transverse struts between the spars, except those formed by the transverse spars of the main decks and tail. It will be noticed on reference to the drawing of this machine, that the longitudinal spars in the tail outrigger converge as they recede from the main decks.
  The elevator outrigger forms, in elevation, an isosceles triangle with its apex pointing forwards and upwards. Each pair of converging spars is braced by a single vertical member and a pair of diagonal wires. The transverse bracing between the two pairs of struts forming the complete outrigger is constituted by the bar on which the elevator hinges.
  The chassis frame is formed by two longitudinal skis, attached by six struts to the main-frame of the flyer, as shown in our drawing; diagonal wires are used to complete the bracing as in other parts of the framework. The most interesting detail in the construction of the chassis is the method of mounting the wheels on the ski. They are carried by an axle which is strapped at its centre to the ski by an arrangement of rubber bands, as shown in an accompanying sketch. Radius rods diverge from the ski to opposite ends of the axle in order to prevent slewing when one wheel strikes an obstacle, but as each radius-rod is separately hinged the axle can tilt as much as is required. When the elastic spring has been stretched to its permissible limit, the ski comes in contact with the ground, and takes the load direct.
  Another frame member which is of particular importance, although eminently simple in the Farman flyer, is that which supports the engine and the pilot's seat. It is shown separately in an accompanying sketch, and consists in the main of two wood spars and a simple pressed-steel bracket. The spars lie fore and aft across the main-deck spars, to which they are clamped by U-bolts in order to avoid drilling the wood. A foot-rest, and a light seat for the pilot, are fastened direct to these spars at one end, while a pressed steel bracket for the support of the engine is attached at the other extremity. The bracket itself is of quite unusual shape, since its purpose is to provide a support for the stationary crank-shaft of the Gnome rotary engine. Its shape and position are sufficiently well illustrated by the accompanying sketch to need no further reference.

Supplementary Surfaces.

  The elevator, tail, rudders and balancing planes comprise the supplementary surfaces of the Farman flyer. The elevator is a monoplane constructed in three sections in order to clear the outrigger which supports it, its span being greater than the distance between the main spars of that member. The leading edge of the elevator has been made continuous throughout the span, which is 15 ft. in length. The tail is a biplane of approximately 7 ft. span. Its decks are constructed like the main decks, and are similarly surfaced. The rudder is in duplicate, the two vertical planes constituting this member working in unison. They are hinged to the rear struts of the tail, and project some little distance beyond the trailing edge of that member. Their bracing, which is an interesting constructional detail, is well illustrated by an accompanying sketch. The balancing planes are the hinged portions of the main decks, to which reference has already been made. They are so mounted that they are free to adjust themselves to any natural position, and in flight would lie in the air stream line.

Control.

  Situated at the driver's right hand, is a universally pivoted lever, to which four wires are attached. Two of these wires operate the elevator, while the other two control the balancing flaps which form a portion of the trailing edge of the main decks, as already described. A to-and-fro motion of the lever controls the elevator, backwards movement, tilting the leading edge for ascent, and vice versa.
  Sideways motion of the lever works the balancing flaps, the connections being such that when the lever is moved to the pilot's right the flaps on the pilot's left are deflected downwards, thus causing that end of the deck to be raised upwards by the increased air-pressure which results from the movement. This manoeuvre also increases the resistance on that side of the machine, and in order to obtain the increased lifting effect required it is essential that the velocity at which that end of the deck travels through the air should be maintained, otherwise the increased angle of incidence will not have the desired effect, but will only serve to slew the machine from its proper course. The desired path is maintained by operating the rudders, which are controlled by wires attached to a pivoted foot-rest. Pressing with the right foot sets the rudder so that the machine steers to the pilot's right, a manoeuvre which would be used to counteract the slewing effect of depressing the left-hand balancing-flaps.
  It will be observed that the connections have been designed to accommodate as far as possible what might be expected to be the natural actions of a pilot in emergency. If the machine cants so that the extremity on the left of the pilot is depressed, the pilot would naturally try to correct this by leaning over to the right, and in so doing he would automatically move the balancing-lever in that direction, and would probably also automatically press harder upon the right hand end of the foot-rest. Both actions are those which it is intended should be performed as a means of righting the machine in the case indicated.

Engine and Propeller.

  The engine at present fitted to the Farman flyer is a 7-cylinder Gnome rotary motor. A peculiarity in the arrangement of this engine is that it is situated behind the propeller. The engine itself is of the radial type, and has its cylinders and the crank-chamber constructed entirely of steel. The cylinders are aircooled, and have the exhaust-valves situated in the centre of the heads. The inlet-valves are in the piston-heads, the mixture being admitted through the hollow stationary crank-shaft. One of the principal problems in the development of this engine has been the balancing of the valves against the disturbing influence of centrifugal force, a difficulty which seems to have been satisfactorily surmounted, as the engine is apparently being used with success. The rotation of the cylinders affords, we are led to believe, a satisfactory solution of the air-cooling problem.
  The propeller is made of wood, and has been built by Chauviere, whose workmanship invariably shows great care and high finish. The diameter is 8 ft. 6 ins., and it has two blades.


Flight, December 25, 1909

MR. MORTIMER SINGER'S SUCCESS.

  REMARKABLE success has been obtained at Chalons by Mr. Mortimer Singer with the Henry Farman biplane which he has recently purchased. His best performance up to the present is that of Tuesday last, when he flew 41 miles in 1 hour 1 min. 6 secs., and then only had to come down because of the cold wind. This is, of course, easily a record for novices, and in view of the short time he has been practising is a marvellous performance. Still further progress was made on Wednesday when during several flights Mr. Singer was accompanied by a passenger. At his first attempt on the 16th inst. Mr. Singer flew for 4 mins., and on the following day, three flights were made of 10, 12 and 17 mins. duration respectively. The first two were ended owing to the cold numbing the aviator's hands, while the last flight was brought to an end by a stoppage in the petrol pipe. But for that, Mr. Singer could have continued for much longer. At times he was flying at a height of 70 metres, while the distance covered during the three trips was about 40 kiloms.


Flight, January 15, 1910

"FAKED" FLIGHT PHOTOGRAPHS.

  I noticed in your issue of Jan. 1st a "faked " photograph ("flying in the clouds") as the frontispiece. I beg to enclose two genuine photographs, taken by myself at Brooklands, of Paulhan flying. I thought, possibly, these might be of some use to you.
  Maida Vale. F. A. HALFORD.
  [These interesting photographs sent by our correspondent are a striking object-lesson of the size of a flyer as really seen by the camera at fair heights.-ED.]


Flight, March 12, 1910

THE SECOND OLYMPIA AERO SHOW.
AEROPLANES.

Henry Farman.

  An amateur French-built biplane embodying many of the latest improvements introduced by Mr. Henry Farman, and fitted with a Darracq motor. Shown by Capt. A. Rawlinson.


Flight, March 26, 1910

MR. A. RAWLINSON TRIES HIS HENRY FARMAN.

  ON Wednesday of last week, a number of people journeyed down to the Handley Page flying ground at Barking to see Mr. A. Rawlinson carry out some trial flights on the Henry Farman biplane on which he recently made some lengthy flights at Chalons Camp. Unfortunately, however, as the machine was travelling across the ground, a wire stay broke, and fouling the propeller, smashed it, necessitating the postponement of the trial until a new propeller could be obtained. The 50-h.p. Darracq motor fitted to the aeroplane has four horizontal opposed cylinders, and during the preliminary tests it gave every satisfaction, so that but for the mishap with the wire stay, trifling in itself, there was every prospect of successful flights being made.
  An interesting match is being arranged between Mr. A. Rawlinson and his Henry Farman machine and Mr. J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon on his Short machine, with which he recently won the Daily Mail L1,000 prize. It is suggested that they should have a race starting from a given point together and flying across country for twenty miles, the first man to be the winner.


Flight, April 2, 1910

Mr. Grahame-White Flies for an Hour.
  
  DURING the past week Mr. Claude Grahame-White has been experimenting at Chalons Camp with the Henry Farman machine on which he intends to fly into London. His first flight was on Saturday, when he covered about 50 kiloms., and later made a second trip of 20 kiloms. with a passenger, while on Sunday he flew for 65 minutes, his average altitude being about 150 ft. Later in the day he carried Kulher as a passenger, and in a subsequent flight took his mother for an aerial jaunt lasting some 15 minutes.


Flight, April 23, 1910

FLYER SILHOUETTES FROM OLYMPIA.

THE HENRY FARMAN BIPLANE.

Leading Particulars of the Henry Farman.

General Dimensions.-Areas-Main planes, 450 sq. ft.; elevator, 27 1/2 sq. ft.; rudder, 17 sq. ft.
Lengths.-Span, 34 ft. 8 ins.; chord, 6 ft. 6 ins.; camber, 4 1/2 ins., situated about 19 ins. from leading edge; gap, 6 ft.; skid track, 8 ft. 8 ins.; overall length, 43 ft.
Engine.-50-h.p. Darracq.
Propeller.-Chauviere; diameter, 8 ft.; pitch, 4 ft. 9 ins.
Weight.-Machine, 616 lbs.; engine, 234 lbs.; driver, oil, petrol and water, 200 lbs.; total flying weight, 1,050 lbs.; loading (all weight supported on main planes), 2.3 lbs. per sq. ft.
Speed of Flight.-55 m.p.h.
System of control.-Balancing flaps, rudder and elevator.
Price.-L1,050.

  SINCE our description of this machine in FLIGHT of October 16th, 1909, the only important alteration has been the addition of a hinged flap at the rear of the upper tail plane. This flap is interconnected with the elevator, and is so arranged that its trailing edge is raised simultaneously with the leading edge of the elevator. When the elevator is tilted to raise the front of the machine the flap on the tail forces the tail downwards, and thus assists in overcoming the relatively great inertia to vertical movement on the part of the tail. In any machine of this type the elevator itself is materially hampered in its action owing to the adverse leverage through which it has to operate upon the tail. The Farman biplane is introduced in this country by A. Rawlinson on behalf of Messrs. Darracq. The engines fitted are all 50-h.p. Darracq motors of special design. Farman himself used, as our readers will remember, a Gnome engine on this machine.


Flight, April 30, 1910

THE LONDON-MANCHESTER L10,000 FLIGHT PRIZE.

  PROBABLY the most talked of man at the moment, not only in Great Britain, but in every part of the civilised world, is Mr. Claude Grahame-White, for although it is true that his attempt to fly from London to Manchester on Saturday last was not successful, it was nevertheless a splendid achievement. We have dealt with the importance of the flight from the national standpoint in our leader this week, so it is unnecessary to elaborate this side of the performance. In the same way it is unnecessary to go into any lengthy details regarding the incidents of the actual journey, as of course our readers are already in possession of these from many points of view. But it is essential that as a matter of history we should place on record the chief facts with regard to this "splendid failure."
  It was a cold, cheerless, misty morning on Saturday last, when some 200 people gathered at Park Royal, about five o'clock, to see Mr. Claude Grahame-White start off for Cottonopolis. There was, however, practically no wind, and hopes were raised that a successful trip was to be made. When the aeroplane was wheeled out of its shed everything was ready, the aviator took his seat, and after a short run along the ground steadily rose in the air without a hitch. The gasometer at Wormwood Scrubbs had been decided upon as the official starting point, that being just inside the five-mile radius from the Daily Mail office, and thither Grahame-White steered his Henry Farman biplane. Mr. Harold Perrin, the secretary of the Royal Aero Club, was on the top of the gas-holder, and as the aviator swung round the mark a big flag was waved to signify that the starting-line had been crossed. The actual time of the official start was 5h. 15m. 30s. About 5,000 people had by this time assembled on Wormwood Scrubbs, and they gave the intrepid flyer a rousing send-off. Everything that was available was spread to wave him a parting greeting as he sped along. Crossing Kensal Green Cemetery, he made his way to the L. & N.W. Ry. at Willesden, and thence followed the line to Rugby. As soon as the machine was officially started, Mr. Pexrin boarded one of the two White cars which had been placed at the disposal of the Royal Aero Club by Mr. Frederic Coleman, and accompanied by two special mechanics of the Gnome Motor Co., the party made straight for Rugby, Mr. Coleman personally driving the White steamer. Mr. Grahame-White was sighted at Fenny Stratford and was kept in view for a distance of fourteen miles. Eventually the R.Ae.C. official car reached Rugby about 10 minutes in front of the aeroplane, and it is interesting to note that the White steamer was the only car present at the start which reached Rugby in time to see Mr. Grahame-White during his halt there of over an hour. The news that he had left London soon spread to Rugby, and so by the time Mr. Grahame-White arrived at 7.20 an expectant crowd, including Mr. Roger Wallace, Chairman of the Royal Aero Club, was awaiting him in the field a few miles out of the town. His arrival invoked splendid enthusiasm, but when he climbed down from his seat the aviator was almost frozen. He had found the cold very trying, but wrapped up in a fur cape lent by Lady Denbigh, and a big muff lent by another lady, he was hurried to a house, and there in a short time, by the aid of a fire and some hot coffee, he was once more in his usual high spirits, and back again in the meadow to superintend the replenishing of the tanks, &c. During this time some Boy Scouts rendered valuable assistance in keeping the crowd back. At twenty-five minutes past eight everything was ready, and Grahame-White once more took his seat. A run of 80 yards was all that was necessary before the machine was again in the air, and skirting the town of Rugby he headed for Crewe.
  Unfortunately there were signs that the wind was increasing, and fears were expressed as to how far it might be possible to continue. The report from Tamworth was that he was flying very low, and at Lichfield the cars which were following the flight were stopped, and the officials informed that a descent had been made at Hademore Crossing, between Whittington and Tamworth, not far from Lichfield. The wind had become very trying, and the motor was not quite up to form, two of the inlet-valve springs having become weak, and Mr. Grahame-White therefore deemed it prudent to make his second stop before Crewe. Selecting the best looking field within sight he glided down, and after making sure that the motor trouble was not serious he walked over to the railway signal box and telegraphed to Lichfield to stop the following cars.
  Unfortunately the spot selected would appear to be a regular "Windy Gap," and all hope of an immediate restart had to be abandoned. As there appeared to be practically no chance of getting under way before sundown, Mr. Grahame-White was induced to have a few hours sleep. In the meantime the wind refused to drop, rather it increased in force, and so everyone went off to bed early with the possibility before them of a call for a night flight. At 2 a.m. on Sunday, however, it was still impossible, and all hope of completing the flight before 5.15 a.m. had to be abandoned. Mr. Grahame-White immediately, however, set about arranging to fly the remaining distance to Manchester, and then make a fresh attempt from there.
  This project, however, was knocked on the head by the unfortunate accident to the machine on Sunday. It had been left out in a field, and Mr. Grahame-White had ordered that it was to be securely pegged down. This precaution was unfortunately neglected, and on Sunday afternoon a sudden gust of wind blew the machine over, doing considerable damage. It became therefore necessary to return with the machine to London, where repairs were put in hand at once, and on Wednesday afternoon it was once more ready for a second attempt.
  In the meantime Paulhan, who had arrived at Hendon with his Henry Farman machine, had progressed so well with getting the aeroplane together that he also was at any moment ready to take the air, and if possible snatch the prize from the hands of the British representative, and at the same time forestall M. Dubonnet, who had also hurried back to London with his Tellier monoplane, after having made formal entry on Monday last for flying for the prize. M. Dubonnet's turn to try was down for Monday next.


THE PRIZE WON.

Wednesday Evening.

  Although M. Paulhan's machine only arrived at Hendon about six o'clock this morning, by dint of unremitting toil he had it assembled at five o'clock in the afternoon, and was then ready for the flight to Manchester. Earlier in the afternoon he had notified the Royal Aero Club to have their observers in readiness, and at 5.21 p.m. he took his "jump-off" from Hendon, and made his way towards Hampstead Cemetery, which had been decided upon as his official starting line. Turning there at 5.31 p.m. he steered straight for Harrow, and then kept to the L. and N.W. main line as his guide. Paulhan had arranged for his flight to be followed by' a special train, which left Willesden as soon as Mdme. Paulhan, Mr. H. Farman, and the other members of the party reached there by motor. This train caught up to the aviator just past Weedon, and kept the machine in sight until Rugby was reached, where of course some little delay ensued in getting the special clear of the junction. At Rugby the news was learnt that Grahame-White had started, but it was impossible to communicate this to Paulhan, who passed over Rugby at 7.20 p.m. It was then rapidly fetting dark, but Paulhan, still at a good height, flew on until achfield was reached when he decided to come down in a field by the Trent Valley Station, at ten minutes past eight, being then 117 miles on his way to Manchester. After seeing the machine safely pegged down, Paulhan went with his party to the George Hotel for the night, intending to make a fresh start at 3 a.m.
  At the time Paulhan started, Mr. Grahame-White was getting a much-needed sleep, having decided to postpone his start until early morning, but as soon as the news came through he was awakened, and with characteristic promptness, he decided to set out in pursuit. He had had no opportunity of testing the repairs to his machine, but feeling confident that they were all right, he had the machine started up. It was ten minutes past six when the first report of Paulhan's start was received, and within 10 minutes Grahame-White was in the air, and at 6.29 was officially started on his second attempt to win the big prize. Watford was passed by him at 6.50, Boxmoor a quarter of an hour later, Leighton Buzzard at 7.28, and Wolverton at 7.41. There the gathering darkness made it difficult to see the way, and at five minutes to eight Mr. Grahame-White decided to descend in a field by the railway line at Roade, 60 miles from London. There Dr. Ryan offered the hospitality of his house to the aviator, who, like Paulhan, decided to restart at 3 a.m.


THE LAST STAGE.

Thursday Morning.

  Grahame-White was the first to start this morning, having determined to make a "night attack," with the object of trying to secure the lead, and was accordingly away before it was quite light, the brilliant beams from the searchlights of the attendant motor cars also aiding the work of getting ready for the start. At 2.50 the flyer was once more in the air, and forty minutes later had passed Rugby, thereby materially reducing the lead which the Frenchman had gained overnight. Everything appeared to be going well when Nuneaton was passed at 3.50 a.m., but a few minutes after engine trouble began to assert itself, and rendered a descent necessary at Polesworth, 107 miles from London. A few minutes later Paulhan had made his restart from Lichfield, 10 miles further ahead, and while the matters with regard to the engine on Grahame-White's machine were being put right, the news came through that his rival had reached the goal. Then all hope of securing the prize having gone, he decided to take his time about completing the remaining stage, and so went to bed for a few hours' sleep.
  Delayed slightly beyond his intended time of starting, Paulhan did not get into the air again until 4 a.m., but his machine ran without a falter. Rugby was passed at 4.25, Stafford at 4.45, Crewe at 5.20, and at 5.32 his machine glided to rest amid a roar of applause from the waiting crowd in the field at Didsbury, two miles from Manchester, and so within the five mile radius of the Manchester offices of the Daily Mail, which had been chosen as the official finishing place. And thus, in spite of the splendid work and efforts of Great Britain's representative, Mr. Grahame-White, the great prize passes to a Frenchman, admiration for whose pluck and success is only tempered by a patriotic regret that fortune had not shed its favour more on the Britisher.


Flight, May 7, 1910

Mr. Grahame-White's Last Attempt.

  ALTHOUGH Mr. Grahame-White had been beaten in his flight, he determined to try and complete the distance on Thursday of last week, and when the rain ceased and the wind dropped a little he prepared to re-start from Polesworth. Everything was ready at 5 p.m., and he rose splendidly. He had not gone far, however, before a piece of the lower tail plane became detached, and as this was impeding his flight he determined to come down close to Hademore crossing, where his flight ended on the previous Saturday.
  As the spot was 3 1/2 miles from the Trent Valley station at Lichfield, he later flew over there to obviate the necessity of fetching a railway truck from the station.


Flight, May 28, 1910

A MODEL FARMAN BY A BOY OF 15.

  Miss Height, of the Clarendon Newsagency, has asked me to write and send you a photo of myself and the model Farman biplane, which she has had in her window as an advertisement for your valuable paper, FLIGHT.
  I have never seen a full-sized aeroplane, and the whole of my model was built from the instructions given by you.
  Miss Height asked me to tell you that her exhibition has been the means of putting on a great many more customers for FLIGHT.
  I shall be pleased to help other readers of FLIGHT who are making a Farman biplane of about the same size as mine (1/12).
  I shall be fifteen in September.
Grange House, 64, Clarendon Avenue, Leamington Spa. J. F. MILLER.


Flight, July 1, 1911.

A Model Farman.

  I send you two photographs of a model Farman, which may be of interest to your readers. The engine and propeller are now in course of construction.
Burton-on-Trent. C. O. HAYWARD.


Flight, September 2, 1911.

Model Construction.

  The photograph that I send you of a model Farman is interesting on account of the dummy Gnome engine with which the model is equipped. The loading of this model is 5 ozs. to the square foot, but I have had success with other models loaded as heavily as this before.
Salisbury. S. J. ROBINSON.

А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Учебный самолет "Фарман-III" (1910г.)
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
Henry Farman's biplane "No. 3," on which the hinged flaps, hanging down, from the main planes are specially noticeable, as also the runners between the set of four wheels, the inner two of which are of smaller diameter than the two outer wheels.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
The Farman Biplane, with Mr. Henry Farman at the wheel.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
The Henry Farman No III.
P.Jarrett - Pioneer Aircraft: Early Aviation Before 1914 /Putnam/
The Henry Farman III in an interim stage, with its original 50hp Vivinus engine but with four smaller ailerons. Subsequently it was given an open biplane tail and a 50hp Gnome rotary engine.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
In the above picture Henry Farman is seen in flight on his biplane "No. 3." It will be noticed that the hinged flaps on the main planes have swung into their normal "in flight" position.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
Mr. Mortimer Singer is one of the latest members of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom to make a number of successful long flights. Our photograph shows Mr. Singer, on his Henry Farman machine, in full flight at Chalons.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
Henry Farman in his No III winning at Reims in 1909.
P.Lewis - British Racing and Record-breaking Aircraft /Putnam/
Claude Grahame-White taking-off from Rugby on 23 April, 1910, in his Farman biplane on his first attempt to win the Daily Mail L10,000 for the flight from London to Manchester.
В.Шавров - История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
1909 Farman HF III pusher biplane - record 112 miles in 3 hrs 15 mins.
Country of origin: France/UK. Designer : Henri Farman
Span: 34'5" Length: 39'4" Weight: 1280 lbs gross Speed: 37 mph
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
Mr. G. B. Cockburn is the British representative of the Aero Club of the U.K. at Rheims Aviation Meeting, and we wish him every success in upholding the British end of the art of flying'. He has already, as our readers are aware, made some extended flights, and above he is seen practising on his Farman biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
M. Sommer's record (unofficial) flight on a Farman biplane of 2h. 27m. 15s. at Chalons last Saturday. - M. Sommer is just flying over the timekeeper's pitch on his tenth circuit, the figures below the flag denoting this alike to the aviator and the attendant public.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
During the "Passenger Contest" at Rheims on Sunday last, Henry Farman, in addition to his other triumphs, carried two passengers, besides himself, for one of the circuits of the course. Our photograph shows him in full flight under these conditions.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
FLIGHT MEETING AT BLACKPOOL. - Mr. Henry Farman, who made the first flight at the Blackpool Meeting, rounding the west pylone during the long-distance event. In the background are the grand stands, &c.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Mr. A. Rawlinson flying at Eastchurch this last week-end on his Henry Farman machine.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
MR. CLAUDE GRAHAME-WHITE'S BIG CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHT. - Below, trying the Henry Farman machine at Park Royal prior to the start on Saturday last; and above, Mr. Grahame-White re-starts from Rugby for Crewe.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
FLIGHT IN ENGLAND. - M. Paulhan on his Farman biplane, flying high past the grand stands at Blackpoor on the opening day.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
In the year, when Paulhan arrives on a Henry Farman aeroplane in London, and calls at the offices of FLIGHT and the AUTO, at 44, St. Martin's Lane, near by St. Martin's Church, Trafalgar Square, the National Gallery, and Coliseum. Another FLIGHT "fake."
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
BLACKPOOL FLIGHT MEETING. - View of the aerodrome, showing Henry Farman in full flight on his first round. In the distance is seen the Judges' box and the signalling apparatus. On the right is one of the pylones marking the corners of the course.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
THE FLIGHT EXHIBITIONS FOR LONDONERS. - Paulhan is seen flying down the straight at Brooklands over the motorists and their cars.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
Remarkable Photograph of Paulhan Flying at Dusk on Saturday last over Brooklands Racing Track. - This snap was secured just as there was a reflection of the setting sun through the clouds silhouetting Paulhan's flyer against the brilliant patch of light.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
FLIGHT PHOTOGRAPHS. - Another genuine photograph of an aeroplane when flying over water, showing the reflection in the lake. Our picture is of Paulhan at Brooklands, during one of his splendid exhibition flights on his Henry Farman machine. A comparison of this picture with the many published "faked" photographs of reflected machines is of considerable interest.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Two Genuine, not "faked" photos of Paulhan flying high at Brooklands (see Mrs. Halford's letter).
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
DONCASTER FLYING WEEK. - An incident. M. Roger Sommer, on his Farman biplane, flying over M. Molon's machine, which had been smashed, during the competition for the Bradford Cup.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
ONE OF THE RACING EPISODES DURING THE RHEIMS AVIATION MEETING. - Farman, on his biplane, giving a good lead to Latham on his Antoinette monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
FLIGHT PHOTOGRAPHS. - Another example of a genuine enlarged photograph, with two machines in the air at a distance. This was "snapped" at Blackpool during the big meeting, and shows Paulhan on his Henry Farman machine, and Rougier behind on a Voisin biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
NICE FLIGHT MEETING. - Mr. A. Rawlinson, on the left, on his Henry Farman, and M. Rougier on his Voisin biplane, flying over the sea at Nice.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
AT CANNES AVIATION MEETING. - Crochon flying on a Henry Farman biplane, and passing over Christiaens' machine at rest. The latter, on March 31st, on his Henry Farman, covered 2.2 kiloms., one tour of the aerodrome, in 1m. 34 3/5s., a speed of 84.25 k.p.h., which it is sought to have established as an official speed record.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
THE GREAT LONDON-MANCHESTER FLIGHT. - General view of the scene on Wormwood Scrubbs prior to Mr. Grahame-White's start for his second attempt on April 27th. Bringing the Henry Farman machine out for the flight.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
THE GREAT LONDON-MANCHESTER FLIGHT. - Remarkable photograph of the scene on Wormwood Scrubbs on Wednesday, April 27th, when Mr. Grahame-White's Henry Farman machine was brought out for a few trial tests after the repairs had been completed.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
THE GREAT LONDON-MANCHESTER FLIGHT. - Mr. Claude Grahame-White at Polesworth, where he came down after his night flight on Thursday morning, April 28tb, calling for three cheers for Mons. Paulhan upon the receipt of the news of his having won the L10,000 prize.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
The tail of the Henry Farman machine used by Mr. Claude Grahame-White for his London to Manchester flight, which it will be seen differs from the Farman machine which was last year dealt with in detail by us. On the very latest Farman a monoplane type tail has been adopted.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
THE GREAT LONDON-MANCHESTER FLIGHT. - Flashlight photograph at Lichfield of Paulhan's Henry Farman machine before his start for finishing the race on Wednesday morning, April 27th.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
THE GREAT LONDON-MANCHESTER FLIGHT. - M. Paulhan winning the L10,000 prize by landing in the pre-arranged field at Didsbury, near Manchester, on his Henry Farman machine.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
THE GREAT LONDON-MANCHESTER FLIGHT. - Immediately after the prize was won. The crowd gathering round the Henry Farman machine immediately after Paulhan had landed at Didsbury. The white sheet in the foreground was used for marking the spot for the descent.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Paulhan's biplane dismantled at the Manchester works of Hans Renold, Ltd., and ready for its return to France, after the completion of the London to Manchester flight. This shows clearly the unit system of construction utilised by Mr. Henry Farman in his machines.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais, showing the "Stands of Honour." In the middle, immediately under the spherical gas-bag, is the famous Bleriot cross-Channel machine. To its right is the "Rep" monoplane, in the extreme right foreground is the Farman biplane, to the left a French-made Wright flyer, and continuing round to the left the machines are respectively an Antoinette, a Voisin, and another Bleriot. The decorated spherical balloon in the distance is the Montgolfier.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Mr. A. Rawlinson and his Henry Farman Biplane at Messrs. Handley-Page's Grounds at Barking. - Bringing out the machine, and, on the right, getting tha aeroplane over a dyke to the flying grounds.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
DONCASTER AVIATION MEETING. - General view of the aeroplane sheds, with a Voisin machine and three Bleriot monoplanes in readiness for flying.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
MR. HENRY FARMAN.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
Henry Farman in the aviator's seat of his "No. 3." Note the bicycle handle control which has supplanted the hitherto orthodox steering-wheel,
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
Mr. G. B. Cockburn, the aviator who, as a member of the Aero Club of the U.K., will fly on behalf of Great Britain at the Rheims Flight Meeting next week.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
M. Sommer, who, last week, at Chalons, on a Farman biplane, beat the French duration record by flying for 1 hour 50 minutes, the next day making a cross-country (tight to Suippes, a distance of 9 miles.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Mr. A. Rawlinson tuning up his Darracq engine on his Henry Farman machine.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Mr. C. Grahame-White, after his 65 mins. flight on March 28th, and a couple of his pupils, Mr. Armstrong Drexel (left) and Mr. Charles Hubert (right). In the centre picture Mr. Grahame-White's mother, who has flown with her son, is standing in front of the Henry Farman machine.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Mr. Claude Grahame-White in his place on the Henry Farman biplane ready for starting his big flight on Saturday last.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Master J. F. Miller with his model Farman outside Miss Height's shop, and on the right the model is seen upon a larger scale in the bands of its constructor.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
A "SPECIMEN" MODEL. - Model Farman biplane to scale, 1 in. to 1 ft., built by Mr. G. P. Smith, of Fulham, from the Twining Aeroplane Company's No. 10 parcel of materials and working drawings. The model is driven by a Chauviere pattern propeller geared in a ratio of 3 to 1 with the elastic rubber motor. The whole "power plant" is placed on the centre of gravity of the machine. The landing gear is exactly the same as in the prototype, with rubber ring suspension and radial arms. The rudders are moved by foot cross-bar, the elevator by lever on the right-hand side of the aviator's seat. Mr. Smith has put some very neat and careful work into the model, and the Twining Aeroplane Company inform us that they have had other fine examples sent them of Bleriot, Wright, and Antoinette machines made from their well-known sets of materials. These sets are in all cases accompanied by full drawings and instructions, and some twelve different parcels are in all supplied at prices ranging from 1s. to 3s. 9d.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
LATHAM AND FARMAN'S RECENT FLIGHTS AT RHEIMS GRAPHICALLY DEPICTED. - What their distance and height achievements are equal to if carried out on familiar ground in England. On the left the single flight of Farman is seen, reaching almost to Weymouth, whilst the three successive flights of Latham placed end on would have brought this remarkable flyer up to Lancaster and Morecambe Bay, beyond Blackpool, where the proposed Aviation Week is to take place next month. On the right the height event is seen, with St. Paul's Cathedral (to scale) as a guide for comparison.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
H ALLEY'S COMET. - Oh, lord that's the third one that's passed me! (But it was only Paulhan.)
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
THE FARMAN FLYER. - Sketch showing how the bearers for the engine and pilot's seat are fastened to the transverse spars of the main frame by U bolts. The inset sketch shows the universal attachment of the control lever to the side of the footrest.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
THE FARMAN FLYER. - Sketch of the tail, showing the arrangement of the double rudder, and the method of bracing the rudder-planes.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
TAIL OF PAULHAN'S HENRY FARMAN BIPLANE. - The main differences between Paulhan's and Grahame-White's biplanes are that in the former the lower main plane is shorter than the upper one, while twin rudders are fitted instead of a single one as in the Grahame-White machine. These twin rudders are smaller, and placed a little further back, as shown in the above sketch.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
THE FARMAN FLYER. - Sketch showing one of the four hinged flaps, A, which are let into the trailing edge at the extremities of each main deck. They serve as balancing planes, and are controlled by a lever. Normally they are. free to adjust themselves to the air stream lines.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
THE FARMAN FLYER. - Sketch showing how the wheels are strapped to the ski by elastic bands.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
WING SECTIONS. - The above diagrams afford an interesting comparison of the wing sections of aeroplanes exhibited at Olympia. They are all drawn to a common scale, but have been set at an arbitrary angle of incidence, which does not necessarily represent that of the aeroplane In actual flight.
Журнал - Flight за 1909 г.
The Farman Flyer, 1908 type.